Bruchhausen (Neuwied district)
|coat of arms||Germany map|
|Association municipality :||Uncle|
|Height :||200 m above sea level NHN|
|Area :||2.58 km 2|
|Residents:||955 (Dec. 31, 2019)|
|Population density :||370 inhabitants per km 2|
|Postal code :||53572|
|Area code :||02224|
|License plate :||NO|
|Community key :||07 1 38 008|
|Association administration address:||Linzer Strasse 4
|Local Mayor :||Markus Fischer ( CDU )|
|Location of the community of Bruchhausen in the Neuwied district|
The village is situated on a spacious terrace, a loess Riedel plate ( "Bruchhausener Lössplatte"), on the edge of the Rhine-Westerwald above the Rhine Valley with a view of the Hocheifel and the Seven Mountains . At the southwest end of this plateau, 1.5 km away, is the village of Orsberg, which belongs to the local community of Erpel . From Bruchhausen down to Unkel, the valley of the Hähnerbach , which rises in the district , overcomes a height difference of more than 120 m. The residential area Haus Sankt Marienberg belongs to Bruchhausen .
Early days and founding
Based on finds (pointed stone ax , hand ax , lance tip) in the vicinity of the place it can be assumed that settlement dates back to the Neolithic Age . Finds from the 7th century suggest that permanent settlements existed in the local area as early as the Merovingian period . The name “Bruchhausen” is probably derived from the word Broich (swampy place).
Bruchhausen was founded around 900 AD, when the first inhabitants settled on the heights of the Rhine near the swampy source of the Hähnerbach. The first documentary mention for the year 1024 is documented in the documents of the parish archives. In 1995 the official "1000 year celebration" was celebrated in Bruchhausen.
In the 12th century, after the death of the childless Count Adolf von Saffenberg, the Archbishop of Cologne, Friedrich I , gave the inherited rights to Erpel to the cathedral chapter of Cologne. Bruchhausen was already part of the Erpel parish at that time . Erpel received special rights, the "High and Free Glory". For Bruchhausen a so-called sublordship arose. Thus Bruchhausen belonged secularly to the Erpel High Court , ecclesiastically to the Erpel parish . Bruchhausen's ecclesiastical ties to Erpel led to tensions and pastoral rights (including benefices ) were restricted. In 1619 there was a dispute between the secular Erpeler mayor Johann Theuren and the clerical pastor of Erpel Gottfried Egidi. The dispute was only resolved in 1652 and the parish of Bruchhausen was granted partial independence.
In 1821 the pastor of Bruchhausen, Albert Raab, was informed of the final separation from the Erpel mother church by the church authorities on the basis of his petition submitted in 1819, which was initially reprimanded and unpardonized .
Witch Queen of Bruchhausen
The witch trial against Anna Katharina Spee from Bruchhausen became particularly well known . She was the victim of the witch persecution in Erpel in 1631 with at least 20 executions: including 18 women and two men under the witch commissioner Dr. Jan Möden. In these witch trials Anna Katharina Spee was accused in the testimony of women accused of the devil's pact. Among others, the accused Els Istfels said her godmother Anna Katharina Spee as a "witch".
The fate of Anna Katharina Spee is still connected to the votive picture of the Sorrowful Mother Mary in the parish and pilgrimage church of St. Johann Baptist in Bruchhausen. It was donated in 1636 by the children of Anna Katharina Spee after she was burned as the witch queen of Bruchhausen . The oil painting still hangs there today. The writing in the black wooden frame indicates the names of the donors who kneel in the picture - relatively small - in front of Maria: Johann Jakob Spee and Agnes Spee with their husband Andreas Bachem.
In 1675 Margaretha Spee (died 1676), who lived in Bruchhausen after her time in the monastery, had problems with the payment for the masses of her mother, who had been executed 44 years earlier. The sale of a yard in the castle resulted in a financial settlement between Margaretha Spee and the parish church in Bruchhausen. The foundation, established in 1675, guarantees the financing of a mass for Anna Katharina and her family every Saturday until today.
