Hugo Distler

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Hugo Distler, 1941

Hugo Distler (born June 24, 1908 in Nuremberg , † November 1, 1942 in Berlin ) was a German composer and Protestant church musician . He is considered to be the most important representative of the renewal movement of Protestant church music after 1920 .


Childhood and youth

Hugo Distler was born in Nuremberg in 1908 as the illegitimate son of milliner Helene Distler and mechanical engineer August Louis Gotthilf Roth. The child's first name goes back to Hugo Herz, the half-brother of Hugo's mother who emigrated to the USA in 1925. In 1912 Helene Distler left her four-year-old son and emigrated to the United States with her future husband, the American toy buyer Anthony Meter.

From the moment of separation up to the age of eleven, the child lived under the care of his grandparents Kunigunda Herz, widowed Distler, and her second husband, the cattle dealer Johann Michael Herz from Cadolzburg near Fürth. He ran two butchers in Nuremberg. On the advice of Hugo's first teacher, the grandparents bought a piano for their grandson and made sure that he got his first piano lessons with Elisabeth Weidmann when he was seven. They later enabled him to attend the Reform Realgymnasium in Vorderen Landauergasse.

In 1919 Hugo Distler's mother reappeared in Nuremberg, now accompanied by her son Anthony, who was born in America, after the death of her husband. She lived with her two sons for a while. Hugo Distler had sympathy for his quiet half-brother, but suffered from the daily reluctance of his mother, who made no secret of the preference for her younger son. In 1923 she finally separated from Hugo and moved with Anthony (now called Anton) to another part of Nuremberg. From now on Hugo Distler lived again with his grandparents, who had become impoverished by inflation . When Kunigunda Herz died in 1925, grandfather and grandson fell into oppressive poverty.

Due to financial difficulties, Hugo Distler had to de-register from Carl Dupont's private music school in Nuremberg, where he had been taking piano lessons up until then. He applied for a scholarship at the municipal conservatory in Nuremberg, but was turned down twice. Carl Dupont intervened and from then on taught his pupil free of charge.

Studies and first job as an organist

After graduating from high school in the spring of 1927, Hugo Distler applied to the Leipzig State Conservatory for Music and passed the entrance examination with distinction. In 1930 Hugo Distler's grandfather, who despite his own poverty, had financed his grandson's music studies, died. Distler had to break off his studies early and look for a job. As a result of the global economic crisis, the number of unemployed in Germany in 1930 was 15.7 percent; In 1931 it climbed to 23.9 percent, which made Hugo Distler's search for a job difficult. His Leipzig organ teacher, who later became Thomaskantor Günther Ramin , finally found him a position as organist at the Jakobikirche in Lübeck , where Distler began his service on January 1, 1931.

Inspired by Axel Werner Kühl , pastor at St. Jakobi and committed campaigner for the concerns of the liturgical movement, Distler composed his Jahrkreis op. 5, a collection of 52 small sacred choral music, in 1931/32 . In autumn 1931 he completed his German Choral Mass , which the Lübeck Sing- und Spielkreis premiered on October 4, 1931 under the direction of Bruno Grusnick . His Choral Passion op. 7 , his Little Advent Music op. 4 and his organ partita Nun komm, der Heiden Heiland op. 8.1 followed in 1932 . Most of his sacred choral music op. 12 was written in Lübeck and it was there that he met his future wife, Waltraut Thienhaus (1911–1998).

During the National Socialism

On January 30, 1933, the day of the “ seizure of power ”, Hugo Distler quit his job at St. Jakobi without already having a new employment contract in hand. He later had to withdraw his notice because he had not met the notice period.

In October 1933 Hugo Distler was appointed lecturer at the newly founded Lübeck State Conservatory . Since May 1933 he had campaigned for the establishment of his own church music institute within the framework of this conservatory and was therefore in constant conflict with the responsible state commissioner and former pastor of the German Christians Ulrich Burgstaller .

