List of Byzantine emperors


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Constantine the Great (r. 306 / 324–337) is considered the first Byzantine emperor.

This list of Byzantine emperors provides a systematic overview of the rulers of the Byzantine Empire . It contains all the emperors of Constantine the Great (306–337), who, after gaining sole rule in the Roman Empire , had the new imperial residence of Constantinople built from 324 and is considered the first Byzantine emperor until Constantine XI. Palaiologos, who lost Constantinople to the Ottomans in 1453 .

In research, the rulers of the late antique-early Byzantine phase of the empire (up to Herakleios 641), in which Latin was still the court and administrative language, are usually also referred to as Eastern Roman emperors and, at least up to Justinian I , the Roman emperors counted. The tetrarchs Diocletian , Galerius , Maximinus Daia and Licinius , who ruled in the east of the empire from 284 to 324 , are not counted among the Byzantine emperors . For the period between 1204 and 1261, when Constantinople as the Latin Empire was ruled by the Crusaders, the rulers of the Nikaia Empire are led as Byzantine emperors. The ruler of the Empire of Trebizond (1204-1461) from the dynasty of Komnenen are not regarded as Byzantine emperor.

Explanations

The following list shows the emperors with their portraits (especially contemporary busts , mosaics or coins ), their names commonly used in German-speaking countries , their full names (without titles ), their reigns (for usurpers and pretenders : time of their claim to power) and notes any special features. For the early Byzantine period , preference is given to the Greek version of originally Greek names (example: Zenon ), unless the Latin is much more common (example: Hypatius ). In the case of homonymy , the initial Latin name is kept in continuous counting even after late antiquity (examples: Leo III instead of Leon , Theodosius III instead of Theodosius ). Some emperors changed their names in the course of their lives, for example through adoption or when they came to power . The last name given is given without any function or honorary title. Unofficial or later epithets are in italics .

The legitimately ruling emperors ( Augusti , Basileis ; example: Constantine I ) and their co-rulers of equal rank (Symbasileis) are highlighted in white and bold . The fat does not apply to empresses or emperors who are not universally recognized or uncrowned (examples: Irene , Konstantin (XI.) ); This also applies to counter-emperors who temporarily ousted the legitimate ruler, provided they came from the ruling dynasty and their rule was recognized by the Senate or the Church (i.e. the Patriarch ) (examples: Basiliscus , Artabasdos ).

Co -emperors who have exercised de facto rule for a nominally legitimate ruler are highlighted in blue and bold (example: Romanos I ). The bold does not apply to a temporary or illegitimate exercise of independent government activity (example: Matthaios Asanes Kantakuzenos ).

Co-regents and sub- emperors or designated heirs to the throne ( Caesares , sebastocrators , despots ), who at no time legitimately ruled independently, are assigned to the respective emperors in the comment column, stating their nominal years of reign or the years of their dignity, if known (example: Dalmatius ). Title holders under several emperors are only listed once in the comment column (usually with the emperor who awarded the title (s) first; example: Konstantin Dukas Porphyrogennetos, co-emperor under Michael VII, is not listed again under Alexios I.). Italic years preceded by a slash indicate the year of acclamation or designation in the case of later coronation or official inauguration (example: Michael IX. 1281 designated as co-emperor, crowned in 1295). Also listed are non-Byzantines, to whom the title was formally bestowed by the emperor (example: Terwel ). So-called "Kaisermacher" are marked with the preposition "through" (example: "through Aspar "). Empresses ( Augustae , Basilissai) are called regents if they were nominally equal to the emperor and exercised power for him (example: Pulcheria ) or after the death of the emperor (temporarily) took over the rule (example: Domnica ).

Italicized are:

  • Co-emperors whose existence or imperialism has not been proven (example: Arcadius II. )
  • Presumptive heirs to the throne and nobilissimi who, either as a result of their own death or the death or disempowerment of the emperor, were no longer officially proclaimed Caesar or Augustus or for whom an elevation to Caesar has not been proven (example: Varronian )
  • De facto regents ( imperial administrators ) who were not dynastically linked to the emperor in question (example: Rufinus under Arcadius)
  • Candidates for the throne who, through their own resignation ( recusatio imperii ), indirectly became "emperor-makers" when the throne was vacant (example: Jovian Kaiser "after resignation by Salutius ")

Opposing emperors and usurpers are highlighted in red . This does not apply to counter-emperors in Constantinople, whose rule was recognized by the senate or the church, even if the legitimate ruler on imperial territory continued to develop his own government activities and resisted the rival (see above). “Counter-emperors” are usurpers or pretenders to the throne in the narrower sense who have acquired the imperial title themselves or who have been acclaimed by their troops or supporters. In the list, “usurpers” are characters for whom either the formal act of rising to the emperor has not been safely passed down, but who de facto appropriated imperial powers or behaved disloyally and held a not insignificant territorial power base or dynastic position or with whom The outrage was so geographically limited (at most one province / one topic ) and so briefly (at most a few days) that de facto there was no threat to the legitimate ruler.

Also listed are non-Byzantine rulers who have claimed the imperial title or an emperor-like position on former imperial territory or in territories under nominal Byzantine suzerainty ( imitatio imperii ; examples: Theudebert , Stefan Dušan) . If the regent position was officially legitimized by receiving Roman or Byzantine honorary titles, the figures are listed with the respective emperor (example: Clovis under Anastasius I).

Italicized are:

Usurpers, who at times were also legitimate bearers of one of the above-mentioned imperial dignities, are not specifically listed, but rather remain assigned to the respective emperor in the comment column (examples: Anastasios II , Emperor 713–715 / 16, or Johannes Dukas , Caesar since 1061 under Constantine X and his successors, are not specifically listed as counter-emperors under Leo III or Michael VII).

With regard to the opposing emperors, the list does not claim to be complete, especially since nothing or almost nothing is known about some of them apart from their names.

