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Hertha-Junxx banner in the 2011 stadium: “Hertha fan and gay? That's it! "

The word gay is the most common German synonym for homosexual and usually denotes male homosexuality . It is used more and more in public and in written language; in some dictionaries it is marked as colloquial and as a self-name. It was also used for female homosexuality, especially in the past . Today the adjective lesbian is mostly used for this . With gay is often also referred to what and is characteristic of gays whose interests or what this is assigned (Examples: "gay magazine," "gay bar", "gay bar", " gay sauna "). In these contexts, the term primarily has a cultural or social reference and is not limited to a sexual context.

Through nouning, there is a person designation gay (the gay) and a state of being gay as well as the rarely used gayness . Verbs derived from gay are rarely used, especially in written language.

Especially in the language of young people , gay can now also be found as a generally derogatory adjective for objects and facts, even if they have no direct reference to homosexuality or supposed unmanliness. These uses negative connotation can especially in ungeouteten inhibitory or negative effect on the personality development or recently outed adolescents. For this reason, some reject the word and prefer more neutral and less judgmental expressions as self-designation, such as the words gay or queer, borrowed from English , or the phrase “ men who have sex with men ”. The Duden recommends avoiding the discriminatory use of the word gay in everyday language as well, and people who campaign against discrimination and homophobia are now increasingly addressing this.

Gay is with gay translated into English. In the opposite direction, it should be noted that gay tends to also include lesbians, which is rarely the case in the German language. For example, the English term “gay women” is correct, and expressions like “ gay pride ” and “gay people” refer not only to gays but also to lesbians. In its archaic meaning, gay can also be translated as “cheerful”, “happy” or “carefree”.

Etymology of the phrase

How gay came to mean homosexual can only be roughly determined today, but there are different approaches. What is certain is that it was widely used and varied in this sense.


  • It is often attributed to the Low German gay for "oppressive hot". In the 17th century this was adopted into standard German and in the 18th century, probably by influencing the antonyms cool , it was converted into sultry . The old form was transferred to homosexual in the 19th century in the Berlin dialect and in Rotwelschen based on warm. Schwuler is also occupied in the Rotwelsch.
  • Storfer also assumes in 1937 that it first appeared in Berlin. He points to “ warm brothers ” as possible explanations . That meaning may have developed from the fact that the “ warm ” do not feel indifferent (“cool”) to their peers in erotic terms, but rather warm.
  • Heinz Küpper connects gay with “oppressively hot” and explains the relevant meaning as an “allusion to the atmosphere in relevant bars”.

Early evidence

  • Paul Derks traces the expression back to a criminological treatise written in 1847, "which suggests subcultural usage."
  • In 1862 Friedrich Christian Avé-Lallemant published the third and fourth parts of his work Das deutsche Gaunertum . In it there is gay man with the explanation “the one who is seized by quiet, fearful, dulling warmth, ο παιδεραστης”. The essential explanation ho paiderastes is written in Greek and can therefore only be read by experts. This is followed by the verb gay with the explanation "παιδεραστειν" (" paiderastein "). Growing , on the other hand, means "deceiving, cheating". The same explanations can be found in the Grimm dictionary with reference to Avé-Lallemant as the source.
  • In 1891, Albert Moll describes gay as a self-designation for "opposite sex" men and women among each other and for stable relationships, which were called gay marriage or gay relationship .
  • In the 1901 published Encyclopedia of Criminology by Hans Gross , gay is declared as “pederast”.
  • Hermann Paul's dictionary documents the use as "homosexual" around 1900 without any further explanation.


Homosexuality is the term commonly used in science today to denote a general sexual orientation and preference for one's own gender . "Many same-sex people - men and women - consider this designation to be correct in the biological sense of the word, but they do not agree with the content of the expression reduced to sexuality." Decisive parts of sexuality are the group criterion and sexuality in general Senses are noticeable - as for everyone - in many a situation in everyday life, but in the normal daily routine it is only one of the facets that make up the whole person. "In addition, the term homosexual comes from the somatic and psychiatric pathology vocabulary, which justifies another objection to the use of this word." The latter objection has become less frequent since the 1970s, but the word is still considered to be "clinically influenced". An alternative is the synonym same-sex , which however needs an addition in order to be unambiguous.

For example, gay is used alternately with homosexual or a conscious distinction is made to express something specific. Likewise, gay alternates with homosexual and being gay with homosexuality .

“In the last 50 years, what is called egalitarian gay ['among equals'] or gay has emerged. While homosexual refers to an act (or behavior) of a guy, a queen, a bisexual, even a straight person, gay refers to an attitude, an identity, a lifestyle, (and queer to theory and politics: challenging heteronormativity ['combating heteronormativity ']) while gay is primarily proclaiming homosexuality [' offensive visualization of (one's own) homosexuality '], and the other simply consists of homosexual acts . "

An application to persons and texts before about 1970 and especially before Karl Heinrich Ulrichs (1825–1895), the “first gay man in world history”, is mostly incorrect from a sexual science and historical point of view.

“Men have been desired by men for thousands of years - somehow. How this desire is experienced, assessed and described, however, determines the respective culture. For example, the difference between the ancient male-male Eros, which rose to Platonic statecraft, and our contemporary homosexuality is enormous. Whatever Socrates , Wittgenstein and Roland Barthes , Tchaikovsky , Benjamin Britten and Cole Porter , Charles Laughton , James Dean , Cary Grant and Anthony Perkins , the economist John Maynard Keynes , the FBI chief J. Edgar Hoover or the colonialist Cecil Rhodes (' Rhodesia ') may have felt and practiced - they were definitely not gay , as is unhistorically said today. "

For the historian Hergemöller , Urnings , homophiles , homosexuals and also gays are different "historical manifestations" of a "multi-layered development".

The compound gay-lesbian and the abbreviation of the syllable les bi schwul (also spelled LesBiSchwul ), which has meanwhile also been mentioned by the Duden editorial team with regard to political and cultural issues , try, unlike the unifying term homosexual , to make the differences between lesbian, bisexual and gay visible through a common term close. An additional role is played by the fact that although homosexual theoretically includes men and women, there is a semantic problem (→  on the term homosexuality ). This can also be seen in the usage, especially in the 1950s to 1970s, when one spoke more often of “(male) homosexuality and lesbian love”, but the tendency is consistent up to today's lexicographers .


Self-names are subject to historical changes. Gay is currently the most common self-designation for men who love men. Some prefer other self-designations, some reject any designation. An extensive survey (45 minutes) on behalf of the Lower Saxony Family Ministry among 353 male adolescents (seven are missing for this question) aged 15 to 25 (36.5 percent between 15 and 20; average: 21 years) using questionnaires in the scene and over the Internet (paper: 49 percent; Internet: 51 percent) between June 1998 and June 1999 gave the result in the table in the columns “NI-Jugend”. An online survey at one of the largest German-speaking gay internet portals gave a similar result, although fun answers cannot be ruled out. The portal is aimed primarily at young and middle-aged people. In 2002 a questionnaire was carried out in Munich. People were mainly addressed through the scene. 2512 people took part, of which 65.8 percent (around 1653) were men. The majority of the participants were between 25 and 45 years old. For men, however, 16 percent were over 55 years old. All three surveys are not representative, but the trend is clear for all of them.

