The Schnütgen Museum is a museum for Christian art in Cologne's Altstadt-Süd district . Most of the exhibits were created in the Middle Ages between the 11th and 16th centuries in the Rhineland . Individual pieces come from the baroque and 19th century and also from other European countries and Byzantium .
Since 1956 the art museum has been housed in the Romanesque basilica of St. Cäcilien , and since 2010 with significantly expanded exhibition space in the newly built “Kulturquartier am Neumarkt”. This exhibition space was used for the first time from November 4, 2011 to February 26, 2012 for the special exhibition Splendor and Greatness of the Middle Ages - Cologne Masterpieces from the world's great collections .
Due to its collection and its research, the museum is an important institute for medieval research . It sees itself as "one of the most beautiful and richest medieval collections in Europe" in a row with the Cloisters in New York or the Musée national du Moyen Age in Paris.
First location Kunstgewerbemuseum
The museum is named after the cathedral capitular Alexander Schnütgen , who donated his extensive collection of Christian sacred art to the city of Cologne in 1906. As a condition for the donation, Schnütgen asked for a separate extension to the then arts and crafts museum at Hansaring 32 opposite Hansaplatz , which was to house the collection. It had already opened on May 2, 1900. According to plans by the architect Franz Brantzky - who also designed the arts and crafts museum - the extension in Hansaring 32a began with the laying of the foundation stone on November 4, 1908, the inauguration took place on October 26, 1910. As requested by the founder, the extension has been called the Schnütgen Collection since 1910 .
Schnütgen's former assistant, the theologian and art historian Fritz Witte , became the first curator of the collection and director of the museum . Between 1912 and 1926, Witte produced extensive publications on the liturgical implements and vestments as well as the sculptures in the collection. In 1918, before Alexander Schnütgen's death in the same year, the collection was renamed the Schnütgen Museum.
Relocation to the Heribert monastery
In 1932 the Schnütgen Museum moved into its own building for the first time: In the rooms of the rebuilt St. Heribert Abbey in Deutz on the right bank of the Rhine , a completely new exhibition concept was implemented on an area of 2000 square meters, which was committed to the ideas of the Bauhaus and the New Objectivity .
At the beginning of the Second World War in 1939, most of the exhibits were moved to monasteries, castles and the basement of the Museum of Applied Arts and the museum was closed. The medieval St. George's crucifix , today one of the most famous pieces in the museum, was housed in the safe of the Kreissparkasse for a while . The objects that remained in the exhibition rooms were destroyed by acts of war, including the abbey building, until 1945.
New opening in the Romanesque church of St. Cäcilien
After the end of the war, Hermann Schnitzler became director of the museum in 1953, which he practically had to rebuild; In the first years after the war he looked after the collection from Schloss Alfter , where most of the works of art were temporarily stored ; other pieces could gradually be brought back from their scattered depots and finally be completely reassembled in the rooms of Cologne University by the end of 1950 .
In cooperation with the government architect Karl Band , the plan was made to reopen the museum in the Romanesque basilica of St. Cäcilien. The former monastery was secularized in 1802 during the French occupation . At the request of the people of Cologne, Napoleon returned the area of the monastery building with the church to the city in 1805 for the construction of a hospital. St. Cäcilien then served as the chapel of the “Citizens' Hospital” until the Second World War.
The church building, badly damaged by Operation Millennium , was restored and, according to plans by Karl Band, a small extension was added for the library and administration; In May 1956, the museum was the first of the Cologne museums to reopen its doors after the war. At that time, the new location was still seen as a temporary solution; a 20-year user agreement was initially concluded with the archbishopric .
Shortly before, however, the church received a new ordination by Joseph Cardinal Frings ; St. Cäcilien fulfills its dual function as a museum and a church up to the present day, for example church services take place on Cäcilientag (November 22nd) and at Christmas.
At the same time, in 1956, the Pro Arte Medii Aevi Friends of the Schnütgen Museum eV was founded , which in the following decades was responsible for the purchase of a whole series of works of art and a series of publications. Konrad Adenauer was among the founding members .
Under Anton Legner , who ran the museum from 1970 to 1990, the exhibition space was expanded in 1977 by expanding the crypt and the museum was completely refurbished. The federal government's first economic stimulus program provided financial support .