In order to still achieve his goal of church music (he obtained the official approval of his plan in March 1935), Hugo Distler had to provide the Nazi state with cultural services in return. In April 1934 he therefore interrupted work on his spiritual works, including the "Dance of Death" to within three weeks, the order music to a secular Thingspiel -Kantate Eternal Germany on patriotic texts by the poet Wolfram Brock Meier - Head of the Poetry Department of the Reich Chamber of writing - what he reported to his brother-in-law Erich Thienhaus :

“I have to write the music for a political ceremony […] by mid-May […] I'm sweating at the huge work: 20 numbers in less than four weeks, including an overture for large orchestra […], a finale for choir and Orchestra […], 5 a cappella choirs, 8 dances, 4 melodramas and an organ piece. "

Waltraut Distler reported to her brother Erich Thienhaus about the performance on May 25, 1934 in the Lübeck City Theater: “The theater performance recently received good reviews everywhere, at least the music. The audience has a separate opinion about the director. Brockmeier doesn't make a personable impression, by the way he has 100 RM !!! get for its origin. Hugo nothing for all of his work. "

Hugo Distler did not publish the composition and gave it no opus number, but used it as raw material for later works.

Hugo Distler's longed-for goal was one day to live entirely for his art and to be able to earn a living exclusively from his own works. Under the censorship conditions imposed by the Reichstag Fire Ordinance, i. H. the total surveillance of all written statements by the state, Hugo Distler tried to find a way that would still allow him to pursue his compositional activity freely and to perform his works in public. From now on he therefore borrowed catchwords from the phraseology of the rulers in some of his verbal contributions, but underlaid them with a literal meaning that did not correspond to the “official” reading of these terms.

In March 1933 the premiere of Distler's Choral Passion op. 7 took place in the Berlin Cathedral ; In the same year Distler composed his Christmas story op. 10 (premiered in December 1933 in Cologne) and dedicated it to the "people who walk in the dark" (this is how the great opening choir of the Christmas story begins). In April 1935 Distler's Harpsichord Concerto op. 14 was premiered in Hamburg and celebrated by some critics, while others branded it as " cultural Bolshevik ".

In December 1936, the NS side tried to prevent the performance of the Christmas story in St. Jakobi. The Gestapo dispersed a street assembly of Lutheran Christians, and Distler's composition student Jan Bender was arrested. Distler then fled Lübeck and took up a position on April 1, 1937 as a teacher of music theory, form theory and choir direction at the Stuttgart University of Music ; he also took over the management of the university choir and the university choir.

Distler's hope for undisturbed work in Stuttgart was not fulfilled: the Nazi student body attacked his church music work. Distler attended the Stuttgart premiere of Carl Orff's Carmina Burana in 1937 and soon afterwards performed Monteverdi's Orfeo in an arrangement by Carl Orff with the newly founded Esslinger Singakademie . Without the approval of the Nazi cultural community, this choir sang Bach's St. John Passion in Esslingen's city church under Distler's direction . This resulted in the dissolution of the Singakademie. (Distler on the farewell evening with the singers: “You must be lucky enough to have sung along with these works.”) From now on, Distler only published “secular” instrumental and choral music; It was not until 1942 that the last two great motets from his Geistliche Chormusik op.12 appeared.

For his next major work, Hugo Distler chose a topic that should make him ideologically unassailable. Between 1936 and 1938 he composed his Neues Chorliederbuch op. 16, an extensive collection of choral settings for mixed choir a cappella on the themes of calendar sayings , Minnelieder , farmer songs and happy songs . The atmospheric and highly expressive choral movements testify to Distler's “irrepressible, vital inspiration” (Lemmermann), but were not popular at the time ( Heinz Grunow : Memories of Hugo Distler ). In addition to love songs, praise for the music and an exuberant serenade based on a text by Abraham a Sancta Clara, there are peasant songs and the calendar sayings. They are an expression of man's confrontation with nature - "his life with it, his fears, worries, hopes, his joy and, last but not least, his gratitude for the life-sustaining gifts of nature".

