Dance of death

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Excerpt from the dance of death representations in the cemetery chapel of Wondreb (Upper Palatinate)

The dance of death or Makabertanz ( French danse macabre ) is arisen in the 14th century showing the influence and the power of death on or about the lives of the people. This often takes place in allegorical groups in which the pictorial representation of dance and death can usually be found simultaneously.

14th and 15th centuries

Between 1410 and 1425 a mural was created in the Abbey of La Chaise-Dieu with originally 30 and today 24 dance couples. The dance of death on the wall of a Parisian cemetery, the Cimetière des Innocents , was completed as early as 1424 , which was created after the illustrated arc of death by Johan Le Fèvre, who suffered from the Black Death in 1374 , and which today is primarily based on the Parisian woodcut series Printer's Guyot Marchant from 1485 is known. In Basel in 1439/40 the Basler Totentanz , also called Predigertotentanz, was created on the cemetery wall of the Dominican monastery there and in 1460 the Kleinbasler Totentanz in Basel-Klingental ( Museum Kleines Klingental ). It followed u. a. around 1460 the Lübeck dance of death in the Marienkirche in Lübeck and 1489 Des Dodes Dantz in Lübeck.

This mural in the so-called Totentanzkapelle , partly attributed to Bernt Notke , was destroyed in the Second World War; two windows in the chapel designed by Alfred Mahlau in 1955/56 are reminiscent of this lost work of art. Fragments of Notke's further dance of death for Reval (Tallinn) are still in the Nikolaikirche there .

Notke's Dance of Death fragment in Tallinn (Nikolaikirche)

Originally the dance of death formed the material for dramatic poetry and scenic performance and was processed in short, mostly four-line exchanges between death and initially 24 people in descending order. Probably the seven Maccabean brothers with their mother and Eleazar ( 2. Macc. 6, 7) were assigned a prominent role, and the performance took place at their commemorative festival in Paris in the "Convent of the Innocent Children" ( aux Innocents ); hence the Latin name Chorea Machabaeorum (French danse macabre ), which has been common in France from ancient times . Other theories suggest that the word 'macabre' comes from the Hebrew 'm (e) qabber' ('buried'), from the Arabic 'maqâbir', which means 'graves', or simply from an artist named Macabré.

In Paris as early as 1424 the whole series of those dramatic situations and the associated verses were painted on the churchyard wall of the abbey mentioned, and this was soon followed by other paintings, carpets and stone images in the churches of Amiens , Angers , Dijon , Rouen etc. and since 1485 also woodcut and printed works , which reproduced the pictures and inscriptions.

Dance of the skeleton , woodcut by Michael Wolgemut in Hartmann Schedel's Weltchronik from 1493

The dance of death in the abbey church of La Chaise-Dieu in Auvergne , which has no text, but which illustrates the poetry, is still preserved. According to recent iconographic research, especially on clothing, it was not created until the second half of the 15th century.

Rhymes and images of the dance of death were creatively copied by the English monk John Lydgate and thus made their way from France to England. A special preoccupation with the topic took place in Germany, where the dance of death with changing pictures and verses passed into wall and book painting . A representation in a chapel of the Marienkirche in Lübeck by Bernt Notke , whose Low German rhymes have been partially preserved, showed the dance of death in its simplest form: 24 people, clergy and laypeople in descending order of rank, from Pope , Emperor , Empress , Cardinal and King down to Klausner , farmer , youth , virgin , child , and between two people a dancing death figure as a shriveled corpse with a covering shroud ; the dancers hold each other's hands and form a kind of dance ; a single death figure jumps forward whistling (cf. “Detailed description and illustration of the dance of death in the Marienkirche in Lübeck”, Lüb. 1831).

Description by Hans Christian Andersen

Life is like the lamp that already starts to burn out when it is lit! As old as each of you is, I've danced with you for so many years. Everyone has their own tours, and one can take the dance longer than the other. But the lights go out at the morning hour, and then you all sink tiredly into my arms - it's called dying.

The early travel pictures, Hans Christian Andersen, Kiepenheuer Verlag, 1984, p. 146.

