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Aramaic is the philology that investigates Aramaic . Sometimes it is also referred to as Syrology , since the Aramaic Syriac language produced a particularly rich literature, is still spoken today and is therefore usually the focus of research.

As a rule, Aramaic Studies is not a separate subject in Germany; Only a few universities worldwide have special chairs in Aramaic Studies. Aramaic studies are therefore often combined with Semitic studies , Hebrew studies or Jewish studies , and more rarely with Arabic studies .

Aramaic or Aramaic also plays an essential role in ancient studies and religious studies , as Aramaic is related on the one hand to the extinct Semitic languages ​​of the Akkadians, Assyrians, Babylonians, Canaanites and Amurites , and on the other hand Galilean Western Aramaic is the mother tongue of Jesus and his disciples. Some sections of the Tanach / Old Testament and large parts of the rabbinical literature are also written in Aramaic, and the Syrian language was the most important literary language in the Roman Empire after Greek and Latin in late antiquity .

When studying forms (dialects) and phases of development of the Aramaic language, a distinction is often made between Aramaic and New Aramaic .