In the autumn of 1940 Distler was appointed professor for choir conducting, composition, and organ playing at the Berlin State University of Music and moved with his family to Strausberg near Berlin. In the autumn of 1940, the Berlin theater director Jürgen Fehling commissioned Distler to compose incidental music for Ludwig Tieck's knight Bluebeard . The premiere was to take place on New Year's Eve 1940 at the Berlin Schillertheater . In addition, Fehling strove for constant collaboration with Distler; he should next write the stage music for Grabbe's Hannibal and for Shakespeare's King Lear . Heinrich George was to play the leading role in both productions, as in Bluebeard . After the rehearsals for Ritter Blaubart had already started, the premiere was postponed to January at the last minute and finally canceled due to a falling out between Fehling and the artistic director Heinrich George. Distler's long-cherished hope of “finally finding access to the stage and finally to the opera”, as he put it in a letter to his family in Leipzig, was dashed.

In 1941 and 1942, Hugo Distler worked with great energy and dedication on his last major project, the peace oratorio Die Weltalter , which began in 1939 , in whose text he wrote pictures from Greek mythology of the Golden Age with the Kassandra myth (based on Aeschylus ' tragedy Agamemnon ) linked. He added a fragment by Novalis to his text , from which he took individual passages directly into his own oratorio text . The Novalis fragment, which also appeared on a White Rose leaflet in 1942 , reads:

“Blood will flow over Europe until the nations become aware of their terrible madness that drives them around in circles, and, met and appeased by sacred music, they mingle at former altars, perform works of peace and hold a great festival of peace smoking whale sites is celebrated with hot tears. Only religion can wake Europe up again and secure international law and Christianity with new glory can visibly install its old, peace-making office on earth. "

Hugo Distler was still able to complete four motets from the world ages, but stopped working on his oratorio in September 1942.

In April 1942, Distler took over the management of the Berlin State and Cathedral Choir and moved into an official apartment near the cathedral. Around this time he was targeted by the SS: As in 1933 in Lübeck (when he was rehearsing sacred choral works from his year circle with the choir boys from St. Jakobi), the HJ was now again systematically hindering and sabotaging his church music work by bringing the choir boys of the Cathedral choirs always called in to serve in the Hitler Youth when choir rehearsals were scheduled in the cathedral. That's why Hugo Distler, together with a college colleague, went to Berlin to visit SS-Oberführer and Hitler Youth, Karl Cerff , who resided on an entire floor in Berlin's “ Kaiserhof ”. Horrified and deeply discouraged, Distler reported to his friend Alfred Kreutz from Ahlbeck on August 17, 1942:

"In the meantime I am experiencing difficulties with the Berlin State and Cathedral Choir [...] the Hitler Youth is constantly bothering about releasing the boys for service in the choir. To clarify this, I made the effort to go to Bln. to go to visit the PG Cerf from the main cultural office of the NSDAP, whom Rühlmann knew, with our very skilled deputy university director Professor Rühlmann. Result completely negative; shocking impression; Cerf at my age, according to Rühlmann's depiction, once a bank clerk. We didn’t speak at all before the hate song against the church. Despite everything, I have to say that I was even more shocked by the impression of this man's personality than by the (secretly expected) negative success. I'm going into the new semester with great horror. You have so much organizational work that you don't even get to make music. And finally all efforts fail because of such insurmountable difficulties. Perhaps you are to be envied very much at this point. "

On October 14, 1942, Hugo Distler received his sixth presentation order (he was able to avert the orders five times). On November 1, 1942, he drove from Strausberg to Berlin to provide musical accompaniment to the service in the cathedral. Then he went to his official apartment on Bauhofstrasse. There he ended his life.

Grave of Hugo Distler in the south-west cemetery Stahnsdorf
( grave location )
Grave cross by Hugo Distler

His grave is on the south-west cemetery Stahnsdorf in the Reformation block of the Reformation church community , field 10, garden area 37. His grave cross quotes verse 16:33 from the Gospel according to John as a motto : I said this to you so that you might have peace in me. You are in distress in the world; but have courage: I have conquered the world.