How do you call yourself?
designation %
gay (j: internet <paper) 65.6 227 69.9 824 84.5
bisexual (j: I> P) 7.2 25th - - 3.0
gay (j: I >> P) 6.6 23 15.7 185 -
Multiple answers from: gay and / or gay and / or homosexual 6.4 22nd - - -
I reject such definitions (j: I = P) 3.8 13 - - -
Multiple answer: other combinations (without gay) 3.2 11 - - -
this is not clear to me at the moment (j: I >>> P) 3.2 11 - - -
homosexual (j: I> P) (q: homo) 2.3 8th 4.0 47 11.6
different, namely: (cool, enchanted etc.) 1.7 6th - - 0.8
heterosexual 0.0 0 - - -
queer - - 3.2 38 -
enchants - - 2.5 29 -
Swamp - - 2.3 27 -
Breech loader - - 1.4 16 -
Tuck - - 1.1 13 -
survey NI youth Munich
Total 100.0 346 100.1 1179 99.9

Not everyone who feels same-sex attraction or has same-sex sex calls themselves gay . Among men who have sex with men , there are also predominantly heterosexual men, i.e. men who are predominantly attracted to the opposite sex who would not call themselves gay . Some people describe themselves as bisexual and among them there are those who would also enter into relationships with people of both sexes. Some bisexuals refer to themselves as gay because of the social imperative to be monosexual (→  Gunter Schmidt ) or because it is easier to talk to other people, always or depending on the situation or the topic discussed .

Older German homosexuals who grew up between 1930 and 1969 (reform of § 175 , lifting of the total ban) had to live discreetly, were particularly threatened by discrimination and criminal prosecution, often hid their own homosexuality and also fled in marriages or fictitious marriages. In particular, men from the lower social class often reject gay as a self-designation. Some former members of the circle did not want to be named at an exhibition simply because of the name of the location Schwules Museum . Some young people also reject gay because of the negative connotation that predominates in some groups, regardless of whether it relates directly to homosexuality or something else, as a self-designation and switch to other terms, including homosexual . Some reject the term because they don't want to conform to a cliché. Some men desiring men connect with gay pink furnishings, campy posturing and the like, which is actually better fag or fagot would fit. Films such as (T) Raumschiff Surprise contribute to this. “I'm not gay, I'm homosexual” can say something about the political attitude and participation in the movement, even if it is not always immediately clear what exactly is meant in individual cases. Some reject any self-designation for their sexual orientation.


Occasionally same-sex lovers are also referred to as gay , and it is thus used interchangeably with lesbian . Albert Moll mentioned this use in Berlin in 1891; in Alfred Döblin's novel Berlin Alexanderplatz , published in 1929, and at least until the 1950s, it was repeatedly used in literature for women. Even in the crooks language of the Viennese gallery there is a gay woman and a gay woman for a lesbian. The woame Schwesda (“warm sister”) can also be found in Vienna . From the homosexual action West Berlin founded in August 1971, a "gay women group" emerged in February 1972. Martina Weiland justified the choice of name with the fact that the lesbian women of the HAW “initially saw more similarities with the gay men (discrimination and joint actions against it) than with the heterosexual women.” Ina Kuckuc also justifies the name choice with the fact that they “take care of themselves of discrimination “symbolize. She also reports on the rejection of “literary word creations such as sapphic, homophile, homoerotic, because they are whitewashed”. In the mid-1970s, however, lesbian found rapid acceptance among those homosexual women who politically advocated women's emancipation . In addition to reversing the connotation of lesbian , a political demarcation from the goals and approaches of homosexual men also played a role; one came closer to the women's movement . In addition, it was first discussed in 1973 that the term gay usually only includes men. In 1975 the group of gay women was renamed the Lesbian Action Center (LAZ). The first international homosexual meeting in Frankfurt in July 1979 was deliberately not given a name linked to gay , but rather the title Homolulu , in order to give due consideration to the homosexual women who attended or should attend. In 2006, the AG Lesbenrechte titled an article about the discrimination against lesbian schoolgirls with the often used phrase “Are you gay or what?”, In the 2008 film Echte Wiener - Die Sackbauer-Saga , Mundl describes his granddaughter Petra as a warm sister , and in In a 2014 documentary, a woman describes herself as not gay .

In 2001, the male hip-hop band Fettes Brot released their single Gay Girls . She plays with the confusing contrast between the two terms. At the same time, she describes herself with the two terms that are otherwise strongly negative in relation to men in the music scene as a reaction to various attacks and the frequent negative use of these words in hip-hop.

teenage slang

Pun on a poster: “Homophobia? Fully gay! ”With the connotation of youth language.

In the current youth language, the word gay has been increasingly used as an antonym too cool in recent years . It is considered a derogatory adjective in relation to objects and facts (also with people) and does not have a specific homosexual connotation. It is used as a synonym for uncomfortable, embarrassing, strange, boring or annoying . A very general expression of dissatisfaction is expressed, for example, with “Is that gay again!”. You can say more specifically about “a gay math work”. According to Martenstein, behind this is above all the eternal pleasure of the youth in provocation, where judgmental terms often come from the area of ​​sexuality and the socially favored is always negatively connoted, but the socially frowned upon is turned into a positive. The same mechanisms existed earlier with geil and more recently with the synonymously used adjective porno and its antonym psycho . Using it as a general adjective can sometimes be embarrassing, as was portrayed in the film Sommersturm : Without thinking about it, Ferdl asks the gay Malte at the table to pass him “the gay salt”. Only then does he become aware of whom he was saying this to, and he is visibly uncomfortable. The self-confident Malte can resolve this situation with humor. The often heard saying “Are you gay or what?” Does not always mean a question as to whether you are really homosexual, but can also come as a comment if something fails, simply in the sense of “Is it still possible?”. If the question is really answered once with “yes”, this can lead to initial confusion because it is not expected. Continuous use with a negative connotation, even if it does not directly relate to homosexuality, is especially not fun for those who are not yet or recently outed and can be inhibitory or negative for personal development, such as confiding in a friend. It can also lead to uncertainty in other everyday life, as the underlying opinion must first be clarified mentally in individual cases. In Correct and Good German published by Dudenverlag, this use, which should also be avoided in everyday language, is called discriminatory.