List of Byzantine emperors

Early Byzantine Empire

portrait Surname Full name Reign Remarks
Constantinian Dynasty
Head Constantine Musei Capitolini MC1072 (cropped) .jpg Constantine I. Flavius Valerius Constantinus 324 -337 Son Constantius I , ruler of the entire kingdom, since 306 /307 emperor in the West (to 310 nominally Caesar ); Caesares: Crispus (up to 326), Dalmatius (from 335, Balkans); Rex : Hannibalianus (from 335/36, Cappadocia?)
Calocaerus unknown 334? Usurper in Cyprus
Bust of Constantius II (Mary Harrsch) (cropped) .jpg Constantius II Flavius ​​Iulius Constantius 337 -361 Caesar since 324 to 340 in addition . Konstantin II (West), with Constans (338-339, Kaiser in the west to 350) and Vetranio (350, through Constantina ), ruler of the total Reich 350/ 353 -360; Caesar: Constantius Gallus (351–354, Syria)
Patricius unknown 351/52 Against the king in Palestine
Solidus Julian (obverse) .jpg Julian Flavius ​​Claudius Iulianus 361- 363 Ruler of the entire empire, emperor in the west since 360 ​​( Caesar since 355)
Emperor without a dynasty
JOVIAN - RIC VIII 223 - 671793 (obverse) .jpg Jovian Flavius ​​Iovianus 363 -364 Ruler of the entire empire (after resignation by Salutius ), 364 with Varronian
Valentinian - Theodosian dynasty
VALENS-RIC IX 2d.xxix-641217 (obverse) .jpg Valens Flavius ​​Valens 364- 378 up to 375 next to Valentinian I (west), 369–370 / 372 with Galates ; Regent: Domnica (378)
Solidus Procopius Cyzicus (obverse) .jpg Procopius unknown 365- 366 Counter-emperor in Constantinople; Successor: Marcellus (366, Bithynia)
Theodorus unknown 371 Usurper (?) In Syria
Disco o Missorium Teodosio MPLdC (cropped) .jpg Theodosius I. Flavius ​​Theodosius 379- 395 to 383 next Gratian (west), 388-391 in the West (with Valentinian II. ), from 392/ 394 ruler of the entire kingdom
Arcadius Istanbul Museum (cropped) .JPG Arcadius Flavius ​​Arcadius 395-408 Co-emperor from 383, 393–394 with Honorius (emperor in the west until 423); Regents: Rufinus (395), Eutropios (395–399), Gainas (399, Usurper 400), Eudoxia (400–404)
Theodosius II Louvre Ma1036 (cropped) .jpg Theodosius II Flavius ​​Theodosius 408-450 Co-emperor since 402, 423 nominal ruler of the entire empire, 439 with Arcadius II (?); Caesar: Valentinian III. (424–425, emperor in the west until 455); Regents: Anthemius (up to 414), Pulcheria (414–416 / 423, 450)
Barletta Colossus Head (cropped) .jpg Markian Flavius ​​Marcianus 450-457 by Pulcheria and Aspar , nominally ruler of the entire empire from 456 onwards
Thracian dynasty
Leo I Louvre Ma1012 n2 (cropped) .jpg Leo I. Flavius ​​(Valerius?) Novus Leo 457-474 by Aspar, 465–467 and 472–473 nominal rulers of the entire empire; Caesares: Anthemius (467, emperor in the west until 472), Patricius (469 / 70–471)
Tremissis Leo II (obverse) .jpg Leo II Flavius ​​Leo Junior 474 Co-emperor since 473 ( Caesar since 472); Caesar (?): Julius Nepos (Emperor in the West until 475/480)
Zeno Solidus RIC 0910 (obverse) .jpg Zeno Flavius ​​Zeno 474-491 474 co-emperor Leo II and regent, exile 475–476 in Cilicia, from 480 nominal ruler of the entire empire; Caesar: Leo (476-477 / 78); recognized Geiseric as regent in Africa
Basiliscus.jpg Basiliscus Flavius ​​Basiliscus 475-476 against Zenon, with Marcus ( Caesar 475)
Huneric BMC 012 (cropped) .jpg Hunerich unknown 477-484 claimed emperor-like position in Africa
Markian Flavius ​​Marcianus 479-480 Usurper in Constantinople and Galatia (484 in Cilicia by Illus ?)
Justasas unknown 484? Against the king in Palestine
Solidus Leontius Antioch.jpg Leontios unknown 484-488 Counter-Emperor in Cilicia and Syria (through Illus and Verina )
Masties unknown 484-494? Usurper (?) In Numidia (against Hunerich and Gunthamund ); Successor (?): Masuna (508-535?, Mauritania)
Odovacar Ravenna 477 (obverse) .jpg Odoacer Flavius ​​Odovacer 490- 493 Usurper in Italy (ruler since 476/480 ); Caesar: Thela
Solidus Anastasius I (obverse) .jpg Anastasios I. Flavius ​​Anastasius 491-518 by Ariadne ; recognized Theodoric , Clovis and Sigismund as regents in Italy and Gaul
Longinus Flavius ​​Longinus 491-492 Usurper in Constantinople; Successor: Longinus , Athenodoros (both up to 497, Isauria)
Burdunellus unknown 496-497 Usurper in Hispania (against Alaric II ); Successor: Peter (506)
Vitalian Flavius ​​Vitalianus 513-515 Usurper (?) In Thrace and Moesia; Predecessor: Areobindus (512, Constantinople)
Justinian Dynasty
Solidus Iustinus I (obverse) .jpg Justin I. Flavius ​​Iustinus 518-527 eliminated Theocritus , recognized Athalaric as regent in Italy
Master of San Vitale in Ravenna (cropped) .jpg Justinian I. Flavius ​​Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus 527-565 Co-emperor 527 ( Caesar since 525), with Theodora I (until 548) and Germanus (550); deposed Gelimer and Witichis as regents in Africa and Italy, respectively
Julian Iulianus Sabarides 529 Against the king in Palestine
Hypatius Flavius ​​Hypatius 532 Counter-Emperor in Constantinople, with Pompey
Gold Solidus Theudebert I coin around 534 (obverse) .jpg Theudebert Theodebertus Victor 533-547 / 48 claimed emperor-like position in Gaul
Coin Follis Ostrogoths Rome Theodahat (obverse) .jpg Theodahad Flavius ​​Theodahatus 535-536 claimed emperor-like position in Italy
Stotzas unknown 536-545 Usurper in Africa; Successor: Guntarith (until 546, with Johannes )
John Ioannes Cottistis 537 Usurper in Mesopotamia
Baduila BMC 044 (obverse) .jpg Totila unknown 541 / 42- 552 Usurper in Italy; Predecessor: Hildebad (540–541, after resignation by Belisarius ), Erarich (541); Successor: Teja ( 552 )
Iustinus II sb0345 (obverse) .jpg Justin II Flavius ​​Iustinus 565-578 eliminated Justin ; Regent: Sophia (from 573)
Leovigild CNG 97-722237 (obverse) .jpg Leovigild Flavius ​​Leovigildus 572 / 73-586 claimed emperor-like position in Hispania
Tiberius II.jpg Tiberios I. Flavius ​​Tiberius Novus Constantinus 578-582 Co-emperor 578 ( Caesar since 574); Caesar: Germanus (582, usurper 602–603 and 605/607?)
Maurice Solidus sb0477a (obverse) .jpg Maurikios Flavius ​​Mauricius Novus Tiberius 582-602 582 Caesar and co-emperor, from 590 with Theodosius ( Caesar since 587, 603 [–611] counter-emperor in Mesopotamia through Chosrau II and Narses ?) And (?) Tiberios
Abaskiron unknown 583-588? Usurper (?) In Egypt
Authari Flavius ​​Autharius 584-590 claimed emperor-like position in northern Italy
Emperor without a dynasty
Phocas sb0618 (obverse) .jpg Phocas Flavius ​​Focas 602-610 against Maurikios, with Domentiolos (from 603/04) and Priskos (606/07)