In a description of the mine in Siepen (former name for St. Marienberg ) in Bruchhausen from 1789, the Bonn geologist Carl Wilhelm Nose (1753–1835) writes that "the ancients still extracted the ores using the technique of setting fire". Since black powder was invented around 1300 , it can be assumed that ores were mined here in civil engineering as early as the late Middle Ages .
A miner Christoff Frantz reported in 1668 about the " mine in Siepen " and describes a " brisk mining activity at the beginning of the 17th century with excellent water art ". Mining came to a standstill as a result of the Thirty Years War . In his report, Frantz recommended that the mine be put back into operation and drained into the Breitbachtal through an 800 meter long tunnel. In 1694, bridge master Anton Clouth received mining rights to all mines in the Rheinbreitbach district from Cologne Elector Joseph Clemens . The mine in Siepen in Bruchhausen belonged to the Rheinbreitbacher district. Around 1700 Clouth expanded the mine in the neighboring Rheinbreitbach and Bruchhausen. By 1715 a 654 meter long tunnel was driven and an air shaft was built .
The mine has been called St. Maria or St. Marienberg since 1724 . During these years the owners changed several times. A flourishing business is reported for 1731, 150 miners were employed in 1751, the workforce rose to 250 men. Due to various circumstances, the production fell sharply in the following years and came to a standstill in 1790. The business was resumed after a renewed change of ownership in 1797, from 1800 to 1815 3,709 quintals of cooked copper were obtained.
Early 19th century, new shafts were up to 80 meters depth drilled . Due to falling copper prices, civil engineering was stopped in 1826 and the mine was completely abandoned in 1830. After another change of ownership and new ideas , a new period began for St. Marienberg in 1841 , and steam power was now also used. The lignite required to fire the steam engine came from a pit in the neighboring Orsberg, now a district of Erpel . Now they penetrated to a depth of 195 meters, the ore production was 20,036 quintals in 1854 and 12,704 quintals in the following year. After that, the mine became uneconomical due to low ore deposits and operations were finally closed on May 4, 1874.
In an overview map of the Bonn Higher Mining Office from 1912, 38 different mine fields are shown in the vicinity of Rheinbreitbach and Bruchhausen . In addition to the St. Marienberg mine described here, the St. Josephsberg mine in Rheinbreitbach and the Phinchen and Clemenslust mines east of Bruchhausen in the Kasbach valley were the most important.
Bruchhausen belonged as part of the parish and the rule of Erpel to the Cologne cathedral chapter since 1493 at the latest . With the 1801 peace treaty of Lunéville and the result of the Reichsdeputationshauptschluss , Bruchhausen was assigned to the Principality of Nassau-Usingen (from 1806 Duchy of Nassau ). Then it was part of the Nassau Office of Linz .
After the treaties concluded at the Congress of Vienna , Bruchhausen came to the Kingdom of Prussia in 1815 , which introduced new administrative structures in the Rhineland in 1816. Bruchhausen has belonged since then as a municipality to the mayor's office Unkel (renamed in 1927 to "Amt Unkel") in the district of Linz , after its dissolution in 1822 to the district of Neuwied. In 1885 the community of Bruchhausen included the Grube Sankt Marienberg residential area with seven residents in two houses. Since the dissolution of the Unkel office on October 1, 1968, Bruchhausen has been part of the Unkel community as a local community.
Development of the population (December 31):
- Data source: State Statistical Office of Rhineland-Palatinate
The local council in Bruchhausen consists of 12 council members, who were elected in the local elections on May 26, 2019 in a personalized proportional representation, and the honorary local mayor as chairman.