In addition, it is still used as an explicit swear word with which supposedly “unmanly” behavior is devalued. This can be understood as gestures assigned to women roles and the choice of words assigned to them, or “feminine” behavior in a larger context, such as how people react to a situation. The person using the word intends to delimit their own masculinity from alternative concepts of masculinity if the boundaries between masculinity and femininity are not perceived as sufficiently sharp. "Unclear dividing lines between the sexes are seen as a disruption of the gender order and disturb many in the construction of their own gender identity ." Fagot , gay pig , gay man and other variations thereof are still among the newer term victims in a non-feminine context as well most common and worst swear words among German-speaking young people. Its use is particularly pronounced and offensive in the field of hip-hop music, especially in gangster rap . There the setting was taken from reggae . A US study showed that heterosexual adolescents who are bullied with homophobic statements in school or on the way to school have the same high suicide attempt rate (around 20 percent) as LGBT adolescents, in contrast to other heterosexual adolescents without such discrimination experiences ( six percent).

Many male adolescents who desire same-sex people reject the term gay for themselves because of the often negative use in everyday life and switch to gay or homosexual as a self-designation. Some use the term itself as a derogatory adjective. People and organizations that campaign against discrimination, homophobia and anti-gay violence are currently focusing on the two topics mentioned above. In a school in Bremen , some students dealt with this topic themselves, carried out their own survey on homophobia and openly discussed homosexuality. As one of the most immediate consequences, the use of swear words in the schoolyard has noticeably decreased.

Change of connotation

Concept formation

In the past there were mainly negative foreign names for homosexuals, which were based on the description of sexual acts ( sodomist, pederast, florence, tribadin ). The first positive work comes from Heinrich Hössli , who spoke of the Greeks' love for men . Karl Heinrich Ulrichs introduced the terms Urning , Urninde and Uranism in 1864 and spoke of the riddle of male love . From 1870 onwards there was also talk of contrarist sexual sensation and from 1868 of homosexuality , a term that spread and became generally accepted , especially from 1886 through the medical work Psychopathia sexualis . Especially in the circles around Adolf Brand one spoke of masculine culture , masculine eros , love for friends , favorite love and enthusiasm for friendship .

Linguistic usage until the 1960s

As early as 1891, Albert Moll reported in his book Die Conträre Sexualempfichtung that homosexual men and women refer to each other as gay and that if they lived together one spoke of a gay marriage or a gay relationship . Even in 1920, the word was common in the gay world of the big city as a self-designation, even if not for everyone. The then 17-year-old Bruno Balz is said to have described himself as gay to Magnus Hirschfeld , whereupon the latter is said to have violently rejected the name, as this was a swear word “that the 'normal' use to insult and belittle 'us'; therefore 'we' have to avoid this bad word in any case. ” WH Auden reports in his English diary on April 6, 1929 that a young woman stood next to him on the tram and wanted to flirt with him. “ I wanted to make her an 18th century bow and say 'Sorry [sic] her, Madame, but I'm gay.' ”(German:“ I would have loved to bow to her in the style of the 18th century and say 'Excuse me, Madame, but I'm gay'. ”) Some referred to themselves as homophiles or homoerotes. These terms were also often used after the Second World War in the homophile movement , which wanted to adapt to the majority society as much as possible, cautiously courted tolerance and hoped for success at some point. In public parlance, homosexual people only appeared in certain contexts, the term homosexual was used disparagingly , be it in the description of an illness or to categorize criminal acts. In the 1940s and 1950s, even among homophiles, there were always attempts to find suitable and positive terms in the journal Der Kreis , of which few achieved a moderate level of awareness and none were generally accepted. The medical term homosexual was partly turned away from the fact that “in the consciousness of the majority, this word creates repulsive images and an aftertaste of perversion.” In contrast to gay , female homosexuality was also circumscribed with the slang phrase lesbian love in serious reporting homosexual women referred to as lesbians or lesbian women . This can be seen, for example, in the judgment of the Federal Constitutional Court of 1957, which speaks of "male homosexuals and lesbians".

Beginning of the second wave of the gay movement, unevenness

In the Spelling Duden, gay appears for the first time in the Federal Republic of Germany in 1967 and in the GDR only in 1976 - both times with the explanation "coarse for: homosexual". (It was already included in the larger works.) Without close ties to the homophiles , a new generation grew up and tradition was radically broken. From the end of the 1960s / beginning of the 1970s, people began to consciously use gay outside of the scene and in positive contexts, sometimes as a provocation, sometimes to free themselves from the stigma ( stigma reversal ). At the same time, the clinical homosexual was often rejected , but for official names it was open and shocking enough in relation to the euphemisms used earlier and the only permitted option. In the militant beginnings, the virulent antihomosexuality was challenged, at the same time made visible and the (sometimes low) extent of the tolerance shown. From the point of view of society, the homosexual was abnormal and perverse, which the actors did not refute, but seemingly confirmed. To be gay was to insist on the difference, to be aware that one was different from others and not conforming to the preconceived ways of life. It also meant making a decision out of homosexuality, which one had been passively at the mercy of before coming out. Above all, it meant moving away from the position in which one vied for tolerance and demanding that society accept homosexuality as “what the worst antihomosexual fantasies had made of it: a perverse form that is not commensurate with normality of sexuality. ”Many conformist and homoerotes were deeply disturbed by the appearance of the gays. Nowadays things are more moderate again, no club of the two extremes has survived without switching to a more pragmatic course, but one no longer hides like in the past and does not generally use pseudonyms like in the circle .

One of the first significant mentions after the Second World War was gay in the 1970 film "It is not the homosexual that is perverse, but the situation in which he lives " . The word was subsequently used consistently in new contexts and the connotative framework was positive tried to occupy. In the media coverage, gay was initially only quoted in quotation marks, "in order to distance itself from the offensive manner of use." In the reports on the Homolulu meeting in July 1979, for example, Die Welt put scenes-related expressions in quotation marks, while the Westdeutsche Allgemeine Zeitung ( WAZ ) already used the term gay without distancing quotation marks and without negative connotation. After initial difficulties, the designation has "established itself in current usage as a designation convention for male homosexuals and is the expressly advocate self-designation of the minority".

The change in values ​​did not take place uniformly, which allows conclusions to be drawn about social values ​​and the tabooing of various sexual identities. In the 1980s, conflicting strategies for naming homosexual men developed. While the left-liberal press frequently used expressions such as gay or gay , conservative reporting avoided these terms. Even today, some people use the term homophile or the redundant form homosexual and lesbian . This also applies to the GDR, which had abolished Section 175 as early as 1968, but stated in the comment that “uniform sexual behavior” should be “aimed for”. And in the SED program, “combating behavior alien to the nature” was required. As usual, paraphrases such as Freundinnenkreis were used , which didn't always help, since from a point in the 1970s advertisements such as “Frau sucht Penfriend” were no longer accepted, and for a long time homosexual was avoided in the title, instead of being used as homophile the 1985 study by the interdisciplinary scientists Homosexuality at the Humboldt University, which was named on the situation of homophile citizens in the GDR .