Dynasty of Herakleios

portrait Surname Full name Reign Remarks
Heraclean dynasty
Heraclius and Heraclius Constantine solidus (cropped) .jpg Herakleios Flavius ​​Heraclius
Phlabios Hērakleios
610-641 against Phocas (through Herakleios , usurper in Africa since 608); Caesar: Constantine (617–631?)
Comentiolos unknown 610-611 Usurper (?) In Galatia
John Ioannes Compsinus 616-617 Usurper (?) In southern Italy
Eleutherios unknown 619-620 Counter-Emperor in Italy
Vahan Baanēs (Korkhorouni?) 636 Usurper (?) In Palestine
Athalaric Iōannēs Athalarichos 637? Usurper in Constantinople
Solidus Heraclius Constantine (cropped) .jpg Constantine III Phlabios Hērakleios ho Neos Kōnstantinos 641 Co-emperor since 613, with Heraklonas
Solidus Heraclonas (obverse) .jpg Heraklonas Konstantinos Hērakleios 641 Co-emperor since 638 ( Caesar since 632), with David Tiberios ( Caesar since 638) and Martinos ( Caesar since 639); Regent: Martina
Solidus Constans II (obverse) .jpg Constans II Phlabios Hērakleios Kōnstantinos ho Pōgōnatos 641-668 / 69 641 Caesar under Constantine III. and co-emperor of Heraklonas; Regents: Valentinos (642–643 / 44, Caesar 642 ?, Usurper 641 and 644/45), Gregoria (?, Up to 649, with Paulos )
Maurikios Maurikios ho Chartoularios 643 Usurper in Rome
Gregorios Phlabios Grēgorios 646 / 47-647 / 48 Counter-emperor in Africa; Successor (?): Gennadios (664–665?)
Olympios unknown 650-651 / 52 Usurper in Italy
Theodoros Theodōros Rechtouni ( Pasagnathēs ?) 651 / 52-652 / 53 Usurper (?) In Armenia
Saborios unknown 667-668 Usurper in Pontos (Armeniacon)
Constantine IV mosaic (cropped) .png Constantine IV Phlabios Konstantinos 668 / 69-685 Co-emperor from 654, 659–681 with Herakleios and Tiberios ; recognized Perctarit and Asparuch as regents in northern Italy and Moesien, respectively
Mezezius (obverse) .jpg Mizizios Mizizios Gnouni 668/69 Counter-emperor in Sicily; Successor (?): Johannes (678?)
Solidus-Justinian II-reverse.JPG Justinian II Phlabios Ioustinianos ho Rhinotmētos 685-695
705-711
Co-emperor from 681
against Tiberios II, from 706 with Tiberios ; Caesar: Terwel (Moesia / Bulgaria)
Georgios unknown 710/11 Usurper (?) In Northern Italy
Emperor without a dynasty
Solidus of Leontius.jpg Leontios Leon 695-698 against Justinian II
Solidus of Tiberius Apsimar.jpg Tiberios II Tiberios Apsimaros 698 -705 against Leontios
Solidus of Philippicus Bardanes.jpg Philippicus Philippikos Bardanēs 711-713 against Justinian II
Solidus of Anastasius II.jpg Anastasios II Artemios Anastasios 713-715 / 16 against Philippikos, exile from 715 in Bithynia (Opsikion), counter-emperor 717/719
Solidus Theodosius III (obverse) .jpg Theodosius III. Theodosios (Konstantinos?) Ho Adramytinos 715-717 against Anastasios II, 717 with Tiberios (?)

Time of the iconoclast

portrait Surname Full name Reign Remarks
Syrian dynasty
Solidus of Leo III the Isaurian.jpg Leo III. (Phlabios) Leōn ho Isauros 717-741 against Theodosius III.
Basil Onomagulus Basil Tiberios Onomagoulos 717 -717 / 18 Counter-Emperor in Sicily (by Sergios )
Cosmas unknown 727 Counter-Emperor in Thessaly
Solidus Tiberius Petasius (obverse) .jpg Tiberios Tiberios Petasius 729-730 Counter-Emperor in Italy
Beser Bēseros Tiberios 737 Usurper (?, As "Tiberios") in Asia Minor (through Hisham )
Solidus of Constantine V Copronymus.jpg Constantine V. Konstantinos 741-775 Co-emperor since 720, exile 742–743 in Phrygia (Anatolicon); Caesares: Christophoros and Nikephoros (both 769-776; Usurper 780, 792 , 797?, 799? And 812?)
Solidus Artabasdos (obverse) .jpg Artabasdos Artabasdos ho Eikonophilos 741 / 42-743 against Constantine V, from 742/43 with Nikephoros and Niketas
Constantine Podopaguros Konstantinos ho Podopagouros 766 Usurper (?) In Constantinople, with Strategios
Arichis II tremissis 74000877 (obverse) .jpg Arichis unknown 774-787 Claimed emperor-like position in southern Italy (recognized as regent in 787)
Leo iv constantine vi coin (cropped) .jpg Leo IV Leōn ho Chazaros 775-780 Co-emperor since 751
Solidus Irene ConstantineVI (reverse) .jpg Constantine VI Konstantinos 780-797 Co-emperor since 776 and nominally 790
Elpidios unknown 781-792 Usurper in Sicily, from 782 anti-emperor in the Abbasid caliphate
Alexios Musele Alexios Mousele / Mosēle 792 Usurper (?) In Constantinople
Irene (Pala d'Oro) detail.jpg Irene Eirēnē (Sarantapēchaina) Athēnaia 790
797-802
Regent since 780, with Staurakios (799–800 usurper [?] In Constantinople and Cappadocia)
co-empress since 792, 801/02 with Leon ; Regent: Aetios (from 800)
Dynasty of Nikephorus
Solidus-Nicephorus I.jpg Nikephorus I. Nikēphoros (Gabalas) ho Logothetēs 802- 811 against Irene
Bardanes Bardanēs ho Tourkos 803 Counter-emperor in Phrygia (Anatolicon) and Bithynia
Arsaber Arsabēr (Kamsarakan?) 808 Usurper in Constantinople
Solidus-Stauracius.jpg Staurakios Staurakios 811 Co-emperor since 803
Michael I.jpg Michael I. Michaçl Rhangabe 811- 813 with Theophylactus ; recognized Charlemagne as emperor in the West to
Emperor without a dynasty
Solidus of Leo V the Armenian.jpg Leo V. Leōn ho Armenios 813-820 against Michael I, from 813/14 with Constantine
Cupid dynasty
Solidus of Michael II the Amorian.jpg Michael II Michael ho Psellos 820-829 against Leo V.
Thomas the Slav (cropped) .jpg Thomas Thomas ( Konstantinos ?) 821-823 Counter-emperor (as "Constantine VI"?) In Asia Minor (through al-Ma'mūn ) and Thrace, with Constantius (821) and Anastasios (from 821/22); Successor: Choireas (Lycaonia / Anatolicon), Gazarenos (Galatia / Bukellarion, both up to 824)
Euphemios Euphēmios 826- 827 Usurper in Sicily
Solidus of Theophilus.jpg Theophilus Theophilus 829-842 Co-emperor since 821/22, 830 / 833–835 with Constantine ; Caesar: Alexios Musele (831 / 836–840)
Theophobos Nasar Theophobos ho Perses 838 -839 Counter-Emperor in Paphlagonia (Armeniacon)
Solidus Michael III (reverse) .jpg Michael III Michaēl ho Methystēs 842-867 Co-emperor since 840, 866 with Basiliskianos ; Caesar: Bardas (862 / 864-866, regent since 856); Regent: Theodora II. (Until 856, with Thekla , until 855 with Theoktistos )
Karbeas unknown 844- 863 Usurper (?) In Armenia (Koloneia; by al-Wāthiq and al-Mutawakkil ); Successor: Chrysocheir (until 872 )
Boris ktitor sv.naum ohrid (cropped) .jpg Boris Bogoris Michaçl 865-889 claimed emperor-like position in Bulgaria
Symbatios unknown 866-866 / 67 Usurper (?) In Asia Minor (Thrakesion)