The oldest evidence of a dance of death in Germany is the manuscript Cpg 314 in the Heidelberg University Library . Here, German translations have been added to the Latin verses, which are probably from the 14th century. In their monumental form, the dances of death painted on monastery walls by Wengenklosters in Ulm (around 1440) and in the two Dominican convents in Basel were the pioneers. One of the largest known death dances was created at the time of the Berlin plague epidemic of 1484 in the Marienkirche (Berlin-Mitte) . It is also the oldest surviving literary work from Berlin.

The Dance of Death in the Trinity Church of
Hrastovlje / Slovenia (around 1490)

Further wall paintings with dance of death motifs from this period are in Metnitz (Austria), Hrastovlje (Slovenia) with dance of death frescoes painted by Johannes de Castua, which were discovered by Marijan Zadnikar . over six meters long, and Beram (Croatia). A number of dances of death have also been preserved in Lombardy . B. in Clusone and Bienno . However, the typical image structure differs somewhat from the images common in Germany and France: large fresco divided into two parts : the upper part depicts the triumph of death, and the lower part a dance scene similar to La Chaise-Dieu .

16th Century

Since the middle of the sixteenth century, the images of the dance of death have been reproduced more and more, while the verses changed or were left out completely, and finally both images and verses were completely redesigned. Initially, the dance of death from Grossbasel was also imitated in Kleinbasel (not transmitted before the middle of the 15th century), whereby the number and arrangement of the dancing couples remained the same.

At the beginning a pastor and an ossuary were added and at the end the Fall of Man was added, while the painter who decided the whole thing perhaps first added Hans Hug Kluber , who restored the picture in 1568. He took this motif from Niklaus Manuels Berner Totentanz , which was created between 1516 and 1520. When the church courtyard wall was demolished in 1805, the original perished except for small fragments; however, replicas and rhymes have survived, especially in the hand drawings of Emanuel Büchel (with Hans Ferdinand Maßmann : Literatur der Todtentänze. Leipzig 1841 (reprint: Olms, Hildesheim 1963)). The popular saying “ Death of Basel ” gave new impetus to similar representations, although poetry dropped the subject entirely. So let Duke George of Saxony nor in 1534 along the wall of the third floor of the eponymous George gate a stone relief run of 24 life-size human and three death figures without dance or dancing couples and opinion as quite new and strange on the arrangement. This image was badly damaged in the great castle fire of 1701, but it was restored and transferred to the cemetery in Dresden-Neustadt. It is now in the Dreikönigskirche in Dresden (pictured by Nanmann (correct: Naumann): "Death in all its relationships", Dresden 1844).

Detail from the wood engraving “Dance of Death”; King ( Hans Holbein the Younger 1538). Holbein made it clear that the plague knew neither class nor class.

The 15th century painting with the dance of death in the Predigerkirche in Strasbourg , which shows various groups from each of which death takes its victims to dance, depends on the Basel depiction ; pictured by Edel: "The New Church in Strasbourg", Strasbourg 1825. The dance of death in the tower hall of the Marienkirche in Berlin dates from 1470 to 1490 (published by W. Lübke, Berlin 1861, and by Th. Prüfer, there 1876) . Niklaus Manuel painted a real dance of death from 1514 to 1522 on the churchyard wall of the preacher monastery in Bern , whose 46 pictures, which are now only available in replicas, are reminiscent of the Basel dance of death as well as the aforementioned "doten dantz with figures" .

The dance of death was given a new and artistic form by Hans Holbein the Younger . By this not only wanted to illustrate how death no age and no state spared, but rather how he middle in come into the profession and the pleasure of life on earth, he had of dance and dancing couples refrain and for the self-contained images provide the necessary accessories, true "imagines mortis" ( pictures of death ), as his drawings intended for the woodcut (by the form cutter Hans Lützelburger ) were called. These have been published in large quantities since 1530 and as a book since 1538 and under various titles and copies, edited by Wenzel Hollar (short version with 30 copper engravings) to (new edition by F. Lippmann, Berlin 1879). Holbein's "initial letters with the dance of death" and a "dance of death alphabet" from 1525 were re-edited by Lödel by Adolf Ellissen (1849). From the fact that Hulderich Frölich in his 1588 book “Two Todtentäntz, one of them in Bern, the other in Basel, etc.” mostly put pictures from Holbein's woodcuts on the dance of death at the Predigerkirchhof and Christian von Mechel put them as the first volume of his 1780 reproductions of the Holbein's works as "Le Triomphe de la mort" (47 etchings based on Holbein's woodcuts) arose, the double error arose that the older real dance of death in the preacher's monastery was also believed to be a work by Holbein and the latter was also called the dance of death .