Club names

Club names that contained the word gay were often rejected by the registry court in the past. The last such complaint by the Freudenstadt District Court on July 15, 1987 was overturned by the Rottweil Regional Court on January 14, 1988 following a complaint by the Freudenstadt gay group . It was based on an expert opinion by the Duden editorial team, which itself referred to Hans Georg Wiedemann. Because of their name, other clubs had problems getting accepted into umbrella organizations. The Landessportbund, for example, found the name of the Berlin club, then known as the gay sports club Vorspiel , offensive and refused to accept it. In 1989 the association won its membership in court. A club name without gay does not guarantee acceptance. In the year 2000 , Die Schrillmänner , RosaKehlchen and Queerflöten also had to win their membership in the Badischer Sängerbund by court order, as they were viewed as an “ethical disruptive factor” and a “threat to youth work”. The Bundesverband Homosexualität, in turn, did not integrate the word gay into its name when it was founded in 1986 , because at that time attempts were made to set up a joint association for gays and lesbians and later some mixed groups were also members.

German Bundestag

The term gay also caused problems in the Bundestag , especially in the titles of major inquiries and motions. There were no major problems with small inquiries .

The Green MP Jutta Oesterle-Schwerin , who has been sitting in the Bundestag since 1987 , quite naturally used the words gays and lesbians in several applications to the government regarding the legal treatment of homosexual couples , as it was in line with her position on the subject. It didn't ask anyone to use it themselves. In May 1988, the CDU MP Fritz Wittmann was indignant in a letter of protest to the President of the Bundestag Philipp Jenninger about the "wilderness of language culture". Among other things, he blamed Oesterle-Schwerin for using “the Goss-associated vocabulary” and for having “rolled it out with relish”. The self-designations were not only included in federal publications, but "to make matters worse" also in parliamentary reports, although they were "unworthy of the House of Representatives". In the same letter, he was outraged that a third-party name that he judged to be “derogatory” had been adopted: the adjectives used by the GDR were West German and West Republican in more and more official documents in the FRG .

On June 24, 1988, an application by the Greens was denied because the title was Clause 28 in Great Britain , affecting the human and civil rights of gays and lesbians . On July 1, 1988 Bundestag President Jenninger informed MPs Oesterle-Schwerin that the application could only be admitted with a modified title; "The phrase gays and lesbians" should be replaced by "the phrase homosexuals and lesbians". Headings and topics that would be put on the plenary agenda and thus attributable to the whole of Parliament should only be written in such a way that they can be accepted by all Members of the House. Quite a few colleagues do not see the terms “gay” and “lesbian” as part of standard language. The linguist Luise F. Pusch finds it interesting "that Jenninger presumes the right to censor the language even though he does not speak the language." In the reply from July 12, 1988, Oesterle-Schwerin gave him linguistic tutoring, explained her point of view and concluded with the words: “There is one thing that you will definitely not achieve: I will continue to be supported by lesbians and gays in the House and not by homosexual citizens Fellow citizens talk. ”On September 29, 1988, the Bundestag's Council of Elders spoke out against the use of the terms“ with a large majority ”. On November 11, 1988, at the instigation of the CDU / CSU, the Bundestag administration switched off the phone for the gay section of the Green parliamentary group, which was headed by Volker Beck at the time. On the same day Jenninger occurred because of an easily be misunderstood by the presentation speech back from the office of President of the Bundestag. In the meantime, Peter Gauweiler had also made statements in Bavaria that indicated that he wanted a law like Clause 28. On November 12th, Oesterle-Schwerin wrote again to the President of the Bundestag, declaring her aversion to homosexuals , but proposed, in order to encourage an early settlement, as a new application heading, impairment of human and civil rights of homosexual people by Clause 28 in Great Britain and comparable attacks On the emancipation efforts of the lesbian and gay movement in Bavaria , because the gay movement was not marked as colloquial in the large dictionary of the time and was therefore assigned to the standard language by the editors, as were most of the other word formations. Vice-President Annemarie Renger replied on November 21, 1988 that she still could not allow the motion as no new circumstances had arisen. Even if the gay and lesbian movement has passed into the standard language, “they can still not be accepted by all members of the house”. The Bundestag administration refused to even print applications with the terms gay and lesbian . Hubert Kleinert called this "language censorship by the GREEN parliamentary group". In the Bundestag session of November 24, 1988, Oesterle-Schwerin read out two further motions, which had been waiting for some time to be dealt with, in order to allow the MPs to vote on whether they could be admitted in this form. In a document was requested in the Department of Family and Social Affairs , a gay Unit and the task force policy on women a lesbian Unit set up. In the other document, funds were requested for central organizations and national measures of the lesbian and gay movement. Vice-President Renger pointed out that if adopted, the texts would be included in Section 15 and therefore the use of “such terms” was not permitted. Although she wrote the words in her letter, she used veiled paraphrases throughout the Bundestag session. As alternative proposals, she offered the homosexual movement and the homosexual lecture . Klaus Beckmann spoke out against the introduction of “fighting terms”. In the vote, a slim majority of the MPs present was against the admission of the motions in this form. Paul Hoffacker (CDU) mocked the fact that members of the SPD in the back rows had not followed the recommendation of their parliamentary management. In a press release on the same day, Oesterle-Schwerin stated: “The term 'homosexuals' proposed to us ... contains a certain attitude towards gays and lesbians: Whoever says homosexuals speaks of a 'group that we have to help' ... or the one Have a 'hard fate'. Ultimately, it's about the following: Do you accept self-confident gays and lesbians as they are and how they call themselves ... or do you talk about poor, fate-beaten homosexuals. ”The Rules of Procedure Committee decided on December 8, 1988 that the headings of templates should be written in such a way that they are suitable as official formulations of items on the agenda.

In order not to have to use homosexual and to be able to submit the application anyway, the Greens resorted to the terms Urning and Urninde, created by Karl Heinrich Ulrichs as a self-designation and now antiquated , and named the application on December 15, 1988: impairment of people and Civil rights of the British Urninge and Urninden through Section 28 of the Local Government Bill as well as comparable attacks on the emancipation of the Urninge and Urninden in Bavaria . This was followed on January 24, 1989 by a major inquiry about " sexual denunciation [...] as a means of political conflict" with a preliminary remark about the use of terms. Alternating with gay and never gescheuten term homosexuality is urning used.

Even the renewed request to use the words on October 19, 1989 was not allowed to include the words in the title. In the plenary session on October 26, 1989, this was referred to the Committee on Election Review, Immunity and Rules of Procedure, and Dieter Wiefelspütz stated in his speech: “The Bundestag's Rules of Procedure Committee has so far been of the opinion that wording in Bundestag printed matter is inadmissible if they are would be seen as a violation of order, they would be presented in the plenary session of the Bundestag. ”The debate also shows that state parliaments such as the Berlin House of Representatives and even the CSU-dominated Bavarian state parliament, which at the time seemed very conservative in terms of homosexuality, had no vocabulary problems had. There were long deliberations at various levels and the Greens finally announced that, when asked whether these words are permissible, they would, if necessary, take the judicial process, which would also interest the press. On June 3, 1990, the news finally came that the new application submitted on July 26, 1989 with the title Emancipation and Equal Rights Program for Lesbians and Gays , in which the establishment of a lesbian department in the Ministry of Women and a gay department in the Ministry of Family Affairs had been applied for and that was then even received a number that would finally be approved. In the press release of the Greens on June 4, 1990, it was said: “Parliament is expanding its vocabulary”.