From October 2001 to March 2003 the museum - renamed from Schnütgen Museum back to Museum Schnütgen in 2001 - was closed for extensive renovation and a number of works of art were loaned to other art museums, e.g. B. to Paris , Munich and Nuremberg . In the meantime, the exhibition concept has been adapted to contemporary needs and the rooms have been equipped with modern lighting, loudspeaker and security technology as well as a showcase system tailored to the ambience and works of art. An audiovisual tour system with mobile devices has since complemented the traditional tours.
Expansion in the cultural quarter at Neumarkt
From 2006 to 2010 the new building of the Kulturquartier am Neumarkt was built to the west of the Cäcilienkirche , which expands the area for the Schnütgen Museum by 60% to 1900 square meters and also houses the Rautenstrauch-Joest-Museum , the museum service and a hall of the adult education center .
For the first time since the prewar period in the Heribert monastery in Deutz , a number of other pieces previously stored in the depot are now also appropriately presented in addition to the collection of stained glass (e.g. Our Lady and St. Ursula or Moses and the Brazen Snake ) , a total of around 2000 of the 13,000 objects.
The new complex was opened with a ceremony on October 22, 2010.
- 1918–1937 Fritz Witte (curator since 1906)
- 1953–1970 Hermann Schnitzler (curator since 1937)
- 1970–1990 Anton Legner
- 1990-2010 Hiltrud Westermann-Angerhausen
- 2010/11 Dagmar Täube (acting)
- since January 2012 Moritz Woelk
Origin and scope
Alexander Schnütgen's collection arose out of the need to save art objects over a period of time when they were considered old-fashioned or worthless and threatened to deteriorate. His motto was "colligite fragmenta, ne pereant" (collect the leftover pieces so that they do not perish) . In an issue of the Zeitschrift für Christian Kunst , Schnütgen lists 500 panel and miniature paintings, 200 glass and reverse glass paintings , almost 600 sculptures, over 1,000 metal objects, 400 leather items, 200 paraments , over 100 glasses and jugs as well as 4,000 fabrics, embroidery and lace that he kept all of them in his private household.
After the collection was moved to the first museum rooms, the necessary inventory was made . In the following years there were individual acquisitions and further donations by Alexander Schnütgen, so that an expansion of the top floor in the arts and crafts museum was necessary as early as 1911. A foundation established in 1912 was supposed to provide financial support for the further expansion of the collection. When Schnütgen died in November 1918, other holdings, including paintings, sculptures and books, were inherited by the museum, so that it had to close the following year in order to be able to organize the growing collection.
In the course of time the character and scope of the collection changed, so that today only a small part comes from the original Schnütgen collection. In 1930 a number of works of art were auctioned to finance an expansion of the Museum of Decorative Arts. Another change in the structure of the collection was marked in 1932, when the Cologne museums were reorganized according to their subject areas. Everyday objects and the painting collection went to the Kunstgewerbemuseum and Wallraf-Richartz-Museum , for which the Schnütgen-Museum received sacred holdings from the other Cologne museums, such as ivory works, a tympanum from St. Pantaleon and medieval glass paintings, which were received in the new buildings in the Heribert monastery in Deutz representative space could be given.
The collection has been continuously expanded through donations and purchases, as well as permanent loans. One of the best-known exhibits, the torso of the crucifix from St. Georg , was acquired by Fritz Witte in the 1920s; under Hermann Schnitzler and Anton Legner, chasuble , Romanesque enamel art, glass paintings and ivory miniatures were added. The Pro Arte Medii Aevi association acquired a not insignificant number of pieces . A sponsorship campaign under the motto “Let's not let them mold” in 2001 encouraged private individuals, companies and organizations to assume the restoration costs. In this way, a large number of works of art that had previously only been kept in the depot could be restored.
Today the museum houses a total of around 13,000 exhibits, including Romanesque and Gothic sculptures made of stone, wood pictures and ivory carvings , treasure art made of precious metal and a collection of liturgical vestments and fabrics from more than 1000 years. Since the post-war period, when the museum was re-established on the comparatively small exhibition area of 742 square meters in the Cäcilienkirche - in Deutz there was almost three times the area available - there has been a permanent lack of space. Only around 10 percent of the entire collection can be shown in the existing exhibition rooms.
Exhibition concepts over time
1956 to 1977
Several generations of museum directors have historically taken different conceptual approaches, some of which involve renovations and renovations. The first post-war presentation from 1956 connected the church interior of St. Cäcilien as part of the collection with museum fixtures, responsible for this in addition to museum director Schnitzler, the Cologne interior designer Herbert Selldorf . Outstanding individual objects in the church interior were supplemented by built-in showcases, which presented objects according to liturgical function or as a group of types. These "type series" go back to the original collection concept by Alexander Schnütgen.