Later centuries

Max Slevogt : Dance of Death (1896)

In the course of the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries, further death dances a. a. in Chur (archbishop's palace based on the models of Holbein's compositions), in Füssen ( Füssen dance of death ), in Konstanz , in Kuks (Bohemia, dance of death as a wall fresco in the hospital, 18th century), in Lucerne (dance of death painting in the former Jesuit college and on the Spreuerbrücke ), in Freiburg im Üechtland , in Bleibach (Black Forest) and in Erfurt . The Totentanzkapelle in Straubing , built in 1486, has an extensive cycle of frescoes, which was created by the Straubing Rococo artist Felix Hölzl in 1763. Wood-cutting and engraving also took up the subject again, as did poetry, e.g. B. Bechstein ("The Dance of Death", Leipz. 1831).

In the second half of the 19th century, dances of the dead were drawn again, especially Alfred Rethel and Wilhelm von Kaulbach . Probably from the 16th century onwards, the regionally different saying “Look like death in the Basler / Lübeck / Dresden dance of death” found its way into the language that describes pale, unhealthy-looking people.

The two world wars caused numerous artists in the 20th century to take up motifs from the dance of death again or to name their own works accordingly. The best known examples include:

Felix Nussbaum's last work Triumph des Todes (The skeletons play for the dance) (1944)
"Large group" from Wolfgang Eckert's dance of death
cycle was created in 2010
  • Albin Egger-Lienz : Dance of Death , 1906 to 1921
  • Joseph Sattler : A modern dance of death , in 16 pictures, 1912
  • Otto Dix : Totentanz, Anno 17 , from the portfolio Der Krieg
  • Lovis Corinth : Dance of Death , portfolio with six drypoint etchings, 1921
  • Werner Heuser : Dance of Death , 9 plates, before 1940
  • Felix Nussbaum : The Triumph of Death (The skeletons play for the dance) , 1944
  • Edmund Kesting : Dance of Death Dresden (photomontages)
  • Alfred Hrdlicka : Plötzensee dance of death
  • Harald Naegeli : The Triumph of Death (Kölner Totentanz), Cologne, Walled-up entrance to St. Cäcilien , part of the Schnütgen Museum , 1981.
  • HAP Grieshaber Der Totentanz von Basel , 40 woodcuts in color, 45 cm × 35 cm, 1965
  • Aloys Ohlmann The Kirchzarten dance of death for the Lübeck dance of death by Hugo Distler 14 serigraphs 70 cm × 50 cm, 1982
  • Aloys Ohlmann Macabre . Drawings and Texts, 1991 - K. u. U. Schulz, Die Totentänze B 153: “A. Ohlmann created one of the most unusual dances of death with his text and picture sequence“ Macabre ”. It is the very personal confrontation with death that is possible at any time. So not the encounter of the most diverse people with death, but only that of a single person, here that of the artist A. Ohlmann is discussed ... "
  • Willi Sitte Danza funebre del terzo Reich , dance of death cycle from 1944

List of dance of death motifs (selection)

Dance of Death motifs in the fine arts (selection)

Localized dance of death representations

Further works with dance of death representations

The dance of death motif by Heinrich Knoblochtzer
"Zimmerscher Totentanz", created around 1522

Dance of Death Games

At first glance, it seems obvious that in the late Middle Ages the dances of death were performed as spiritual games, perhaps most likely as carnival games. However, so far no clear game texts have become known and there is only little evidence of performances. The performance of a dance of death drama in 1449 is handed down in a court invoice of the Dukes of Burgundy: “A Nicaise de Cambray, paintre, demourant en la ville de Bruges quant il a joué devant MdS en son hostel avec ses autres compaignons, certain jeu, histoire et moralité sur le fait de la danse macabre. ”Only one performance has survived for the German-speaking area, which Neumann identifies as a dance of death (Basel 1519):“ Idem [i. e. Martinus Vonvillere] ordinavit choream mortis ”. Only with the discovery of a new dance of death fragment that can be located with a view to the language of the Lower Rhine, the Klever dance of death , is there first evidence of a “role text” that could be used for the performance of a dance of death game.