Further changes in values

In the course of the discussion about the recognition of same-sex partnerships, a generally increasingly impartial use has been observed since the late 1990s. In 1999 the word was voted into the list of 100 words of the 20th century by seven jury members because it was considered particularly indicative of the century. In 1998 Skinner wrote that the word was also appearing more and more often in the conservative Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung , albeit mostly in the features section . Today it is used more and more in other departments. The Society for German Language noted in 2001 that gay "is also used and understood as being largely neutral outside the gay scene".

In order to take the wind out of the sails of an emerging, possibly problematic thematization of his never really hidden homosexuality, Klaus Wowereit confidently spoke at the special party conference on June 10, 2001, the now famous words "I'm gay - and that's a good thing!" It was a taboo to be the first top German politician to admit so publicly. Ultimately, “And that's (also) a good thing!” Was chosen as the catchphrase and sentence of the year 2001. In the next election campaign, the outing was a small bonus, especially in terms of credibility with the voters.

Usage today

Welcome banner of the lesbian-gay city festival Berlin, 2006. It is frequently visited by representatives of parties and institutions.

Today, gay and its derived forms are used in official documents of the legislative and governing bodies, as well as by politicians - including some conservatives - for example in the Austrian Parliament and the German Bundestag. The word can also be found in declarations of laws or draft laws and in the titles of European Parliament resolutions. The word homosexual has so far been used only once in German-language legal texts , namely in the short title "Homosexual acts" of Section 175 (which only penalized homosexual acts by over 18-year-olds with under 18-year-olds), the "fornication between men" by Replaced in 1969. Otherwise, a more precise definition has been and is either used, the same-sex definition that had long been anchored in judicature and previously used unnaturally , or in anti-discrimination laws in general terms of sexual orientation or sexual identity . In academic papers on the subject, gay is used as a term technicus in the work and in the title, but the term is also used by some authors when the appropriate and correct opportunity is given in papers that do not deal with the narrower subject area. Even some media that are hostile to homosexuality, such as the Catholic newspaper Die Tagespost , sometimes use the self-designation in their articles at the appropriate place.

The Swiss politician Moritz Leuenberger spoke in 2001 in his function as Federal President at the Christopher Street Day in Zurich:

“It is thanks to your persistence, for example, that I am able to bring the words 'gay' or 'lesbian' over my lips much more easily today. In my youth these were obscene swear words, and I was surprised later that you did not give yourself another, less burdened name.
Today I have to congratulate you on that. In this way you went the more painful way; but you have set something in motion.
You have taken on insults and shame, but you are working on making the words 'gay' and 'lesbian' socially acceptable (they were socially acceptable again quickly; I mean accepted in terms of content). You could have chosen a politically correct name - something Latin or Greek perhaps? [Examples of the euphemism treadmill follow ] "

- Moritz Leuenberger : Christopher Street Day in Zurich, 2001

In the current dictionaries in 2008 gay bar , gay movement , gay organization , gay group , gay bar , gay being and being gay are not marked. Gayness is marked with "seldom" and gay scenes sometimes with "jargon". The adjective gay and the nouns [the] gay or [the] gay are either marked with "colloquial", "colloquial and self-designation" or not at all. In a survey on the general acceptance of taboo words carried out in April 2008 among 1,820 people aged 16 and over and published in June 2008, 63 percent said that they use the word themselves, 27 percent do not use it actively, but they do not mind either and 13 percent find it annoying or repulsive. One percent of the respondents gave no answer.

Similar changes in other languages

The English words gay and especially queer have experienced similar connotation-changing developments in their language area, which can also be found there both as emancipation words and as swear words. Gay is used in English youth language in a similar general negative meaning as in our language area gay .


  • In terms of language, pompous is rarely associated with homosexuality. The successor to gay , the newer form sultry , is sometimes used in puns or when the rhyme requires it. For example in the Lila Lied , where the "purple night", rhyming with feeling, is described as sultry .

The words gay and gay have grown into numerous variations.

  • The term fagot , which is mostly used insultingly, does not count as it has a completely separate etymology.
  • Gayity comes from the same basic meaning “oppressively hot”, but it has a different origin and a different basic meaning. In connection with homosexuality, however, it is sometimes used as a joking secret expression and hides precisely that behind the actual meaning of discomfort . It is rarely used as a rather derogatory term for being gay.
  • In the Swiss youth language there is the designation [der] Schwüggel , which is used disparagingly and not for self-designation.

See also

Portal: Homo- and bisexuality  - Overview of Wikipedia content on the subject of homo- and bisexuality