1977 to 2001
The museum underwent a second refurbishment and expansion under Anton Legner in 1977, who tried to set up the objects "floating" in space. For this purpose, some of the sculptures were given substructures made of acrylic glass , and the new showcases, which appear much stronger in the room, should be so minimalist that they do not distract from the objects. Schnütgen's type series also had an effect on this concept, for example in the presentation of the bronze crosses and the altar glasses.
2003 to 2010
With the completion of the renovation in 2003 under Hiltrud Westermann-Angershausen, a thematic exhibition concept was developed that was intended to facilitate access to the collection for non-specialists. The spatial conditions of the basilica provided the structure for the thematic groups. The large west gallery was dedicated to the theme of "Saints as strong role models". Two smaller galleries presented bronze works and reliquaries .
In contrast to the previous concepts, the central nave was largely kept free of exhibits and showcases. The side aisles were dedicated to the life of Jesus Christ and Mary , the choir as the traditional liturgical center of the church was dominated by choir stalls and the golden plaque from St. Ursula .
The most important exhibits on the individual topics were placed centrally on the pillars facing the central nave. For example, the crucifix of St. George , the Aachen Madonna , a relief with the Adoration of the Magi and the Brussels Passion retable were found on the southeast column .
Finally, the crypt, a few steps lower, below the west gallery, was dedicated to the subject of death (“ Memento Mori ”) in Christian culture.
After the completion of the extension in the Neumarkt cultural quarter, the so-called “ band building” - previously administrative rooms and foyer - was also included. Now, for the first time, works of art can be exhibited that had not found a place before, including a selection of medieval glass art in large daylight areas. The inner areas of the new exhibition area are dedicated to the stone sculptures, the former administration wing houses the textiles in a light-protected area.
The director Moritz Woelk, who has been active since 2012, sets new focal points in the exhibition concept. Tried and tested topic groups such as “Memento Mori” or “Cologne” were given prominent new places. New objects such as the Cologne Town Hall prophets have dominated the large west gallery since 2014. While the church interior initially remained free of adjustment structures, outstanding new objects are now being presented again in central locations in individual showcases. Prominent sculptures such as the crucifix of St. George or the Aachen Madonna have been repositioned. The crypt is dedicated to medieval manuscripts and the life of Alexander Schnütgen as a collector.
Even under Woelk's overall rather experimental approach - under the motto “living museum” - traditional concepts have been preserved, such as the “treasure chamber” in the former sacristy, where a large collection of Ursula and other reliquary busts now occupies an entire wall - and This closes the circle to Alexander Schnütgen's “series of types”.
Conceptually, wooden sculptures form a focal point of the exhibition space, and the torso of the crucifix of St. George from the Salier period is one of the most important pieces in the collection. The figure, missing both arms and feet, is carved from willow wood and 189.5 cm high. The sculpture - still in an unrestored condition - was exhibited in the Christ Pavilion at the Expo 2000 and then subjected to a comprehensive restoration, during which various paint coats were removed and parts of the original version were exposed.
A form of reliquary that was particularly typical for the Middle Ages in Cologne was the Ursula bust , of which the Schnütgen Museum has around 30 copies in its collection. The busts were considered an “export hit” by the city of Cologne, which was rich in bones due to its large Roman burial grounds.
Among the numerous representations of the Madonna (e.g. Madonna on the broad throne ) in the collection, the Aachen Madonna is one of the most important sculptures in the museum. The approximately one meter high oak sculpture in the north aisle was created around 1230, was originally covered with gold leaf and also served as a reliquary container.
Among the ivory carvings in the museum's treasury, the Harrach diptych , which was created around 800 at the court school of Charlemagne , is one of the most important pieces. It shows scenes from the four gospels of the New Testament in eight pictures , which is why it is assumed that it was originally not used as a diptych, but as part of the front cover of a gospel book . The Harrach Diptych is a permanent loan from the Ludwig Collection .
In the center of the choir, which is dedicated to the topic of worship, is the golden plaque from St. Ursula . It is a Romanesque goldsmith's work in connection with Gothic painting; the panel originally formed part of the altar of the Romanesque church of St. Ursula. The original version from the 12th century depicted Christ in the center, framed by the 12 apostles . In the late Gothic version, Christ was replaced by a Mary with a child and the apostles were rededicated as regional Cologne saints.