Relationship to National Socialism

Under the influence of his composition teacher Hermann Grabner , the Lübeck pastor at the Jacobikirche Axel Werner Kühl and the cantor Bruno Grusnick , who were members of the NSDAP , Distler joined the NSDAP after the " seizure of power " by the National Socialists and became a member with effect from May 1st Registered in 1933 under the party number 2,806,768. His biographer Barbara Distler-Harth also states that he joined the party on the advice of his superiors and solely for tactical reasons. A contemporary witness wrote: “In Lübeck he was already wedged into the party, he only came to the party out of a fearful 'must'. In his great sensitivity, he tormented himself very much. "

In May 1933, Distler gave a lecture at the Lübeck Adult Education Center, The New Will to Music in the German National Renewal Movement . In the years that followed he tried to adapt to the system. In 1934, for example, he said in a radio lecture about the position and task of young music in Germany , printed in the Lübeckische Blätter : “The new state idea must in principle reject any kind of artistic design that does not reflect the will and feeling - simply the people as a whole [. ..] would be accessible ”. That same year, set to music Distler "as devotion Music" the Thingspiel -Kantate Eternal Germany to a text by Wolfram Brock Meier , which in the critique of conformist discussed positive press, and a Trutzlied Germany and German-Austria to a text by Hermann Harder . For the Nazi leisure program Kraft durch Freude he wrote three hymns by the German worker under the pseudonym Franz Bayer , which he then set to music. In December 1935, Distler wrote in an article On the Spirit of Protestant Church Music : "Who of us young people would not have witnessed the greatness of the patriotic events in recent years!"

In 1936 Distler experienced a failure when his harpsichord concerto was panned by the Nazi press. In contrast, his secular choral work Deutsche Kalendersprüche , premiered in Bonn in 1938, was again a success and was to be repeated in Kassel. Distler characterized the work as follows: "... a secular choral work, completely in line with what we want today, a song of praise for the peasant year".

Distler encountered the beginning of the Second World War with incomprehension and criticism, but at the same time emphasized: “In any case, I believe in the purest, noblest will of our Führer and in the immortality of our beloved fatherland. [...] it is certainly our duty to defend our honor to the last breath, as Hitler said yesterday ”. In 1940 he composed the war song for the men's choir Tomorrow we march in enemy territory and other contributions to the Wehrmacht choral song book .

Distler's attitude towards the Nazi regime became increasingly critical. In August 1942, for example, he wrote in a letter to Alfred Kreutz about his experience with SS-Oberführer and Hitler Youth, Karl Cerff, as quoted above. In the same letter he expressed himself pessimistically about the future: “Besides, of course we don't know at all what humanity will look like after the cruel war - after all, everything will depend on that. If things continue as before, then back to loneliness [...] So long it means to endure. But it has been ensured that this endurance is made as difficult as possible. "

After Distler's suicide on November 1, 1942, there were positive obituaries in the synchronized press, such as in the magazine Der Musikzieher : "German musical life has suffered a heavy loss due to the sudden death of the 34-year-old composer Hugo Distler."


Distler is best known as a composer of sacred and secular choral music . His choral works include:

  • 1932: Choral Passion op. 7 for five-part mixed choir and two cantors
  • 1933: Der Jahrkreis , 52 two- and three-part choral music resulting from the experiences and requirements of church music practice
  • 1933: The Christmas story op. 10 for mixed choir and four lead singers
  • 1935–1941: Sacred Choral Music op. 12, a collection of nine motets for the church year, of which No. 2 also includes the Dance of Death, which is assigned to the Sunday of the Dead
  • 1938/39: Mörike choir song book

In addition, Distler composed organ music such as partitas , chorale arrangements and a sonata , two harpsichord concerts (1930/32 and 1935) and chamber music . He wrote a functional theory of harmony (1940).

Distler is the most important representative of the renewal movement of Protestant church music after 1920 . Your goals and ideals are clearly expressed in his music, whereby an artistically high level is always maintained despite the intended ease of execution. His vocal compositions grow from vocal melodies that are oriented towards the human breath, the tonal material of which is often taken from modal scales or pentatonic scales .

The varied rhythms are based on models from the Renaissance and Baroque , but allow themselves much greater freedom, which is reflected in the change of meter and frequent shifts in emphasis. The combination of metrically and rhythmically opposing individual voices often results in a lively polyphonic and polyrhythmic network.

Imitative types of sentences based on baroque models are common, with Distler preferring narrow registers and cross- vocal lines , thus achieving sound effects ranging from sensitive simplicity to dramatic expressiveness. This results in novel interrelationships, which in places can only be explained by the horizontal voice guidance, but can no longer be functionally interpreted in detail .

