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Franz I Stephan, husband and co-regent Maria Theresa, Roman emperor.

A co-regent of a ruler is an heir to the throne or a nobleman who is raised by the ruler - usually for the purpose of regulating the succession - to his deputy and is often involved in power. In some cases, the co-regent is given decision-making authority in specific areas. Occasionally in history a high official was appointed co-regent.

The historically significant co-regents include:

  • Seti I , Egyptian pharaoh 1290–1279 BC BC, co-regent of his father Ramses I and father of Ramses II , whom he made co-regent himself at the age of 15
  • Menua , King of Urartu (Asia Minor) approx. 810–785 BC BC, including 10 years as co-regent of his father Išpuini
  • Joram , 849-842 BC Next to his father Joschafat
  • Xerxes I under the Achaemenid Darius I from approx. 490 BC BC (king until † 465)
  • Antiochus I Soter (324–261 BC), appointed lord of the lands beyond the Euphrates by his father Seleukos I in 294, from 281 himself king of the Seleucid Empire
  • Ptolemy X of the Ptolemy dynasty, co-regent of his brother Ptolemy IX. from -110 and Pharaoh 107 to 88 BC Chr.
  • Under Cleopatra VII. Her younger brother Ptolemy XIV. (47-44 BC) and after his death her son Ptolemy XV. (until 30 BC)
  • Tiberius , Roman emperor 14–37 AD, co-regent since 13
  • Drusus the Younger (Roman general and consul) 21–23 AD as heir to the throne of Emperor Tiberius
  • Titus , Roman emperor 79–81, co-regent since 71
  • Mark Aurel , Roman emperor 161–180, co-regent since 147 (!)
  • Tiberios I (II.), Roman emperor 578-582, co-regent since 574
  • Romanos I. Lekapenos , farmer's son, Byzantine admiral and father-in-law of the young Constantine VII (905–959), co-regent from 920
  • Lothar II. (928–950), since 931 co-regent of his father Hugo I , whom he succeeded in 946 on the throne.
  • Adelheid of Burgundy (931–999), with the coronation of her husband Otto I as emperor , a tradition for all future coronations of the Middle Ages was established. Adelheid was also anointed and crowned and thus received the same rank. This was a novelty: not a single wife of a Carolingian had ever been crowned empress.
  • Otto II (955–983) was raised to the rank of co-king in 961 and co-emperor in 967 by his father Otto I in order to secure his successor. As the only ruler in the post-Carolingian era, Otto II was made emperor during his father's lifetime. When his father died after 37 years of rule, Otto, who was only 18 years old, assumed sole rule.
  • Theophanu (955–991) became Emperor Otto II's wife. Co-Empress of the Roman-German Empire for eleven years (972–983) and Empress for seven years (984–991). She was one of the most influential rulers of the Middle Ages and is one of the rulers of the empire between Otto II and Otto III.
  • Otto III. (980–1002) was co-king of his father in 983: Pentecost was elected, Christmas anointed and crowned; shortly after the coronation celebrations in Aachen, news of Otto II's death arrived three weeks earlier, on December 7, 983.
  • Robert II of France (972–1031) from the Capetian dynasty , co-regent 987–996, then sole ruler as King of France .
  • Waldemar III. of Denmark (1209–1231), co-king of his father Waldemar II. from 1215 (coronation in Schleswig Cathedral in 1218) until his untimely death in 1231
  • Rudolf II of Austria (1271–1290), co-regent in the duchies of Austria and Styria
  • Waldemar the Great (1280–1319), co-regent 1302–1309, then Margrave of Brandenburg
  • Otto V , from 1351 co-regent in Brandenburg and from 1365 elector
  • Under Maria Theresa her husband and her eldest son:


  1. Since Adelheid's first husband, Lothar, was made co-king by his father at the same age in 931, this decision may also be due to its influence.
  2. Probably the Ottoman's Empire crown specifically designed for the Mitkrönung Otto II after a painting program. Bruns Cologne emerged: "The highlight of Solomon (left of the faceplate the current political situation descriptive, while the right of the faceplate the sublime sacred image of Christ in Majesty appears ) points to the time after 961, when Otto II was made king. Otto II, the noster Salomon in the vicinity of the court, did not yet take part in the father's procession to Rome for the imperial coronation in 962. His coronation in Rome as co-emperor was not until Christmas Day 967 by Pope John XIII. carried out in St. Peter's Church after Otto the Great had finally overcome Roman resistance and the new Pope almost had to assume the rank of a compliant court bishop. It is therefore to be asked whether the emergence of the crown cannot be included in the preparations for this event, which is primarily the son of Otto II. ”(Reinhart Staats, Theologie der Reichskrone. Ottonian“ Renovatio Imperii ”in the mirror of an insignia, Anton Hiersemann, Stuttgart 1976 , P. 43; excerpts from it online at ; PDF; 378 kB).
  3. Among the Capetians in the period that followed, the elevation to co-king occurred particularly frequently; see the corresponding list .