Large areas of the new building area are dedicated to the medieval glass paintings, of which the museum has one of the most important collections in Europe. In addition to works from Cologne from the 13th to 16th centuries, the collection includes pieces from the Lower and Middle Rhine, the Netherlands and France. The spectrum ranges from individual fragments from windows of Cologne Cathedral and other churches, such as the well-known King's Head , to entire leaded glass windows, such as the stoning of Saint Stephen and the pair of windows, the Death of the Virgin and the Coronation of Mary , which may come from an unknown private chapel.
Among the new acquisitions of the 21st century are some prominent pieces, including a reliquary diptych from the Frédéric Spitzer collection . Here an older reliquary was integrated into a more magnificent new one. One of the “most valuable testimonies to a heyday of alabaster sculpture” is a two-part alabaster relief from the beginning of the 15th century showing the Annunciation to Mary .
In the early years one was initially concerned with the collection itself and its inventory and organization. In 1921, the museum provided the rooms for an exhibition accompanying the conference for Christian art and was able to purchase new works of art with the conference budget. Another exhibition in 1927 presented medieval art from private collections in Cologne . In 1933, masterpieces of Cologne goldsmithing for 800 years were presented in the new museum rooms in the Deutzer Heribertskloster .
post war period
After the war, the Wallraf-Richartz-Museum, the Diocesan Museum and the Schnütgen-Museum organized their first joint exhibition in the Eigelsteintorburg in 1946 . One year later, works of art from the Essen Cathedral Treasury , from Cologne Cathedral and the Schnütgen Museum were shown together under the motto Romanesque art at Cologne University .
The first exhibition at the post-war site of St. Cäcilien with the subject of Great Medieval Art from private ownership took place in 1960.
The major exhibitions of the 1970s
Among the numerous special exhibitions at the Museum Schnütgen, some have met with a particular response. The first of the “major” exhibitions under the title Rhine and Maas thematically covered six centuries of cultural interrelationships in the Rhine-Maas area. It was organized in 1972 in collaboration with the Belgian ministries for French and Dutch culture. The concept of a scientifically demanding exhibition jointly organized with the Belgian neighbors went back to ideas from Hermann Schnitzler at the beginning of the 1950s. After a good two months and 218,000 visitors in the Josef-Haubrich-Kunsthalle , it closed its doors and in the autumn went to the Royal Museums of Fine Arts in Brussels.
When the church interior was completely cleared shortly before the renovation work, the empty church interior was used from April to July 1975 for the Monumenta Annonis exhibition - Cologne and Siegburg. Worldview and Art in the High Middle Ages. Among other things, documents and manuscripts were borrowed from the Vatican Library and the Vatican Secret Archives for the first time .
The third and with over 300,000 visitors the most popular of the major exhibitions was The Parler und der Schöne Stil 1350–1400. European art among the Luxembourgers in 1978. The exhibition was devoted to the era of Luxembourg rule in the Holy Roman Empire and the various aspects of the geographically widespread influence of the so-called “ Parler style ”, which was widespread in Central Europe . It was organized again in the art gallery and showed u. a. Loans from Prague , Poland and the GDR , an unusual factor in times of the Cold War . An international colloquium on the exhibition followed the following year; the three-volume exhibition catalog contains scientific contributions by 140 European authors.
The major exhibition Ornamenta Ecclesia - Art and Artists of the Romanesque , organized in 1985, accompanied the Cologne Year of the Romanesque Churches on the occasion of the restoration of the city's twelve large Romanesque church buildings as far as possible. The exhibition in the Josef-Haubrich-Kunsthalle was accompanied by a three-volume catalog and tried to focus not only on the valuable objects of Romanesque art but also on the producing artists and artisans.
The exhibition Himmelslicht. European stained glass in the century of Cologne cathedral construction (1248–1349) on the occasion of the 750th anniversary of the laying of the foundation stone of Cologne cathedral, around 72,000 people visited in 1998/1999. Gothic church windows were on show, naturally mostly built into churches - the largest collection of high medieval stained glass in a museum to date.
There were more recent exhibitions on the occasion of the reopening after the renovation in 2003 and for the 100th anniversary in 2006. The latter was organized in cooperation with the neighboring "Art Church " St. Peter , which provided additional exhibition space.
Exhibitions from 2011 in the Kulturquartier
Splendor and grandeur of the Middle Ages
The first exhibition in the new rooms in the Kulturquartier was “Splendor and Greatness of the Middle Ages - Cologne Masterpieces from the Great Collections of the World” from November 4, 2011 to February 26, 2012. In addition to 65 own pieces, around 160 works of art from all over the world returned to Cologne to present Cologne's heyday from 1000 to 1550. Many of these works of art have not been seen in Cologne for centuries.