Macedonian dynasty

portrait Surname Full name Reign Remarks
Macedonian dynasty
Solidus Basil I.jpg Basil I. Basil MAKEDON 867-886 Co-emperor since 866 ( Caesar 866?), 868–879 with Constantine ; did not recognize Ludwig II as emperor in the west
Detail of the Imperial Gate mosaic in Hagia Sophia showing Leo VI the Wise (cropped) .jpg Leo VI Leōn Porphyrogennētos ho Sophos 886-912 Co-emperor 870-883; Regent: Stylianos Zautzes (891 / 893-899)
Andronikos Dukas Andronikos Doukas 906-907 Usurper (?) In Lycaonia (Anatolicon)
Alexander of Constantinople (cropped) .jpg Alexander Alexandros Porphyrogennētos 912-913 Co-emperor since 879, with Basilitzes
Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus (cropped) .jpg Constantine VII Kōnstantinos (Makedōn) Porphyrogennētos 913-959 Co-emperor since 908/911 and nominally 921 / 22–944, sole ruler from 945; Regents: Nikolaus (until 914/15, 918 / 19–919), Zoe (914 / 15–918 / 19)
Constantine Dukas Konstantinos Doukas 913 Counter-emperor in Constantinople
Simeon the Great anonymous seal.jpg Simeon Symeōn ho Megas 913-927 claimed imperial titles in Bulgaria (from 917 also in Greece), until 914/15 and from 924 nominally co-emperor Constantine VII and Romanos I.
Blinding of Leo Phokas (cropped) .jpg Leon Phocas Leōn Phōkas 919 Usurper in Bithynia (Optimaton)
Romanus I with Christopher, solidus (reverse) .jpg Romanos I. Rōmanos Lakapēnos 920-944 Co-Emperor Constantine VII ( Caesar 920, regent since 919), with Christophoros (921–931), Stephanos , Konstantin (both 923 / 24–945) and Romanos (923 / 24–927?); Caesar: Michael (from 923/24?); recognized Peter I as Emperor of Bulgaria
Bardas boilas Bardas Boïlas 923/24 Usurper in Pontus (Chaldia)
Basil Chalkocheir Basil ho Chalkocheir 930/932 Usurper (as "Konstantin Dukas") in Bithynia (Opsikion) and Lydia (Thrakesion)
Romanos (cropped) (cropped) .JPG Romanos II Rōmanos Porphyrogennētos 959-963 Co-emperor since 945
Basil Peteinus Basil Peteinus 961 Usurper (?) In Constantinople
Basilios II (cropped enhanced) .jpg Basil II Basil Porphyrogennētos Boulgaroktonos 963-1025 Co-emperor since 960, sole ruler from 976; Regents: Theophanu (963, with Joseph Bringas ), Basileios Lakapenos (976–985); recognized Stefan Držislav as regent in Dalmatia and Croatia
Nikiphoros Phocas (cropped) .jpg Nikephorus II. Nikēphoros Phōkas 963-969 Co-emperor Basil II and regent (through Theophanu, anti-emperor 963); Caesar: Bardas (until 968)
Kalokyres Kalokyrēs / Kalokyros 968- 971 Usurper (?) In Bulgaria (by Svyatoslav I. )
Histamenon nomisma-John I-sb1776 (cropped) .jpg John I. Iōannēs (Kourkouas) Tzimiskēs 969-976 Co-emperor Basil II and regent (through Theophanu); recognized Otto I as co-emperor
Bardas Phocas Bardas Phokas 970-971
987-989
Counter-emperor in Asia Minor (970–971 with Leon ); Successor: Leon (989)
Bardas Skleros.jpg Bardas Scleros Bardas Sklēros 976- 979
987
989
Counter-emperor in Asia Minor (987 nominally co-emperor of Bardas Phokas)
Meles Melēs (1009-) 1011/1019 Usurper (?) In southern Italy; Successor: Argyros (1042)
Tzules Geōrgios Tzoulēs (1015? -) 1016 Usurper (?) In Tauria (Cherson)
Nikephorus Phocas Nikēphoros Phōkas ho Barytrachēlos 1022 Counter-Emperor in Cappadocia (by Nikephoros Xiphias )
Histamenon nomisma-Constantine VIII-sb1776 (reverse) .jpg Constantine VIII Kōnstantinos Porphyrogennētos 1025-1028 Co-emperor since 962, 1028 with Konstantin Dalassenos (usurper 1034?)
Nikephorus Comnenus Nikēphoros Komnēnos 1025/26 Usurper in Armenia (Vaspurakan)
Basil's Sclerus Basil Sklēros 1026/27
1033
Usurper (?) In Asia Minor
Usurper (?) In Constantinople
Miliaresion-Romanus III-sb1822 (cropped) .jpg Romanos III. Rōmanos Argyros 1028-1034 by Zoe
Tonsure of Prousianos (cropped) .jpg Presjan Prousianos 1029 Usurper in Constantinople (by Theodora III), with Constantine Diogenes (usurper 1032)
Michael IV histamenon (reverse) .jpg Michael IV. Michaēl ho Paphlagon 1034-1041 by Zoe; Regent: Johannes Orphanotrophos
Elpidios Brachamios Elpidios Brachamios 1034 Usurper (?) In Syria
Stefan Vojislav Stephanos Boïsthlabos 1034-1035
1040-1043
Usurper in Dioclitia
Peter Deljan.jpg Peter Deljan Petros Deleanos / Dolianos 1040-1041 Counter-emperor in Bulgaria (as Peter II); Counter-emperor: Tihomir (1040, Dyrrhachion), Alusjan (1041, 1040 nominally co-regent)
Gregor Taronites Grēgorios Tarōnitēs 1040 Usurper in Phrygia
Histamenon nomisma-Micael V-sb1776 (cropped) .jpg Michael V. Michaēl ho Kalaphatēs 1041-1042 nominally co-emperor Zoes ( Caesar 1041)
Zoe mosaic Hagia Sophia (cropped1) .jpg Zoe Zōē Porphyrogennēta 1042 with Theodora III, regent since 1041
Theophilos Erotikos Theophilos Erotikos 1042 Usurper in Cyprus
Emperor Constantine IX (cropped enhanced) .jpg Constantine IX Konstantinos Monomachus 1042-1055 by Zoe, 1055 with Nikephoros Proteuon (Bulgaria, against Theodora III); recognized Michael Vojislavljević as regent in Dioclitia
Georgios Maniakes.jpg Georg Maniakes Geōrgios Maniakēs 1042-1043 Counter-emperor in southern Italy and in the Balkans
Leon Lampros Leon Lampros 1043 Usurper (?) In Armeniakon (through Stephanos Pergamenos )
Leo Tornikios 1047 (cropped) .jpg Leon Tornikes Leōn Tornikēs / Tornikios 1047 Counter-emperor in Macedonia and Thrace (1046 usurper in Iberia?)
Romanos boilas Rōmanos Boïlas 1051? Usurper in Constantinople
Tetarteron-Theodora-sb1838 (reverse) .jpg Theodora III. Theodōra Karbōnopsina 1055-1056 1042 Co-Empress Zoe
Emperor without a dynasty
Michael VI tetarteron (reverse) .jpg Michael VI. Michaçl Bringas Stratiotikos 1056-1057
Theodosios Monomachos Theodosios Monomachos 1056 Usurper in Constantinople
Nikephoros Bryennios Nikēphoros Bryennios 1057 Usurper (?) In Cappadocia (1055 in Macedonia against Theodora III.?)