An important aspect of his compositional activity is the musical interpretation of the word. So he wrote in his essay "On the Spirit of the New Evangelical Choral Music" in 1935: "In the new German choral music [...] the word gains a new and higher corporeality, there the word formation and control is pursued with obsession ..."

Catalog raisonné

Vocal music

  • op. 2: I love you dearly, sir , motet for 2 mixed choirs (1931)
  • op. 3: German Choral Mass, for 6-part mixed choir (1932)
  • op. 4: Little Advent Music, for flute, oboe, violin, chamber choir, organ and speaker (1932)
  • op. 5: The year circle, 52 two- and three-part chorale and scriptural motets (1933)
  • op.6a: Christ, who you are the bright day , little spiritual evening music No. 1 for three-part choir, 2 violins and bc (1933)
  • op. 6b: 3 small chorale motets No. 2 for mixed choir (1933) ( It is salvation, we come here , come, Holy Spirit, Lord God , praise the Lord ).
  • op. 7: Choral Passion based on the 4 Gospels of Holy Scripture (1933)
  • op.8c: Small chorale arrangements (1938)
  • op.9a: To nature , for 4-part choir, soprano solo and strings No. 1 (1933)
  • op.9b: The Song of the Bell , for solo voices, choir and orchestra (1934)
  • op. 10 The Christmas story , for 4-part acc. Chamber choir and 4 singers (1933)
  • op.11: Where God at home does not give his favor , cantata (1935)
  • op. 12: Sacred choral music (1934–1941)
  • op. 13: Liturgical sentences
  • op. 16: New Choir Song Book (1936–1938)
  • op.17: Sacred concertos for high voice and organ (1938)
  • op.19: Mörike choir song book (1939)
  • op.20a: The folk song
  • op.21: Lied am Herde , solo cantata for baritone and piano (1941)

Works without opus number:

  • Luther cantata for the 400th anniversary of the introduction of the Reformation (1931)
  • Three songs for alto voice and piano (1931)
  • Ewiges Deutschland , Secular Singspiel cantata for speaker, choir and orchestra (1934)
  • Germany and German-Austria, descended from a tribe , for male choir (1934, based on a text by Hermann Harder , last published in the magazine Lied und Volk 1938)
  • Small summer cantata for two sopranos and string quartet (1942)
  • A song to sing along to , for voice and piano
  • The moon has risen for one-part female choir, violin, viola and oboe
  • Three secular choral songs to old texts in a new way and new setting
  • Vöglein Schwermut , for male choir
  • Evening song of a traveler , for male choir
  • Horrible ballad , for male choir
  • Individual motets and choir songs:
    • Oh lord, I'm not worth it
    • Christ we should already praise
    • The day has come to an end
    • The sun goes from behind
    • A dark cloud is entering
    • God the Father lives with us
    • Today the Son of God triumphs
    • Jesus Christ yesterday and today
    • Praise God you Christians
    • Open the door
    • Now rejoice, dear Christians
    • Now all forests are at rest
    • O Savior, tear open the heavens
    • O man, weep greatly for your sin
    • Up from heaven, O angel come
    • Wake up, you are in need
    • How beautiful the morning star shines

Chamber music

  • op. 1: Concertante Sonata for 2 pianos (1931)
  • op.14: Concerto for harpsichord and string orchestra (1936)
  • op.15a: Sonata on old German folk songs for 2 violins and piano (1938)
  • op.15b: Eleven little piano pieces for the youth
  • op.20b: Music for 4 string instruments in two movements (1939)
  • op.20c: Concert piece in A minor, for 2 pianos (1939)

Works without opus number:

  • Little Sonata in C major for piano (1927)
  • Chamber music for flute, oboe, violin, viola, cello and piano (1929)
  • Concerto for harpsichord and 11 solo instruments (1930–1932)
  • Concert piece for piano and orchestra (1937)

Organ works

  • op.8a: Now come the Gentile Savior , Organ Partita No. 1 (1933)
  • op.8b: Wake up, the voice calls us , organ partita No. 2 (1935)
  • op.18a: 30 pieces for the small organ or other keyboard instruments No. 1 (1938)
  • op.18b: Organ Sonata No. 2 (1939)


The Hugo Distler Archive is located in the Lübeck City Library . The composer's estate was donated to the Bavarian State Library in August 2010 by the heirs .