Web links

Wiktionary: gay  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations
Commons : Gay  - Collection of pictures, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. a b c d Dudenverlag: Correct and good German , 6th edition, 2007, ISBN 3-411-04096-3 .
  2. a b Jody Daniel Skinner: Designations for the homosexual in German - Volume II, a dictionary. The Blue Owl, Essen 1999, ISBN 3-89206-903-4 ; Dissertation at the University of Koblenz-Landau in 1998.
  3. Ernst Johann: German as it is not in the dictionary. H. Scheffler, 1962, p. 156.
  4. Duden 1999, p. 3494: “gay”:
    1.a) (by men) homosexual disposition, feeling
    1.b) belonging to a homosexual characteristic of him; based on (male) homosexuality; z. B. gay
    ethos , gay characteristics 1.c) intended for (male) homosexuals, created; z. B. gay pub, gay magazine, gay literature, gay churches, gay commercials, gay porn cinemas
    2.) (rarely) lesbian ; z. B. gay women in professional life.
    compare also: Duden Fremdsprachebuch, 4th ed., 1982: "homosexual":
    1.) for "feeling same-sex"
    2.) as "intended for homosexuals and their interests, z. B. a -e bar, -e books ".
  5. ^ Kurt Tucholsky : New Year's Eve. In: Die Weltbühne, December 30, 1920, p. 768.
  6. ^ Wolfgang Koeppen : The death in Rome . Scherz & Govert, Stuttgart 1954, p. 536.
  7. Volker Elis Pilgrim : Manifesto for the free man. Trikont-Verlag, Munich 1977, p. 145.
  8. a b Paul Derks: The shame of holy pederasty. Homosexuality and the public sphere in German literature 1750–1850. Rosa Winkel, Berlin 1990, ISBN 3-921495-58-X ; "Voilà", p. 60.
  9. a b c Günther Hunold: Sexuality in language. Lexicon of obscene vocabulary. Munich 1980.
  10. ^ A b German dictionary by Jacob Grimm and Wilhelm Grimm. 16 vols. [In 32 partial volumes]. S. Hirzel, Leipzig 1854-1960. - List of sources 1971 .; Volume 15, Columns 2750-2755 Gays - Gays .
  11. ^ Siegmund A. Wolf: Dictionary des Rotwelschen. German crooks language. Hamburg 1985, p. 306.
  12. AJ Storfer: In the thicket of language. Vienna / Leipzig / Passau 1937, pp. 139–140.
  13. ^ Heinz Küpper: Illustrated Lexicon of German Colloquial Language II. Stuttgart 1982–1984; "Since the second third of the 19th century".
  14. ^ Friedrich Christian Benedict Avé-Lallemant (Lübeck): The German crooks - in its social-political, literary and linguistic training to its present day - fourth part. FA Brockhaus, Leipzig 1862, p. 607, ( third and fourth parts in Google Books ) (1858 the first two parts).
  15. a b c Albert Moll: The Contra Sexual Sensation. 1st edition. 1891, p. 252 .
  16. Hans Gross: Encyclopedia of Criminology. FCW Vogel, 1901, p. 74.
  17. ^ Paul Hermann: German Dictionary. 9th edition. Tuebingen 1981.
  18. ^ A b Kurt Wiesendanger: Gays and Lesbians in Psychotherapy, Pastoral Care and Counseling: A Guide. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 2001, ISBN 3-525-45878-9 , p. 17.
  19. a b c d e Jody Skinner: Warm Brothers, Kesse Fathers. Terms for the homosexual in German. In: Ursula Ferdinand, Andreas Pretzel , Andreas Seeck (Hrsg.): Verqueere Wissenschaft? On the relationship between sexology and the sex reform movement, past and present. LIT Verlag, Berlin / Hamburg / Münster 1998, ISBN 3-8258-4049-2 , pp. 117, 118 or online: Warm brothers - perky fathers: How warm is a warm brother, how cool is a perky father? Or: There are many more expressions for homosexuality in German than you and women think. In: Lust: Lesbian and Gay Topics. Bimonthly newspaper for Hesse, Rhineland-Palatinate, Saarland and North Baden No. 44, October / November 1997, pp. 22–23.
  20. Arno Schmitt: Gays? Islamic Law? An educational talk. In: Manfred Herzer, J. Edgar Bauer: 100 Years of the Gay Movement: Documentation of a series of lectures in the Academy of the Arts. Verlag rosa Winkel , 1998, ISBN 3-86149-074-9 , p. 208 f.
  21. Volkmar Sigusch: Karl Heinrich Ulrichs, The first gay in world history. Swarm of Men, 2000, ISBN 3-86149-105-2 .
  22. Volkmar Sigusch in: Wolfgang Schneider (Red.): 100 words of the century . Suhrkamp (st 2973), Frankfurt am Main 1999, ISBN 3-518-39473-8 .
  23. Bernd-Ullrich Hergemöller: From the "silent sin" to the "disappearance of homosexuality". Attributions and Identities. In: Wolfram Setz (Ed.): The history of homosexualities and the gay identity at the turn of the millennium. Berlin 2000, p. 39 f.
  24. Antke Engel : Against Unambiguity: Sexuality and Gender in the Focus of Queer Politics of Representation. Campus Verlag, 2002, ISBN 3-593-37117-0 , p. 9.
  25. a b BVerfGE 6, 389 - Homosexuals ( Memento of the original from January 13, 2009 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. - 1 BvR 550/52, May 10, 1957. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  26. Wolfgang Müller: Be clean during the day and sour at night (Göthe) or: Reflections on the most beautiful thing in the world as reflected in the German language - then and now. In: Rudolf Hoberg (Ed.): Language - Eroticism - Sexuality. Erich Schmidt Verlag GmbH, 2001, ISBN 3-503-04990-8 , especially p. 36 f.
    Example: Dictionary of Contemporary Language (WdG), accessed: December 21, 2008:
    homosexual = […] feeling / esp. Sexual affection for the same sex. from man to man / he is h. assessed
    example Austrian dictionary, 40th edition, 2006:
    gay = homosexual in men see also lesbian
    gays = homosexual see also lesbian
    lesbian (short for) lesbian = woman with same-sex inclinations
    lesbian see also gay
    warm = homosexual (in men) see also gay .
  27. Lower Saxony Ministry for Women, Labor and Social Affairs (Ed.): Gay young people: Results on the living situation, social and sexual identity. The living situation of gay adolescents.  ( Page no longer available , search in web archivesInfo: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. Gay and lesbian research group at the Institute for Psychology - Social Psychology - of the Ludwig Maximilians University Munich (SLFM), under the leadership of Ulrich Biechele, Günter Reisbeck and Heiner Keupp , 1999.@1@ 2Template: Toter Link /  
  28. Ulrich Biechele: Identity Development of Gay Adolescents. A survey of German-speaking young gays in the gay scene as well as on the Internet  ( page no longer available , search in web archivesInfo: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Dead Link /   (PDF; 1.3 MB). University of Basel, 2004, p. 211.
  29. Online survey In relation to your being gay, how do you describe yourself? ,, 2004.
  30. Landeshauptstadt München (Ed.): Life situation of lesbians and gays in old age.  ( Page no longer available , search in web archivesInfo: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. 2003.@1@ 2Template: Toter Link /  
  31. Dieter Dorn: Attempts to limit the transgressions of male-female eroticism: bi-, poly-, multi-sexualities. In: Bettina Boekle, Michael Ruf, Klaus Schwerma: A question of gender: A gender reader. VS Verlag, 2004, ISBN 3-531-14271-2 , p. 266.
  32. Sophie Neuberg: Study: Getting older - older lesbians and gays in Berlin & introduction, Berlin 2002. In: [Berlin] Senate Department for Education, Youth and Sport (Ed.): Being different and getting older - lesbians and gays in old age ( Memento of the original from September 29, 2007 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. in the series: Documents of Lesbian and Gay Emancipation from the Department for Same-Sex Lifestyles, No. 20, pp. 8, 103 (PDF-pp. 10, 105; 477 kB).