Komnenen, Dukai and Angeloi

portrait Surname Full name Reign Remarks
Komnenen
Histamenon nomisma-Isaac I-sb1776 (reverse) .jpg Isaac I. Isaakios Komnēnos 1057-1059 against Michael VI., by Michael Kerularios (usurper 1040 and 1059)
Dukai
Costantino X - histamenon - Sear 1847v (reverse) .jpg Constantine X. Konstantinos Doukas 1059-1067 after resignation by Johannes Komnenus ; Caesar: Johannes (1059 / 61-1075 and 1081-1087 / 88, regent 1067 and 1071-1072, 1074 counter-emperor in Asia Minor through Roussel de Bailleul )
Nikulitzas Nikoulitzas Delphinas ho Larissaios 1066 Usurper in Thessaly
Michael VII Doukas on the Holy Crown (cropped) .jpg Michael VII Michaēl Doukas ho Parapinakēs 1067-1078 crowned in 1071, co-emperor since 1060, with Konstantios (since 1060, opposing emperor 1078), Andronikos (1068-1077?) and Konstantin (from 1074/75, co-emperor Alexios' I. 1081-1087/88); Regents: Eudokia (1067, 1071), Andronikos (1073), Nikephoritzes (from 1073); Caesar: Giorgi II (from 1074, Georgia)
Romanus IV histamenon with co-rulers (cropped) .jpg Romanos IV. Rōmanos Diogenēs 1068- 1071 Co-emperor Michael VII and regent (through Eudokia, counter-emperor 1067 and 1071-1072), with Leon (from 1069) and Nikephoros (from 1070, usurper 1094)
Konstantin Bodin Konstantinos Bodinos 1072 Counter-Emperor in Bulgaria (as Peter III., Through Michael Vojislavljević and Georg Vojtech )
Philaretus Brachamios Philaretus Brachamios 1072-1078 Usurper in Northern Syria and Mesopotamia
Nestor unknown 1072/1074 Usurper in Danube Bulgaria (Paristrion)
Leon Diabatenus Leōn Diabatēnos 1077-1078 Usurper in Edessa
Nikephoros Bryennios Nikēphoros Bryennios 1077-1078 Counter-emperor in Macedonia and Thrace, with John ; Successor: Nikephoros Basilakes (1078-1079, Macedonia)
Emperor without a dynasty
Master of the collection of sermons of St. John Chrysostom 001 (cropped enhanced) .jpg Nikephorus III. Nikēphoros Botaneiatēs 1078-1081 against Michael VII., from 1080 with Nikephoros Synadenos
Ruben Rhoupenios 1080-1095 Usurper in Cilicia; Successor: Konstantin (until 1099/1103, regent since 1090), Thoros (1099 / 1103–1129 / 30), Konstantin (1129/30), Leon (1129 / 30–1137)
Komnenen
Alexios I Komnenos (cropped) .jpg Alexios I. Alexios Komnēnos 1081-1118 against Nikephorus III .; Sebastokrators : Isaak (until 1102/04, co-regent), Andronikos (1108 / 1116–1131?), Isaak ( 1108 / 1122–1130, 1136 / 1138–1140 and 1143 ?, Caesar 1108 ?, usurper 1129/30, 1143 and 1145-1146); Caesares: Nikephoros Melissenos (until 1104, 1081 opposing emperor in Asia Minor), Nikephoros Bryennios ( 1097 / 1111–1136 / 37); Regent: Anna Dalassene (1081, 1094-1095)
Raiktor Michael Doukas 1081 Counter-Emperor (as "Michael VII.") In Dyrrhachion and Macedonia (through Robert Guiskard )
John Iōannēs Komnēnos 1091 Usurper (?) In Dyrrhachion
Theodoros Gabras Theodōros Gabras 1091-1092 Usurper (?) In Pontus (Chaldia); Successor: Gregor Taronites (1103–1105)
Çaka Bey Tzachas 1091-1092 / 93 claimed imperial titles in Asia Minor
Karykes (Nikētas?) Karykēs 1092-1092 / 93 Usurper on Crete, with rapeseed tomatoes (Cyprus)
Constantine Diogenes Kōnstantinos / "Leōn" Diogenēs 1094-1095 Counter-Emperor in Thrace
Michael Anemas Michaēl Anemas 1103 Usurper in Constantinople, with Leon
Leon Diogenes Leōn Diogenēs 1116 Counter-emperor in Danube Bulgaria (Paristrion, through Vladimir Monomakh ; 1107 in Dyrrhachion through Bohemond ?)
John II Komnenos (cropped) .jpg John II Iōannēs Kalos Komnēnos Doukas 1118-1143 Co-emperor since 1092, 1119 / 1122–1142 with Alexios (II.) ; Sebastocrators: Andronikos (1122–1142), Isaak (from 1122, usurper 1143); Caesar: Johannes Roger Dalassenos ( 1136 / 1138–1152, usurper 1143)
Constantine Gabras Konstantinos Gabras 1126 / 1139-1140 Usurper in Pontos (Chaldia), until 1130 next to Kassianos (Paphlagonia?)
Roger II. Sicilsky (cropped enhanced) .jpg Roger Rogerios 1130-1154 claimed emperor-like position in southern Italy
Manuelcomnenus (cropped) .jpg Manuel I. Manouēl Komnēnos 1143-1180 Sebastokrator since 1122/1129; Despots : Alexios (from 1163, Caesar 1169–1172, usurper 1180–1185), Theodoros Batatzes (before 1166); Sebastokrator: John (1170- 1176 ); Regent: Johannes Axuch (until 1145/46); recognized Wilhelm II and Mleh as regents in southern Italy and Cilicia
Thoros unknown 1145-1169 Usurper in Cilicia; Successor: Ruben (until 1170; regent: Thomas )
Alexios Axuch Alexios Axouchos 1167 Usurper (?) In Constantinople
Alexios II - komnenos.jpg Alexios II Alexios Komnēnos Porphyrogennētos 1180-1183 crowned in 1182, co-emperor since 1171/72; Caesar: John (usurper 1181); Regent: Maria Xene (with Alexios , all until 1182)