Dance of Death motifs in music

The dance of death was also widely used as a musical subject. Works expressly designated as dance of death as well as numerous settings on the subject of “Death and the Maiden” are thematically lined up.

Dance of death motifs in the film

Dance of Death motifs in literature

Dance of Death motifs in other media


See also


  • Gabriel Peignot: Recherches historiques et littéraires sur les danses des morts. Lagier, Paris 1826 ( digitized version ).
  • Francis Douce: The danse of death […]. London 1833.
  • JC Schultz-Jacobi: De nederlandsche Doodendans. Utrecht 1849.
  • Eustache H. Langlois: Essai historique, philosophique et pittoresque sur les danses des morts. Lebrument, Rouen 1851-1855.
  • Alexander Danz: The Todten-Tantz, as it is in the famous city of Basel, as a mirror of human nature, artificially ground with lively colors, not without useful astonishment. Original woodcuts from the sixteenth century. With the German verse. Leipzig 1870.
  • Joseph Eduard Wessely : The figures of death and the devil in the performing arts. Vogel, Leipzig 1877.
  • Wilhelm Bäumler: The Dance of Death. Frankfurt am Main 1881.
  • Wilhelm Seelmann : Dances of Death of the Middle Ages. In: Low German Yearbook. 17, 1891, pp. 1-80.
  • Anton Dürrwächter: Dance of Death Research . Jos. Kösel, Kempten / Munich 1914.
  • Gert Buchheit : The dance of death, its origin and development. Berlin 1926.
  • Heinrich Sarasin-Koechlin: An English dance of death. In: Stultifera navis. Bulletin of the Swiss Bibliophile Society. Volume 3, 1946, pp. 130-138, doi: 10.5169 / seals-387554 ( [page preview]).
  • Wolfgang Stammler : The dance of death. Origin and interpretation. Munich 1948.
  • Hans Ferdinand Maßmann : Literature of the death dances. T. O. Weigel, Leipzig 1841 ( Scan  - Internet Archive ); (Reprint: Olms, Hildesheim 1963).
  • Stephan Cosacchi (István Kozáky): History of the Dances of Death. 3 volumes. Budapest 1936-1944; New edition: Macabre dance. The dance of death in art, poetry and customs of the Middle Ages. Meisenheim / Glan 1965.
  • Werner Block: The doctor and death in pictures from six centuries. Enke, Stuttgart 1966.
  • Hellmut Rosenfeld: The medieval dance of death. Origin, development, significance (= supplements to the archive for cultural history. Volume 3). 3. Edition. Böhlau, Cologne 1974, ISBN 3-412-39974-4 .
  • Leonard Kurtz: The Danse of Death. New York 1934 and Geneva 1975.
  • James AB Albertus Clark: Death and the visual arts. Glasgow 1950 (Reprint: Arno, New York 1977, ISBN 0-405-09561-9 ).
  • Reinhold Hammerstein : Dance and Music of Death. The medieval dances of death and their afterlife. Francke, Bern 1980, ISBN 3-7720-1460-7 .
  • Friedrich von Zglinicki : The uroscopy in the fine arts. An art and medical historical study of the urine examination. Ernst Giebeler, Darmstadt 1982, ISBN 3-921956-24-2 , pp. 77-96 ( urinal and dance of death ).
  • Gert Kaiser: The dancing death. Insel, Frankfurt am Main 1983, ISBN 3-458-32347-3 .
  • Rheinisches Museumamt: “The stairs to life”. Images of the human age (= Rheinisches Museumamt: Schriften. Nr. 23). Rheinland-Verlag, Cologne 1983, ISBN 3-7927-0762-4 (exhibition catalog with collections on stages of life, life cycle, dance of death).
  • Franz Link (ed.): Dance and death in literature and art (= writings on literary studies. Volume 8). Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 1993, ISBN 3-428-07512-9 .