Awards and dedications

Special postage stamp of the Deutsche Bundespost for the 50th anniversary of death
Memorial plaque on the organist house of the Jakobikirche in Lübeck in the Jakobikirchhof


  • Hugo Distler: Functional Harmony . Bärenreiter, Kassel 1951.
  • Ursula von Rauchhaupt: Hugo Distler's vocal church music. A study on the topic of "Music and Worship" . Mohn, Gütersloh 1963.
  • Wolfgang Jennrich: Hugo Distler . Union, Berlin 1970.
  • Ursula Herrmann: Hugo Distler. Callers and reminders . Evangelical Publishing House, Berlin 1972.
  • Hermann Grabner: Hugo Distler . In: Composers in Bavaria . Volume 20. Schneider, Tutzing 1990, ISBN 3-7952-0652-9 .
  • Casper Honders: In the world you are scared . In: Dietrich Schuberth (ed.): Church music in National Socialism . Merseburger, Kassel 1995, ISBN 3-87537-263-8 , pp. 144-153.
  • Dirk Lemmermann: Studies on the secular vocal works of Hugo Distler. Analytical, aesthetic and historical reception studies with special consideration of the Mörike choir song book . Lang, Frankfurt am Main 1996, ISBN 3-631-30127-8 .
  • Stefan Hahnheide, "... a dislocated jointed doll". Hugo Distler's work between joining the party and suicide . In: Hans-Joachim Erbe, Werner Keil (Hrsg.): Contributions to musicology and music education (= Hildesheim musicological work . Volume 4). Georg Olms Verlag, Hildesheim 1997, ISBN 3-487-10482-2 .
  • Stefan Hanheide (ed.): Hugo Distler in the Third Reich . Rasch, Osnabrück 1997, ISBN 3-930595-75-3 .
  • Bettina Schlueter: Hugo Distler. Musicological investigations in system-theoretical perspectives . Electronic resource CD-ROM. Steiner, Stuttgart 2000, ISBN 3-515-07763-4 .
  • Dirk Lemmermann, Michael Töpel:  Hugo Distler. In: Ludwig Finscher (Hrsg.): The music in past and present . Second edition, personal section, volume 5 (Covell - Dzurov). Bärenreiter / Metzler, Kassel et al. 2001, ISBN 3-7618-1115-2 , Sp. 1094–1103 ( online edition , subscription required for full access).
  • Winfried Lüdemann: Hugo Distler. A musical biography . Wißner, Augsburg 2002, ISBN 3-89639-353-7 .
  • Barbara Distler-Harth: Hugo Distler. Life path of an early completed . Schott Music, Mainz 2008, ISBN 978-3-7957-0182-6 .
  • Till Sailer: Hugo Distler in Strausberg. The last years of the composer of the “Christmas story”. Texts - conversations - letters . Trafo, Berlin 2008, ISBN 978-3-89626-787-0 .
  • Dietrich Schuberth (Hrsg.): Church music in National Socialism. Ten lectures. Merseburger, Kassel 1995, ISBN 3-87537-263-8
  • Hans Prolingheuer: Hugo Distler (1908-1942) - The contemporary and his legend . Der Kirchenmusiker 5/95, pp. 161–176, Merseburger, Kassel 1995 (reprint in: Brunhilde Sonntag (Ed.): Die dunkle Last. Music and National Socialism . Bela-Verlag, Cologne 1999, ISBN 3-931430-05-7 , Pp. 364–376)
  • Helmut Bornefeld:  Distler, Hugo. In: New German Biography (NDB). Volume 3, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 1957, ISBN 3-428-00184-2 , p. 745 ( digitized version ).
  • Friedrich Wilhelm BautzDistler, Hugo. In: Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon (BBKL). Volume 1, Bautz, Hamm 1975. 2nd, unchanged edition Hamm 1990, ISBN 3-88309-013-1 , Sp. 1332-1334.
  • About Distler performances by the Dresden Kreuzchor, in: Matthias Herrmann (ed.): Dresdner Kreuzchor and contemporary choral music. World premieres between Richter and Kreile, Marburg 2017, pp. 64–66, 230–233, 301–306, 312, 319, 328 (Schriften des Dresdner Kreuzchor, Vol. 2). ISBN 978-3-8288-3906-9