Johannes Batatzes Iōannēs Komnēnos Batatzēs 1182 Usurper (?) In Lydia (Thrakesion)
ByzantineBillonTrachy (cropped enhanced) AndronikosI.jpg Andronikos I. Andronikos Komnēnos 1183-1185 Co-emperor 1183 (regent since 1182; usurper 1154/55), from 1184 with Johannes ; Sebastocrators: Manuel (since 1182, usurper 1185), Alexios ( Caesar 1185–1186 / 1192, usurper 1184 and 1186/1192 with Andronikos Komnenos )
Andronikos Account Stephanos Andronikos Kontostephanos Komnēnos 1183 Usurper (?) In Constantinople, with Andronikos Angelos
Andronikos Lampardas Andronikos La (m) pardas 1183/84 Usurper (?) In Mysia (Thrakesion)
Alexios Alexios Komnēnos 1185 Counter-emperor (as "Alexios II"?) In Thessaloniki (by Wilhelm II.)
Angeloi
Hyperpyron IsaacII (cropped) .jpg Isaac II Isaacios Angelos 1185-1195
1203 -1204
against Andronikos I and Alexios III. (1184 usurper in Bithynia with Theodoros Kantakuzenos ); Sebastokrators: Johannes (1186–1200, usurper 1199), Konstantin , Johannes Petraliphas (?, Until 1195), Stefan Nemanjić (1191–1196); Caesares: Johannes Kantakuzenos (until 1186, 1204 / 05–1209 usurper in Messenia?), Johannes , Bonifatius and Konrad von Montferrat (both from 1186/1187 ); recognized Peter IV and Stefan Nemanja as regents in Bulgaria and Serbia, respectively
Isaac cyprus tetarteron (cropped) .jpg Isaac Comnenus Isaakios (Doukas?) Komnēnos 1185-1191
1195
Counter-emperor ("Caesar") in Cyprus (nominally despot since 1184), deposed by Richard I.
Counter-emperor in Asia Minor (Sultanate of Iconium)
Alexios Branas Alexios Branas Komnēnos 1185/86
1187
Usurper in Constantinople
Counter-Emperor in Thrace
Mangaphas Aspron Trachy (cropped) .jpg Theodoros Mankaphas Theodōros Doukas Mankaphas 1188-1189 / 1195
1204-1205
Counter-emperor in Lydia and Phrygia
Alexios Alexios Komnēnos 1189/1191 Usurper (as "Alexios II") in Phrygia (by Kılıç Arslan II ); Successor: Alexios (1191/92, Paphlagonia)
Basil Chotzas Basil Chotzas 1191 / 92–1204 / 05 Usurper in Bithynia
Isaac Comnenus Isaakios Komnēnos 1191/1193 Usurper in Constantinople; Successor: Rakendytes , Konstantin Tatikios (both 1191/1193)
Constantine Aspietes Kōnstantinos Komnēnos Aspietēs 1191/1193 Usurper (?) In Macedonia
Constantine Konstantinos Angelos Doukas 1193 Usurper in Philippople
Alexius III EL aspron trachy 592316 (cropped) .jpg Alexios III Alexios Komnēnos Angelos 1195- 1203/1204 . against Isaac II, Sebastokrator since 1190, exiled from 1203 Thrace and Thessaly, 1210 1211 Gegenkaiser in Asia Minor (by Kai Chosrau I. ); Regent: Euphrosyne (until 1196); Despot: Alexios Palaiologos (1199–1203, Sebastokrator since 1195); Sebastocrators: Isaak Komnenos (until 1196), Nikephoros Petraliphas (1200?); Caesares: Theodoros Branas (1205–1206 usurper in Adrianople), Manuel Maurozomes (1200 ?, 1204–1205 / 06 usurper in Phrygia by Kai Chosrau I); recognized Kaloyan as emperor of Bulgaria and Leon II as king in Cilicia
Alexios Account Stephanos Alexios Account Stephanos 1195
1200
Usurper in Constantinople
Alexios Alexios Komnēnos 1195-1196 / 97 Usurper (as "Alexios II") in Cilicia and Bithynia (through Muhyi ad-Din Mas'ud Shah )
Dobromir Dobromēros Chrysos 1196 / 97-1199
1201-1202
Usurper in Macedonia and Thessaly
Ivanko Iōannēs Alexios 1198 / 99-1200 Usurper in Thrace (by Kaloyan; Emperor of Bulgaria 1196); Successor: Johannes Spyridonakes (1201, Smolena)
Michael Kantakuzenos Michaēl Kantakouzēnos 1199 Usurper in Constantinople
Manuel Kamytzes Manouēl Kamytzēs Komnēnos Doukas Angelos 1199
1201-1202
Usurper in Constantinople
Usurper in Macedonia and Thessaly (with Dobromir)
Michael Michaēl Angelos Komnēnos Doukas 1200-1203?
1204 / 05-1215
Usurper in Caria (Mylasa, by Suleiman II. )
Usurper / Regent in Epirus (Nicopolis)
Johannes Komnenos Iōannēs Axouchos Komnēnos ho Pachys 1200/01 Counter-emperor in Constantinople
Leon Chamaretos Leōn Chamaretos 1201-1205/1209 Usurper in Morea (Laconia); Successor: Johannes Chamaretos (until 1222, from 1209 nominally despot by Theodor I or Alexios III)
Leon Sguros Leōn Sgouros 1201-1208 Usurper in Hellas, nominally despot from 1204 (through Alexios III)
Alexius4 (cropped) .jpg Alexios IV Alexios Angelos 1203 -1,204 Co-emperor Isaac II and regent (1203 counter-emperor in Dyrrhachion by Boniface of Montferrat and Enrico Dandolo ), despot since 1192/93
Nicholas Kanabos Nikolaos Kanabos 1204 against Isaac II and Alexios IV (after renunciation by Radenus )
Alexius V (cropped) .JPG Alexios V. Alexios Doukas ho Mourtzouphlos 1204 against Isaac II, Alexios IV and Nikolaus Kanabos