  • André Corvisier: Les danses macabres. Presses universitaires de France, Paris 1998, ISBN 2-13-049495-1 .
  • Winfried Frey (Ed.): You all have to dance to my tune. Dances of death from the 15th to the 20th century from the holdings of the Herzog August Bibliothek Wolfenbüttel and the Otto Schäfer Schweinfurt library. Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden 2000, ISBN 3-447-04351-2 .
  • Gerald Unterberger: Dance of Death and Bone Man: A myth behind the picture as a key fossil for cultural contacts between Old Europe, Old America and Easter Island in the South Pacific. Cultural historical consideration and reconstruction. In: L'Art Macabre. Yearbook of the European Dance of Death Association. 2, 2001 ( digitized version ).
  • Kai Fischer (Ed.): Dance of the Dead. From Matthias Merian to Klaus Hack. Exhibition catalog. Gerhard-Marcks-Haus, Bremen 2001, ISBN 3-924412-38-3 .
  • Renate Hausner, Winfried Schwab: Dancing Death? Proceedings of the Dance of Death Congress, Admont Abbey (= In context. Volume 19). Müller-Speiser, Anif / Salzburg 2001, ISBN 3-85145-077-9 .
  • Meinolf Schumacher : "A wreath for the dance and a dash through the bill". To Oswald von Wolkenstein “I feel ain animal” (Kl 6). In: Contributions to the history of the German language and literature. 123, 2001, pp. 253-273 ( digitized version ).
  • Uli Wunderlich: The dance to death. Dances of Death from the Middle Ages to the present. Owls, Freiburg / Br. 2001, ISBN 3-89102-461-4 .
  • Gion Deplazes: Saut dals morts . In: Andreas Kotte (Ed.): Theater Lexikon der Schweiz . Volume 3, Chronos, Zurich 2005, ISBN 3-0340-0715-9 , p. 1568 f.
  • Valeska Koal: On the practice of dances of death in the Middle Ages and early modern times. In: Andrea von Huelsen-Esch and Hiltrud Westermann-Angerhausen (eds.): Beautiful to die. Age, dance of death and the art of dying from 1500 to today. Volume 1: Articles. Schnell & Steiner, Regensburg 2006, ISBN 3-7954-1899-2 , pp. 110–118.
  • Franz Egger : Basel Dance of Death. Basel 1990. 2nd edition. Reinhardt 2009, ISBN 978-3-7245-1557-9 .
  • Sophie Oosterwijk: “Fro Paris to Inglond?” The danse macabre in text and image in late-medieval England. Dissertation. Leiden University 2009 ( online ).
  • Rolf Paul Dreier: The Dance of Death - a motif of church art as a projection surface for profane messages (1425–1650). With CD-Rom directory of the dances of death. Leiden 2010 ( digitized version ).
  • Elisabeth Arlt: “Even money and goodness do not help me” - dance of death depictions in the sacred space in Austria. Verlag St. Peter, Salzburg 2010, ISBN 978-3-900173-73-9 .
  • Sophie Oosterwijk, Stefanie Knoell: Mixed Metaphors. The Danse Macabre in Medieval and Early Modern Europe. Cambridge Scholars Publishing, Newcastle upon Tyne 2011, ISBN 978-1-4438-2900-7 .
  • Susanne Warda: Memento mori. Image and text in dances of death in the late Middle Ages and early modern times. Böhlau, Cologne a. a. 2011, ISBN 978-3-412-20422-8 .
  • Hans Georg Wehrens: The dance of death in the Alemannic language area. "I have to do it - and don't know what". Schnell & Steiner, Regensburg 2012, ISBN 978-3-7954-2563-0 .
  • Jessica Nitsche (Ed.): Dancing with Death. Death and the dance of death in the film. Neofelis, Berlin 2015, ISBN 978-3-943414-58-5 .