The distribution of seats in the municipal council:
Markus Fischer (CDU) became local mayor of Bruchhausen in July 2004. In the direct election on May 26, 2019, he was confirmed in office for a further five years with a share of 78.45% of the votes.
coat of arms
Blazon : “Under a silver shield head, inside a continuous black bar cross, split twice; in front in red a golden bunch of grapes on a green stem with two green leaves; in the center, on gold, a crowned Madonna with a crowned child, a gold pectoral cross and a silver cloak, sprinkled with red hearts and black crosses; behind a golden sheaf in red. "
The coat of arms has been legally valid since May 1, 1923.
|Justification for the coat of arms: The black cross in the head of the shield refers to the former territorial affiliation to Kurköln . The Mother of God represents the miraculous image "Maria Refuge of sinners" in the parish and pilgrimage church in Bruchhausen. Grapes and sheaves symbolize the viticulture and agriculture in the community.|
- The Marian pilgrimage church of St. Johann Baptist (refuge for sinners) in the center of the village, which was restored in 2005 and dates back to 1230 , has a dance of death portrait and numerous sculptures that are unique in the Rhineland . To this day it is the destination of pilgrimage devotion to Mary .
- The old wine cellar opposite the church.
- The 17th century Bruchhausen Castle of Count von Spee , on Waldstrasse
- The house of the Counts of Trips
- The old rectory, a half-timbered building from the 18th century
- See also the list of cultural monuments in Bruchhausen (Neuwied district)
In the adjacent Erpeler Wald there is the Laurentius hut and the wayside shrine, the Eye of God (in the Rheinbreitbach area). There is also a war cemetery in the vicinity, but already in the municipality of Unkel .
- Hans Leopold Höhl (1910–1995), German businessman
- Eberhard Stroot (* 1951), German athlete and Olympic participant
- State Statistical Office of Rhineland-Palatinate - population status 2019, districts, communities, association communities ( help on this ).
- Heinrich Müller-Miny: Basic questions about the natural spatial structure on the Middle Rhine . In: Federal Institute for Regional Studies (Ed.): Reports on German Regional Studies . Volume 21, Issue 2 (September 1958), self-published by the Federal Institute for Regional Studies, Remagen 1958, pp. 247–266 (here: p. 263).
- Institute for Regional Studies (ed.); Heinrich Müller-Miny (arrangement): Geographical and regional explanations for the topographical map 1: 50000 . 1. Delivery, self-published by the Federal Institute for Regional Studies and Spatial Research, Bad Godesberg 1963, p. 28.
- State Statistical Office Rhineland-Palatinate (ed.): Official directory of the municipalities and parts of the municipality. Status: January 2019 [ Version 2020 is available. ] . S. 52 (PDF; 3 MB).
- Adolf Kettel: witch trials in the county of Gerolstein and in the adjacent Kurtrierischen offices Prüm and Hillesheim . In: Franz / Irsigler (ed.): Hexenglaube and witch trials in the Rhine-Mosel-Saar area . Trier 1996, p. 376
- Gisela Born-Siebicke: Anna Katharina Spee (1590–1631) witch queen of Bruchhausen . In: Frauenbüro Neuwied (ed.): From woman to woman . Neuwied 1993, p. 134
- Gisela Born-Siebicke: Anna Katharina Spee (1590–1631) witch queen of Bruchhausen . In: Frauenbüro Neuwied (ed.): From woman to woman . Neuwied 1993, p. 145.
- From the history of the St. Marienberg mine ( Memento from March 9, 2010 in the Internet Archive )
- Community for the Kingdom of Prussia , Volume XII Provinz Rheinland, Verlag des Königlich Statistischen Bureaus (Ed.), 1888, page 29
- State Officer Rhineland-Palatinate: Local Election 2019 - Individual Results. Retrieved May 28, 2019 .
- Local community Bruchhausen: Mayor. Retrieved February 20, 2020 .
- The State Officer Rhineland-Palatinate: direct elections 2019. see Unkel, Verbandsgemeinde, first line of results. Retrieved February 20, 2020 .