A gilded welcome (before 1453) from the Counts of Katzenelnbogen
In a survey by Welt am Sonntag among ten renowned critics who were supposed to judge the art year 2011, the exhibition was chosen as the best exhibition in NRW 2011 .
The three kings. Myth, art and cult
On the occasion of the transfer of the Three Kings relics from Milan to Cologne, which was 850 years old in 2014, the Schnütgen Museum showed around 130 loans from around 70 collections and museums in Europe and New York as well as works of art from the own stocks. The time span extends from the 3rd to the 16th century, with a small digression to the recent past.
Expedition Middle Ages
This special exhibition from October 20, 2017 to January 28, 2018 showed around 200 objects from the collection that are normally stored in the depots. This included works of goldsmithing that were shown for the first time, figurines made of clay and the light-sensitive chasuble of Anno II . What was new for the museum in terms of museum education was the fact that there was no classic catalog, but that the exhibits could be explored in a playful way through an interactive graphic novel , not just by children. In addition to a classic accompanying program, comic workshops were offered for children.
Arnt the picture cutter - master of inspired sculptures
From June 25 to September 20, 2020, the Schnütgen Museum is showing a monographic special exhibition on the work of Arnt Beeldsnider , also known as Arnt van Zwolle or Arnt von Kalkar . Around 60 works by the artist, who worked between around 1460 and 1491, are on display. Among other things, the George Altar from the Church of St. Nicolai in Kalkar, which the museum restored before the exhibition, is on display.
Numerous publications have been edited or written by the museum or its respective directors or employees in the course of the museum's history. Fritz Witte, the first curator, wrote the first guide in 1910 under the title Schnütgen Cöln Collection . One focus of the editorship is the scientifically supported catalogs of the major exhibitions, some of which have become standard literature in their field, such as B. the catalogs for the exhibitions Rhein und Maas (1972) or Die Parler (1978).
More recent publications either deal with the history of the museum and its works of art themselves in the form of commemorative publications or chronicles, or focus on e.g. B. in the form of inventory catalogs on a single subject area of the collection, such as the liturgical vestments. 11th to 19th centuries or The Wood Sculptures of the Middle Ages .
For a younger audience, the children's guide Treasures from the Middle Ages was published in the Museum Schnütgen in Cologne in 2005 .
The last edition of Hermann Schnitzler's selection catalog Das Schnütgen-Museum, a selection from 1968, will be followed by a new manual on the collection in 2018/2019, edited by Moritz Woelk and Manuela Beer . In two language editions (German / English) on 470 pages, it presents 280 individual pieces as representatives of the collection and its work groups.
In addition to thematically delimited tours through the collection, the Romanesque church interior was regularly used for concerts of medieval music. The Schnütgen Concerts series. Medieval music took place regularly from 2003 to 2014. In 2015, two vocal concerts were held under the title Cäcilienkonzerte in cooperation with ZAMUS, the Cologne Center for Early Music.
The museum is ideally and financially supported by the Pro Arte Medii Aevi association. Friends of Museum Schnütgen e. V.
- Anton Legner (Hrsg.): Small Festschrift for the triple anniversary. Schnütgen Museum, Cologne 1981, .
- Anton von Euw : Schnütgen-Museum Cologne , in: Museum , Braunschweig, October 1984, 2nd edition 1990, .
- Anton Legner: Schnütgen Museum Cologne . Schnell & Steiner, Munich / Zurich 1971, ISBN 3-7954-0564-5 .
- Anton Legner: Rhenish Art and the Cologne Schnütgen Museum. Greven, Cologne 1991, ISBN 3-7743-0264-2 .
- Hiltrud Westermann-Angerhausen , Dagmar Täube (Hrsg.): The Middle Ages in 111 masterpieces from the Museum Schnütgen Cologne. Greven, Cologne 2003, ISBN 3-7743-0341-X .
- Vernissage. The magazine for the exhibition. No. 2/03: Reopening of the Museum Schnütgen with the special exhibition Present in the Middle Ages , .
- Sankt Cäcilien - Museum Schnütgen and Sankt Peter , Kleine Kunstführer series , Regensburg 2005, ISBN 3-7954-6503-6 .