Web links

Commons : Hugo Distler  - collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. Distler-Harth, p. 340 ff.
  2. Distler-Harth, pp. 189 ff.
  3. Lüdemann, p. 106
  4. ^ Reich, Christa: Evangelium: Klingendes Wort, Calwer Verlag 1997, p. 79; Reich-Ranicki, Marcel: Mein Leben, Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt 1999, p. 356 f .; Distler-Harth, p. 161 ff.
  5. Lemmermann, Dirk: Hugo Distler: Neues Chorliederbuch, booklet text for the CD of Hugo Distler's Neuem Chorliederbuch ( Carmina Mundi , Aachen, conductor: Harald Nickoll), p. 1 f.
  6. Distler-Harth, p. 317.
  7. Distler-Harth, p. 320.
  8. Distler-Harth, p. 330 ff.
  9. ^ Stefan Hahnheide, in: Contributions to Musicology and Music Education, Hildesheim Musicological Works Volume 4 , Georg Olms Verlag , Hildesheim 1997, p. 102.
  10. ^ A b Ernst Klee : The cultural lexicon for the Third Reich. Who was what before and after 1945. S. Fischer, Frankfurt am Main 2007, ISBN 978-3-10-039326-5 , p. 115.
  11. Barbara Distler-Harth: Hugo Distler , Schott Mainz 2008, p. 158 ff.
  12. Erika Kienlin and Hilde Kreutz-Soergel: Memories of Hugo Distler. In: Zeitschrift für Hausmusik, year 1958, issue 2.
  13. Fred K. Prieberg : Handbook of German Musicians 1933–1945 , CD-Rom-Lexikon, Kiel 2004, p. 1187.
  14. Fred K. Prieberg: Handbook of German Musicians 1933–1945 , pp. 1188–1190.
  15. ^ Quote from Stefan Hahnheide, in: Contributions to musicology and music education, Hildesheim Musicological Works Volume 4 , Georg Olms Verlag, Hildesheim 1997, pp. 103-104.
  16. Fred K. Prieberg: Handbook of German Musicians 1933–1945 , pp. 1188–1190.
  17. ^ Fred K. Prieberg: Handbook of German Musicians 1933–1945 , p. 1190.
  18. ^ Stefan Hahnheide, in: Contributions to musicology and music education, Hildesheimer Musikwissenschaftliche Arbeit Volume 4 , Georg Olms Verlag, Hildesheim 1997, p. 106 with reference to a letter to Konrad Ameln dated December 20, 1935.
  19. Complete quotation from Fred K. Prieberg: Handbook of German Musicians 1933–1945 , p. 1192.
  20. ^ Fred K. Prieberg: Handbook of German Musicians 1933–1945 , p. 1192.
  21. Complete quotation from Fred K. Prieberg: Handbook of German Musicians 1933–1945 , pp. 1192–1193, source: Hugo Distler Archive, Lübeck.
  22. Complete quotation from Fred K. Prieberg: Handbook of German Musicians 1933–1945 , pp. 1193–1194, letter to the Typke family from September 20, 1939, kept in the Hugo Distler Archive in Lübeck.
  23. Fred K. Prieberg: Handbook of German Musicians 1933–1945 , p. 1194.
  24. a b Letter to Alfred Kreutz from Ahlbeck of August 17, 1942, quoted by Barbara Distler-Harth: Hugo Distler , Schott Mainz 2008, p. 220.
  25. Complete quotation from Fred K. Prieberg: Handbook of German Musicians 1933–1945 , p. 1195.
  26. ^ Stefan Hahnheide, in: Contributions to Musicology and Music Education, Hildesheim Musicological Works Volume 4 , Olms Verlag, Hildesheim 1997, p. 105.
  27. Information from the Bayerische Staatsbibliothek ( Memento of the original from December 22, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. . @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  28. ^ Hugo Distler estate .