Laskarids and palaeologists

portrait Surname Full name Reign Remarks
Laskarids
Constantine (XI.) Kōnstantinos Komnēnos Laskaris 1204 against Baldwin I ( Latin Empire ) and Kalojan (Bulgaria), nominally despot until 1205
Alexios Komnenos Alexios Megas Komnēnos 1204-1222 Counter-emperor in Trebizond (Chaldia; Caesar 1183/85), until 1212/1214 with David ( Caesar 1184/85, 1204 / 05–1207 in Paphlagonia); Successors: Andronikos Gidos (until 1235), Johannes (1235–1238, with Johannikios ), Manuel (1238–1263), Andronikos (1263–1266, despot since 1240?), Georg (1266–1280)
Theodoros Gabras Theodōros Gabras 1204–1208? Usurper (?) In Pontos (Chaldia)
Manuel Angelos Manouēl Angelos 1204-1205 Counter-emperor in Thrace, Macedonia and Thessaly (by Boniface of Montferrat)
Alexios Aspietes Alexios Aspietēs 1205 Counter-emperor in Philippopel (against Kaloyan)
Theodore I Laskaris miniature (cropped) .jpg Theodor I. Theodōros Komnēnos Laskaris 1205-1221 / 22 against Heinrich (Latin Empire) , crowned in 1207/08 (despot since 1199/1203, regent since 1204), 1207 / 08–1211 / 12 with Nikolaus ; Despot: Andronikos Palaiologos (1212/1216); Sebastokrators: Georg , Alexios , Isaak (both usurpers in Mysia 1224 ), Nikephoros Kontostephanos , Sabbas Asidenos (both 1205 / 06–1216 ?, usurpers in Phrygia since 1203/04 and Caria since 1204); Regent: Maria (1221/22)
John III Doukas Vatatzes (cropped) .jpg John III Iōannēs Doukas Batatzēs 1221 / 22-1254 against Robert (Latin Empire) ; Despot: John (1242-1244, Gegenkaiser since 1237 /1241), Demetrius (1242-1246, both of Thessaloniki), Michael ( ? 1237 / 1247-1266 / 68, usurper since 1230, 1251-1253 and 1256- 1259 /1264) and Nikephoros Angelo ( 1249 /1266 / 68-1297, both Epirus); Sebastocrators: Isaak (before 1253–1261), Johannes (until 1240?); Caesares: Romanos (? - after 1227), Leon Gabalas (1225 / 26–1240, usurper on Rhodes since 1203/04 and 1234; successor: John , until 1249/50)
Theodor I. Despot of Epirus (cropped2) .jpg Theodoros Angelos Theodōros Komnēnos Doukas Angelos 1224 / 25- 1230 Counter-emperor in Macedonia (Thessaloniki) and Thessaly (crowned in 1227, ruler in Epirus since 1215); Despots: Constantine (1227–1242 / 1246, Akarnania, counter-emperor in Constantinople 1204?), Constantine Maliasenos (?); Sebastokrator: Georg (?); Successor: Manuel (until 1237, by Iwan Assen II ; despot since 1227, anti-emperor from 1234/35, 1239–1241 in Thessaly)
Andronikos Nestongos Andronikos Doukas Nestongos 1224/25 Usurper in Bithynia, with Isaac
Theodore II Laskaris (cropped) .jpg Theodore II Theodōros Doukas Laskaris Porphyrogennētos 1254-1258 against Baldwin II (Latin Empire) , crowned in 1255, co-emperor since 1234/1241
John IV Laskaris miniature (cropped) .jpg John IV Iōannēs Doukas Laskaris 1258-1261 Regent: Georg Muzalon (1258)
Paleologists
Michael VIII Palaiologos (head) (cropped) .jpg Michael VIII Michaēl Doukas Komnēnos Palaiologos 1261 -1,282 Co-emperor since 1259 (despot and regent since 1258); Despots: Johannes (1260 / 1263–1273 / 1275, Sebastokrator since 1259 ), Konstantin (until 1306, usurper 1292), Jakob Swetoslaw (1261, Bulgaria), Demetrios Michael (1278–1304), Iwan Assen (1277 / 78–1302 / 03, Emperor of Bulgaria 1279–1280), Georg Terter (1279, Emperor of Bulgaria from 1280), Johannes Komnenos (1282, counter-emperor in Trebizond since 1280); Sebastokrators: Konstantin (1259 / 60-1275) and Johannes Tornikes (from 1260/61?, Both Thessaloniki), Konstantin (1260-1271, Caesar since 1259), Johannes Dukas ( 1268 / 1272-1289, usurper 1280, Thessaly); Caesar Alexios Strategopulos ( 1259 -1271 / 1275)
John Iōannēs Laskaris 1262 Usurper (as "John IV.") In Bithynia (1273 in southern Italy by Charles of Anjou ?)
Serres IM Prodromou Andronicos (cropped) .jpg Andronikos II. Andronikos Doukas Angelos Komnēnos ho Gerōn Palaiologos 1282-1328 Co-emperor since 1261 /1272, 1281 /1294 / 95-1320 with Michael IX. ; Despots: Constantine (1292–1329), Johannes (1294–1307, both Thessaloniki), Theodor (before 1306), Demetrios (1306–1343, 1327–1328 in Thessaloniki), Thomas Angelos ( 1290 / 1297–1318, Epirus), Manuel (after 1298-1320), Nikolaus Orsini (1318-1323, Epirus); Sebastokratoren: Constantine ( 1289 / 1295-1303), Theodore ( 1289 / 1295-1299) and John Ducas ( 1303 ? / 1309 / 1315-1318, Despot from 1309/1315), Stefan Gabrielopulos ( 1318 / 1325-1332 / 33, all Thessaly), Radoslaw (1299/1300, Bulgaria), Andrea Muzaka (before 1319, Albania); Caesares: Roger de Flor (1305), Johannes (1326, counter-emperor in Thessaloniki 1325/26)
John Tarchaneiotes Iōannēs Tarchaneiotēs 1289 Usurper (?) In Constantinople
Alexios Philanthropenos Alexios Philanthrōpēnos Tarchaneiotēs 1295/96 Counter-emperor ("Caesar") in Asia Minor
Johannes Drimys Iōannēs ( Glykys ?) Drimys 1305-1306 Usurper (as "John IV.") In Constantinople
Karel Valois (cropped) .jpg Charles of Valois Karolos tou Baloua 1307 claimed imperial titles in Constantinople
Андроник III Палеолог (cropped) .jpg Andronikos III. Andronikos Doukas Angelos Komnēnos ho Neos Palaiologos 1328-1341 Co-emperor since 1316 /1325 (Gegenkaiser in Thrace 1320 / 21-1325 and 1328 ); Despot: John Orsini (until 1335, Thessaly), Andrea Muzaka ( 1335 /1372 Albania), Michael ( 1337 / 1341-1352)