- Hiltrud Westermann-Angerhausen, Manuela Beer (ed.): 100 years of the Schnütgen donation. A chronicle. Greven, Cologne 2006, ISBN 3-7743-0384-3 .
- Dagmar Täube , Miriam Verena Fleck (ed.): Splendor and greatness of the Middle Ages. Cologne masterpieces from the great collections of the world. Hirmer, Munich 2011, ISBN 978-3-7774-4531-1 .
- Moritz Woelk, Manuela Beer (ed.): Museum Schnütgen. Collection manual . 1st edition. Hirmer Verlag, Cologne 2018, ISBN 978-3-7774-2893-2 .
- Official website
- 360 ° tour of the museum
- Literature by and about Schnütgen Museum 1918–2001 in the catalog of the German National Library
- Hugo Borger: The Cologne museums. Cologne 1990, p. 45.
- Martin Oehlen: Museums in Cologne , Cologne 2004, p. 105; Hiltrud Westermann-Angershausen: The collection ; in: Vernissage No. 2/03, p. 12.
- Anton Legner, anniversary commemoration. The Schnütgen Museum within the Cologne museum family , in: Small Festschrift for the threefold anniversary; 1981, p. 13 (spelling there: Frantz Brantzky )
- Arnold Stelzmann, Robert Frohn: Illustrated history of the city of Cologne , 11th edition, Cologne, Bachem Verlag, 1990, p. 252.
- Anton Legner, anniversary commemoration. The Schnütgen Museum within the Cologne museum family. in: Small Festschrift for the triple anniversary; P. 18.
- Speech by Mayor Fritz Schramma on the occasion of the reopening of the Schnütgen Museum on March 23, 2003 (PDF; 15 kB).
- Museum Schnütgen on ksta.de, October 22, 2010 ( Memento of the original from October 25, 2010 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. .
- Martin Oehlen: The new Cologne cultural quarter on ksta.de, October 22, 2010 .
- chap. 6, verse 12 Gospel of John ( Vulgate ).
- Sabine Czymmek, microcosm in ivory. in: Small Festschrift for the triple anniversary; P. 28.
- Manuela Beer: The Middle Ages on display. A brief look into the history of the museum presentation of the Schnütgen Collection . In: Manuela Beer, Moritz Woelk (ed.): Museum Schnütgen. Collection manual . Schirmer, Munich 2018, ISBN 978-3-7774-2893-2 , pp. 19-20 .
- Sankt Cäcilien - Museum Schnütgen and Sankt Peter; Schnell-Kunstführer, Regensburg 2005, p. 17.
- Manuela Beer, Der Kruzifixus von St. Georg in: Vernissage 02/03, p. 46.
- Manuela Beer, Images of the Life of Christ in: Vernissage 02/03, p. 20.
- Harrach diptych in the picture index of art and architecture .
- Rainer Kahsnitz : Harrachsches Diptychon. In: Peter van den Brink, Sarvenaz Ayooghi (ed.): Charlemagne - Charlemagne. Karl's art. Catalog of the special exhibition Karls Kunst from June 20 to September 21, 2014 in the Center Charlemagne , Aachen. Sandstein, Dresden 2014, ISBN 978-3-95498-093-2 , pp. 174-177 (with lit.).
- Reliquendiptych . In: Manuela Beer, Moritz Woelk (ed.): Museum Schnütgen. Collection manual . Schirmer, Munich 2018, ISBN 978-3-7774-2893-2 , pp. 194-197 .
- Annunciation to Mary . In: Manuela Beer, Moritz Woelk (ed.): Museum Schnütgen. Collection manual . Schirmer, Munich 2018, ISBN 978-3-7774-2893-2 , pp. 236-237 .
- Stefan Palm: The splendor and grandeur of the Middle Ages is "the best exhibition in NRW". In a survey, critics spoke out in favor of the show at Museum Schnütgen. City of Cologne - Office for Press and Public Relations, December 22, 2011, accessed on December 26, 2011 .
- With the Museum Schnütgen to the "Expedition Middle Ages" / Art / Culture / / report-k.de - Cologne's Internet newspaper. Retrieved May 3, 2020 .
- Moritz Woelk, Manuela Beer (ed.): Museum Schnütgen. Collection manual . 1st edition. Hirmer Verlag, Cologne 2018, ISBN 978-3-7774-2893-2 , p. 11 .
- Schnuetgen Concerts | Classical / early music in Cologne. Retrieved May 3, 2020 .
- Museum Schnütgen | Our offers at a glance. Retrieved May 3, 2020 .