  33. ^ René Hornung: Berlin exhibition about Swiss pioneers. aK-magazine Switzerland, February 1999 ( online version ( Memento of the original dated December 29, 2008 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link has been inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. ). @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  34. ^ Alfred Döblin: Berlin Alexanderplatz. S. Fischer Verlag, 1929, pp. 317, 318, 381.
  35. Wolfgang Koeppen : Pigeons in the grass. 1951.
    Heinrich Böll : And didn't say a single word. Kiepenheuer & Witsch, 1953, p. 137.
  36. JM Burnadz: The Gaunersprache the Vienna gallery. Lübeck 1966, p. 100.
  37. ^ Oswald Wiener: Contributions to the Ädöologie des Wienerischen. In the appendix to: Josefine Mutzenbacher: The life story of a Viennese prostitute, told by herself. Munich 1970, pp. 387, 388.
  38. Martina Weiland: "And we take our rights". Brief history (s) of lesbian movements from the 70s, 80s, 90s in West Berlin, not just for women from Berlin. In: Anke Schäfer , Katrin Lahusen (ed.): Lesbian Yearbook 1. Considerations for 20 years of lesbian movement. Wiesbaden 1995, p. 32.
  39. Ina Kuckuc: The fight against oppression. Materials from the German lesbian movement. Munich 1980 (orig. 1975), p. 132.
  40. a b Sabine Ayshe Peters: Female homosexuality in public usage in the western zones and the FRG. ( Memento of the original from January 10, 2006 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. 5. The discovery of the lesbian in the seventies: liberation or imitation man's world? ( Memento of the original from January 10, 2006 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. Ratingen / Düsseldorf 1997, as of February 26, 2004. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /  @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  41. Georg Stötzel, Thorsten Eitz, Astrid Jahresling-Marienfeld, Lea Plate: Dictionary of contemporary German contemporary language: key words and orientation vocabulary. Georg Olms Verlag, 2002, ISBN 3-487-11759-2 , p. 229.
  42. ^ Neue Rhein-Zeitung, July 25, 1979.
  43. Anke Guido: Are you gay or what? ( Memento of the original from October 23, 2007 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. TDF - Human Rights for Women 2/2006, pp. 10–11. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  44. Christina Böck: "Echte Wiener": There is a lack of Mundl's dialect - film review , Die Presse, online & print edition, December 15, 2008.
  45. Every day, Mother's Day. About the film The child in the box by Gloria Dürnberger. (No longer available online.) In: March 22, 2014, archived from the original on March 25, 2014 ; retrieved on March 22, 2014 : “The distance of the confused woman is almost cruel at times. "Would you say that you love me?" Asks Gloria once close to tears. The answer is like a slap in the face: "I'm not gay." " Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  46. Smilo: Fettes Brot - Interview ,, March 6, 2002.
  47. Jörg Sundermeier: Choir of gay girls. In: Berliner Zeitung , November 24, 2001.
  48. ^ Robert Sedlaczek, Roberta Baron: leet & leiwand. The lexicon of youth language. Echomedia, 2006, ISBN 3-901761-49-7 .
  49. Harald Martenstein : Fully psycho. Die Zeit, March 9, 2006, No. 11.
  50. Albert Scharenberg: The discursive uprising of the black "lower classes". Hip Hop as a protest against material and symbolic violence (PDF; 101 kB). In: Anja Weiß, Cornelia Koppetsch, Albert Scharenberg, Oliver Schmidtke (eds.): Class and classification. The symbolic dimension of social inequality. Westdeutscher Verlag, Wiesbaden 2001, pp. 243-269.
  51. Tanja Walther: Kick it out - homophobia in football. ( Memento of the original from October 12, 2007 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. European Gay and Lesbian Sport Federation (EGLSF), 2006. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  52. Katharina Kasperczyk: Comedy in the media: Comedy generation in Kaya Yanar's show “What are you looking at ?!” with special consideration by Radio Suleyman. ( Memento of the original from December 17, 2008 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. Freiburg University of Education, 2003. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  53. Claudia Hauser: Finally talking to guys about other guys. ( Memento of the original from October 12, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. Kölner Stadt-Anzeiger, October 5, 2007. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  54. Harry Wrensch: Racket Lines .  ( Page no longer available , search in web archivesInfo: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice., accessed: December 20, 2008.@1@ 2Template: Toter Link /  
  55. Moritz Baumstieger: Hit in the pit of the stomach: A conversation about being gay with us., July 20, 2007.
  56. Martin Lücke: Unnatural sins - vicious lust boys. In: Bea Lundt, Barbel Volkel (eds.): Outfit and Coming-out: Gender worlds between fashion, laboratory and line. LIT, 2007, ISBN 3-8258-0491-7 , p. 140.
  57. Joachim Güntner: The worst label. , Neue Zürcher Zeitung, January 13, 2007.
  58. René Walter: You victim!, April 2, 2006.
  59. Johannes Möhring: Ey gay, or what? Augsburger Allgemeine, April 9, 2008.
  60. Reis and Saewyc: 83,000 youth - Selected Findings Of Eight Population-Based Studies (PDF; 393 kB), Safe Schools Coalition of Washington, April / May 1999
    prepared in a table: Pierre Tremblay: The Homosexuality Factor in Adolescent Suicidality : 1995 Seattle Schools' Youth Risk Behavior Survey Results., as of February 25, 2007.
  61. For example: International Day Against Homophobia - MANEO - memorandum # 1 Schwule Sau  ( page can no longer be accessed , search in web archivesInfo: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. , Maneo, July 15, 2007.@1@ 2Template: Toter Link /  
  62. 3.5.4 Homosexuality: Somehow different - and yet so the same , working material for the lessons of the Olzog-Verlag.
  63. ^ Faith promotes gay hatred among schoolchildren ,, November 10, 2008.
  64. p. 13.
  65. Manfred Herzer: Introduction to “Magnus Hirschfeld. Life and work of a Jewish, gay and socialist sexologist ”. In: Andreas Seeck: Through Science to Justice? Text collection on the critical reception of the work of Magnus Hirschfeld. LIT Verlag, Berlin / Hamburg / Münster 2003, ISBN 3-8258-6871-0 , p. 97.
  66. Robert Beachy: The Other Berlin: The Invention of Homosexuality: A German History 1867-1933 . Siedler Verlag, Munich 2015, ISBN 978-3-641-16574-1 , introduction, p. 2 (English: Gay Berlin. Birthplace of a Modern Identity . New York 2014. Translated by Hans Freundl, Thomas Pfeiffer).
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  68. a b Martin Dannecker: The insatiable desire for recognition - homosexual politics in the fifties and sixties - Hans Giese and the organized homosexuals. In: Detlef Grumbach (Ed.): What does gay mean here? Politics and identities in transition. MännerschwarmSkript publishing house, 2002.
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  78. Bundesrat - Stenographic Minutes - 617th meeting / page 5 , October 17, 1996.
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  80. I GR 1142/87.
  81. 1 T 218/87.
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  83. German Bundestag Printed Matter 11/2625 - Discrimination against lesbians by the German Postreklame GmbH (II) (PDF; 243 kB) inquiry by the Green, July 5th 1988th
  84. BVerfG, NJW-RR 1989, 636.