Web links

Commons : Dance of Death  - Collection of images, videos and audio files
Wikisource: Dance of Death  - Sources and full texts
Wiktionary: Dance of Death  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Friedrich von Zglinicki (1982), p. 90.
  2. ^ V. Dufour: Facsimile edition of the woodcut work by Guyot Marchant on the 'Danse macabré'. Paris 1485. Paris 1875; New edition there in 1925.
  3. ^ Friedrich von Zglinicki (1982), pp. 90 f.
  4. Max J. Friedländer (Ed.): Des Dodes Dantz, Lübeck 1489. New edition Berlin 1910 (= Graphic Society. Volume 12).
  5. In the Respit de la mort des Jean le Fèvre (Johan Le Fèvre) of 1376 the sentence appears: “Je fis de Macabré la danse” (I wrote the dance of Macabré). So Macabré would be the name of a painter. See also: Johan Huizinga : Autumn of the Middle Ages. Kröner, Stuttgart 1987, p. 165 f.
  6. a b doi: 10.11588 / diglit.129 ( ).
  7. ^ Wilhelm Lübke : The dance of death in the Marienkirche in Berlin. Riegel, Berlin 1861 ( scan in Google book search).
  8. ^ Theodor Prüfer : The dance of death in the Marienkirche in Berlin and history and idea of ​​the dance of death pictures in general. A contribution to archeology and cultural history. Berlin 1876 ( scan in Google book search).
  9. Willy Krogmann (ed.): The dance of death in the Marienkirche in Berlin. Berlin 1937.
  10. Hrastovlje. Tiskarna Ljudska Pravica, Ljubljana 1961.
  11. ^ Friedrich von Zglinicki: The Uroscopy in the fine arts. An art and medical historical study of the urine examination. Ernst Giebeler, Darmstadt 1982, ISBN 3-921956-24-2 , p. 91 f.
  12. Werner Block (1966), p. 45.
  13. ^ Mauro Zanchi: Theatrum mortis nel nome della vita eterna: l'Oratorio dei Disciplini a Clusone. Ferrari Editrice, Clusone 2005.
  14. Paul Zinsli : The Berner Totentanz des Niklaus Manuel (1484-1530) (= Berner Heimatbücher. Volume 54/55). Bern 1953.
  15. Alexander Goette : Holbein's dance of death and his models. Strasbourg 1897.
  16. Hellmut Rosenfeld: The medieval dance of death. 3. Edition. Cologne 1974, p. 360 f.
  17. H. Lödel (Ed.): Holbein's Death Dance Alphabet. Goettingen 1849.
  18. ^ H. Lödel, A. Ellissen: Hans Holbein's initial letters with the dance of death. Goettingen 1849.
  19. Lutz Röhrich: The great lexicon of the proverbial sayings. Volume 3, Herder, Freiburg 1992, p. 1628.
  20. ^ Friedrich von Zglinicki (1982), p. 86 f .; Albert Schramm : Heinrich Knoblochtzers Todten-Dantz. Heidelberg undated; Reprint Leipzig 1921.
  21. doi: 10.11588 / diglit.236 ( ).
  22. Hans Georg Wehrens: The dance of death in the Alemannic language area. "I have to do it - and don't know what". Schnell & Steiner, Regensburg 2012, ISBN 978-3-7954-2563-0 , p. 36 f. and 154 ff.
  23. See: Gert Kaiser: Der tanzende Tod. Frankfurt am Main 1983, p. 68; ders .: Dance of death and upside-down world. 1993.
  24. Peter Salmen: On the practice of dances of death in the Middle Ages. In: Dance and Death in Art and Literature (= writings on literary studies. 8). Berlin 1993, pp. 119-126; Although it provides an interesting collection of sources on the folk-historical background, which may be the root of the late medieval dances of death, it cannot conclusively prove in his argument that the "cemetery dance" (p. 121 f.) he describes are actually to be understood as dramatized dances of death. His remarks on “Types and special features of the performance of dances of death” (p. 122 f.), Which are mainly based on source material from the 16th century, do not go much further, especially since he ultimately has to go back to the pictorial representation of the dances of death but does not provide clear evidence of performance practice.
  25. Gert Kaiser: The dancing death. Frankfurt am Main 1983, p. 54.
  26. Bernd Neumann: Spiritual drama in the testimony of time (= Munich texts and studies on German literature of the Middle Ages. 84). Volume 1, Munich 1987, p. 125, reference no.49.
  27. ^ Geert HM Claassens, Brigitte Sternberg: A Clever Dance of Death? Newly discovered fragments. In: Journal for German Philology . 115, 1996, pp. 55-83.
  28. Carola Kirschner: The Klever (Overijsselschen) Totentanzfragmente. In: Helmut Tervooren u. a .: Van der Masen tot op den Rijn. A handbook on the history of medieval vernacular literature in the Rhine and Maas area (= publications of the Historical Association for Geldern and the surrounding area. No. 105). Geldern 2005, ISBN 3-921760-41-0 , pp. 203-204; Erich Schmidt, Berlin 2006, ISBN 3-503-07958-0 .