Syrgiannes Syrgiannēs Palaiologos Philanthrōpēnos 1333-1334 Usurper (?) In Thessaloniki and Macedonia (by Stefan Dušan)
John V Palaiologos, Fossati drawing of mosaic in Hagia Sophia (cropped) .jpg John V. Iōannēs (Komnēnos) Palaiologos 1341 -1 391 Exile 1352 -1353 in Tenedos, from 1354/1357 autocrat, 1376-1379 deposed and 1390; Regent: Anna (until 1347, 1351–1359 in Thessaloniki); Despots: Momchil (1344, Sebastokrator 1344, usurper in Thrace until 1345 ), Michael (after 1351/1354 –1376/77, 1373 usurper in Trebizond), Johannes Asanes (1355-1358, Sebastokrator since 1347), Johannes Kantakuzenos (from 1357 ), Theodor (before 1376-1407, from 1383 to Morea ), Pietro Giustiniani (from 1363, Chios) , Theodor Muzaka (1372- 1389 , Albania), Thomas Preljubović (1382-1384, usurper since 1366), Esau Buondelmonti (1386 -1411, both Epirus); Sebastokrators: Demetrios Kantakuzenos (from 1357, despot in Morea 1383), Gjin Muzaka (1372? –1389/90), Gjin Zenevisi (1380–1418, both Albania / Epirus), Leon Melissenos (?) ; Caesar: Alexios Philanthropenos (1381 / 82-1389, Thessaly); recognized Murad I as Suzerän and Stefan Dušan as Emperor of Serbia
Michael Gabrielopulos Michaēl Gabriēlopoulos 1342 Usurper in Thessaly
Car Dušan, Manastir Lesnovo, XIV vek (cropped) .jpg Stefan Dušan Stephanos Ouresēs Dousan 1345-1355 claimed imperial titles in Serbia and Greece, crowned in 1346; Despots: Jovan Oliver ([1334?] 1347–1356, Sebastokrator since 1346), Jovan Asen (1346 / 1350–1363, Albania), Ivaniš (1348), Dejan Dragaš (1355 – after 1362, Sebastokrator since 1346/47); Sebastokrator: Branko Mladenović (1346-1365); Caesares: Gregor Golubić (1346/47 – after 1362), Vojihna (1346/47 – after 1357), Gregor Preljub (1348–1355 / 56, Thessaly); Successors: Stefan Uroš (until 1371 , co-regent since 1346, from 1365 with Vukašin Mrnjavčević [despot since 1364]; despots: Jovan Uglješa [from 1365], Jovan Dragaš ; sebastokrator: Vlatko Paskačić ; Caesares: Novak , Uglješa Vlatković )
John VI Kantakouzenos (cropped2) .jpg John VI Iōannēs Palaiologos Angelos Komnēnos Kantakouzēnos 1347- 1354 Co-emperor John V and regent (ruler 1341, opposing emperor in Thrace from 1341/1346 ); Despots Nikiforos Orsini (1347- 1359 , from 1,356 in Thessaly; 1339-1340 usurper in Epirus by Catherine of Valois ), Manuel (1347-1380, from 1349 in Morea, in 1354 against Michael and Andreas Asanes ), Manuel Asanes (1351 / 1354-1355, Sebastokrator since 1347); Sebastokratoren: Isaac Doukas (1342 / 43-1345, Albania / Serbia), John Angelo (1347- 1348 , Thessaly) Nikephoros (1351-1355); Caesar: Hrelja (1341/42)
Matthew Matthaios Asanēs Kantakouzēnos 1353-1354 Co-emperor John VI., Crowned 1354 (co-regent since 1347), counter-emperor in Thrace until 1357 , despot in Morea 1361 / 1380–1383; Sebastokrator: Andronikos Asanes (1354-1356)
John Limpidarios Iōannēs Limpidarios 1356 Usurper in Thrace
Decani Simeon Sinisa detalj (cropped1 enhanced) (cropped) .jpg Simeon Uroš Symeōn Ouresēs Palaiologos 1356-1370 / 71 Counter-emperor in Thessaly (1359–1366 also in Epirus), despot since 1346; Despots: Peter Losha , Gjin Bua Shpata (both from 1359/60 , Aetolia / Epirus); Sebastokrator: Blaž Matarango (1358-1367, Albania); Successor: Jovan Uroš (until 1373, co-emperor since 1359/60 ?, 1384–1385 co-regent of Maria in Epirus)
Andronikos IV Palaiologos (cropped) .jpg Andronikos IV. Andronikos (Komnēnos) Palaiologos 1376-1379 against John V, co-emperor 1352-1373 (regent 1366-1367) and 1381-1385 (Thrace), usurper 1373 and 1385
John VII Palaiologos.gif John VII Iōannēs Palaiologos 1390
1399- 1402 /03
against John V (through Bayezid I ), co-emperor 1377-1379 and since 1381/1385 (Thrace)
co-emperor Manuel II and regent, until 1408 in Thessaloniki (1403 / 04-1407? with Andronikos V )
Manuel II Paleologus (cropped) .jpg Manuel II Manouēl Palaiologos 1391-1425 crowned in 1392, co-emperor John V since 1373 (despot in Thessaloniki since 1369); Regent: Helena Kantakuzene (until 1392); Despots: Konstantin Dragaš (1392–1395, Macedonia), Stefan Lazarević (from 1402 , Serbia), Theodor (from 1404 ?, 1407–1443 in Morea, to 1448 in Thrace), Andronikos (1408–1423, Thessaloniki, 1419 with Johannes ), Karl Tocco ( 1411 / 1415-1429, Epirus); Caesar: Manuel Philanthropenos (1392 / 93-1394, Thessaly)
Theodosios Kyprios Theodosios ho Kyprios 1414? Usurper (?) In Constantinople
Palaio (cropped) .jpg John VIII Iōannēs Palaiologos 1425-1448 Co-emperor since 1407 (despot since 1403, regent 1414–1416 and from 1422 ); Despots: Demetrios (1428–1460 in Morea, usurper 1442 and 1448, 1453–1454 against Manuel Kantakuzenos , up to 1466 in Thasos) and Thomas ( 1428 / 1430–1460 in Morea, exile until 1465 in Italy; successor: Andreas , “Titularkaiser "to 1502), Đurađ (from 1427 /1429) and Lazar Branković (ab 1446, both Serbia)
ConstantinoXI (cropped) .jpg Constantine XI. Kōnstantinos Dragasēs Palaiologos 1448- 1453 crowned in 1449 (despot since 1423, in Morea from 1428, regent 1437–1440); Regent: Helena Dragaš (until 1449); Ottoman successor ("Caesar") : Sultan Mehmed II.
portrait Surname Full name Reign Remarks

See also

literature

This version was added to the selection of informative lists and portals on October 6, 2006 .