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  88. Bundestag: Drucksache 11/3741 (PDF; 353 kB): Application from DIE GRÜNEN - Impairment of human and civil rights of the British Urninge and Urninden by Section 28 of the Local Government Bill and comparable attacks on the emancipation of the Urninge and Urninden in Bavaria , December 15, 1988.
  89. Bundestag: Printed matter 11/3901 (PDF; 521 kB): Major inquiry from DIE GRÜNEN: The sexual denunciation of actual or alleged “Urningen” as a means of political debate , January 24, 1989
    Bundestag: Printed matter 11/5107 (PDF; 393 kB): Answer, August 30, 1989.
  90. Bundestag: Drucksache 11/4910 (PDF; 341 kB) - Big question - Increasing violence against homosexual men and effective ways of combating it , June 30, 1989, (originally: Increasing violence against gays and effective ways of combating it ).
  91. Bundestag: Durchsache 11/7197 (PDF; 549 kB) - Motion - Abolition of legal discrimination against homosexuals , May 18, 1990.
  92. Bundestag: Drucksache 11/4153 (PDF; 422 kB) - Draft law - Draft law on the criminal equality of homo- and heterosexuality , March 9, 1989.
  93. Bundestag: Drucksache 11/5482 (PDF; 304 kB) - Motion for a resolution - The sexual denunciation of actual or supposed "Urningen" as a means of political conflict , October 26, 1989.
  94. Bundestag: Printed matter 11/5421 (PDF; 212 kB) - Application - Admission of colloquial and high-level terms in headings of submissions from the German Bundestag , October 19, 1989; (Originally: approval of the colloquial terms “gay” and “lesbian” as well as high-level word formations such as “gay and lesbian movement” in the German Bundestag's drafts ).
  95. German Bundestag: Plenary Protocol 11/171 , Bonn, October 26, 1989, p. 12920 ff. (PDF-p. 122 ff .; 3.6 MB).
  96. Bundestag: Drucksache 11/5003 (PDF; 3485 kB) - Application - Emancipation and Equal Rights Program for Lesbians and Gays , July 26, 1989, without first page; Full text in: Andreas Frank: Engaged tenderness. Internet version , 1997, Chapter 9: Macro Perspective - Sociopolitical Aspects of Sexuality. ( Memento of the original from October 19, 2006 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  97. ^ Hermann Paul: German dictionary. History of meaning and structure of our vocabulary. 10th edition. Max Niemeyer Verlag, Tübingen 2002, ISBN 3-484-73057-9 .
  98. Joachim Fahrun: Why Klaus Wowereit came out as gay., September 19, 2007.
  99. ^ Word of the year - "September 11th". Manager Magazin, December 14, 2001.
  100. ^ Björn Sieverding: Homosexuality and the media - emergency brake or calculation. ( Memento of November 16, 2004 in the Internet Archive ) Message 4/2003, at
  101. parliament correspondence / 10 / 15.12.2003 / No. 983 : Austria Convention: Proposals from minorities: … limited their comments to lesbian and gay matters.
  102. Opinion from the office of the Viennese provincial government on the ministerial draft regarding a federal law on equal treatment : ... the term “sexual orientation” is defined to include homosexual, lesbian, bisexual and heterosexual persons or couples.
  103. Printed matter 16/2190 - Briefing by the Federal Government (PDF; 4.3 MB), German Bundestag, July 6, 2006, p. 178: … Visibility of gay and lesbian ways of life… .
  104. Printed matter 15/3607 - Answer of the Federal Government (PDF; 324 kB), German Bundestag, June 16, 2004: … Findings about the educational competence of lesbian and gay parents… .
  105. parliament correspondence / 02 / 01.06.2001 / No. 410 : Deputy Gottfried Feurstein (ÖVP): … National Socialists persecuted lesbians and gays… .
  106. parliament correspondence / GE / 13.11.1997 / No. 751 : Deputy Dr. Graf (FPÖ): … lesbian and gay area… .
  107. German Bundestag - 14th electoral term - 131st session - p. 12622 (PDF; 463 kB), November 10, 2000, Ilse Falk (CDU): … direct and personal confrontation with gays and lesbians […] that we then too Support parents whose children are different, in this case gay or lesbian?
  108. ^ German Bundestag - 15th electoral term - 108th session. Berlin, Thursday, May 6, 2004 (PDF; 1.5 MB), p. 9833, May 6, 2004, Jürgen Gehb (CDU / CSU): I freely admit that I am aware of the situation of lesbians and gays in our Country and even more so the historical retrospect of decades before this time was not exactly familiar.
  109. 582 / A XXII. GP - Initiative application - Federal law that created the Federal Law on Registered Partnerships (EP-G) ... (PDF; 1501 kB),, April 6, 2005.
  110. Printed matter 15/473 - Draft Law - Draft of a law to establish a “Magnus Hirschfeld Foundation” (PDF; 273 kB). German Bundestag, February 19, 2003.
  111. Official Journal of the European Communities C 313, October 12, 1998 (PDF) , p. 186 (PDF-p. 64): B4-0824 and 0852/98: Resolution on equal rights for gays and lesbians in the European Union of September 17 1998.
  112. Findings and examples in: Erhard Köllner : Homosexuality as an anthropological challenge. Klinkhardt, 2001, ISBN 3-7815-1138-3 , p. 58.
  113. ^ Avi Mathis-Masury: Caught between Hora and Torah. Physicality among Orthodox Jews in Israel. Dissertation, Eberhard-Karls-Universität Tübingen, 2004.
  114. Hans-Peter Ketterl: Political Communication. Analysis and perspectives of a changing communication genre. Dissertation, Ludwig Maximilians University Munich, 2004.
  115. Markus Reder: How do they actually do it?  ( Page no longer available , search in web archivesInfo: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. The Daily Mail, July 3, 2004.@1@ 2Template: Toter Link /  
  116. ^ School for Gays - Chicago: Life like in a ghetto.  ( Page no longer available , search in web archivesInfo: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. The daily mail, accessed: December 15, 2008.@1@ 2Template: Toter Link /  
  117. Moritz Leuenberger: Christopher Street Day 2001. Speech on the occasion of the opening of Christopher Street Day, Helvetiaplatz, Zurich  ( page no longer available , search in web archivesInfo: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. ,, June 23, 2001.@1@ 2Template: Dead Link /  
  118. a b c Dudenredaktion (ed.): German universal dictionary. Bibliographisches Institut, Mannheim 2007, ISBN 3-411-05506-5 .
  119. a b Duden - Large dictionary of the German language. 1999.
  120. ^ A b Lutz Mackensen: German dictionary. 13th edition. Manuscriptum, 2006, ISBN 3-937801-08-1 .
  121. Renate Wahrig-Burfeind: Wahrig Universal Dictionary spelling. Dtv, Munich 2002, ISBN 3-423-32524-0 .
  122. The new German dictionary. Wilhelm Heyne Verlag, 1996.
  123. The current German spelling. NGV, Cologne 2006, ISBN 3-625-11398-8 .
  124. Austrian dictionary. 40th edition. 2006, ISBN 3-209-05068-6 ; “Warm”, on the other hand, means “inf. dev. "is marked.
  125. Press release: How do Germans think about their mother tongue and foreign languages? ( Memento of the original from December 24, 2008 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. Society for German Language, June 13, 2008: The attitude of Germans to the acceptance of taboo words. ( Memento of the original from December 24, 2008 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  126. Annette Treibel: Introduction to Sociological Theories of the Present. VS Verlag, 2006, ISBN 3-531-15177-0 , p. 121.
  127. ↑ Pupils from the 7th to 13th school year from all over Switzerland: Pons Dictionary of Swiss Youth Language 2002  ( page no longer available , search in web archivesInfo: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. , Klett and Balmer AG, Zug 2002.@1@ 2Template: Dead Link /