Hans Apengeter

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The Master Hans Apengeter , Johann and Jan Apengeter (* before 1300 "in Saxony Land", probably in Halberstadt , † after 1351) was an in northern Germany migratory sculptor and ore caster of the 14th century.

Preliminary remark

While the “baptism” in St. Marien in Lübeck was destroyed during the war, the Fünte still exists today
Lübeck Fünte

In northern Germany, due to the lack of suitable stone for processing, fonts made of limestone imported into the churches from the island of Gotland were very common. These could be transported cheaply to northern Germany by ship. These stone baptisms must have been an export hit from the Baltic Sea island since the 13th century, because a large number of them can still be proven in Schleswig-Holstein alone . As necessary ballast , large quantities of this stone also ended up unprocessed in the port cities on the southern Baltic coast. The increasing need for splendid furnishings, especially in the larger churches in the rich trading cities, could not be satisfied in this way. In contrast to southern Germany, there was therefore a special development for northern Germany. The large, representative fifths were made here in bronze from the 14th century . They were made by bell founders and by Apengetern , sometimes also known as basin workers . Two methods of shaping were used: the lost wax process and, alternatively, the clay shirt process. The best-known North German foundryman of these Erzfünten is Hans Apengeter, who is named on the frieze of the baptism in Lübeck's Marienkirche from 1337 in the then common Middle Low German: Vergip all wrongdoing deme di dit Vat made Hans Apengeter what he called and what was born van Sassenland. Not only the foundation of this baptism by the Lübeck patricians Eberhard von Alen and Johann von Schepenstede is exceptionally well documented. The life path of Hans Apengeters can be easily understood from his work.

life and work

Kolberg chandelier (1327)
Grave monument for Bishop Heinrich Bochholt in the choir of Lübeck Cathedral

He created in 1327 a large menorah as a foundation of the first Dean Godfrey of Vida for the St. Mary's Church in Kolberg , which is now considered the most valuable features of art, then a bushel for Rostock , which now in the collection of the Cultural Historical Museum in the Abbey of the Holy Cross is . Lindtke also wants to attribute a knock on the door of the castle church in Stettin to him. This was followed by the unsigned baptismal font for the Marienkirche in Wismar , which imposes itself as a model for the baptism in St. Marien due to the similarity. In Lübeck it is proven in 1332 through land acquisition. He bought a foundry at the corner of Breite Straße and Beckergrube from a colleague's widow and remained occupied by property transactions in Lübeck until 1344. Here the baptism for St. Marien was the only one of the three large Lübeck bronze baptisms made from one piece; In this case, the reliefs were cast at the same time and not riveted on later. The monumental tomb of Bishop Heinrich II. Bochholt, who died in 1341, in the Gothic high choir of Lübeck Cathedral is also assigned to him. In 1344 he signed the fifth of the Nikolaikirche in Kiel by name , the lion's feet of the basin establish the connection to the Kolberg chandelier. Between 1340 and 1350, a bronze door puller from the Lübeck town hall with a diameter of 63 cm, which is now on display in the St. Anne's Museum , could have been made from his workshop . A hexagonal Gothic bronze baptismal font from 1391 in the Nikolai Church on Fehmarn is also attributed to the Apengeter district.

According to the assumption first expressed by Theodor Hach , he then wandered back towards his homeland. Both a bell cast in 1348 for the Johanniskirche in Göttingen and a bell cast in 1350 for the Hildesheim Cathedral are signed Hannes van Halberstadt and Jan von Halberstadt , as is the candlestick in Kolberg.


Individual evidence

  1. Gustav Lindtke: Lübeck Bronze baptisms of the Middle Ages. In Der Wagen 1966, p. 55.
  2. ^ Friedrich Schlie: The art and history monuments of the Grand Duchy of Mecklenburg-Schwerin. Volume II: The district court districts of Wismar, Grevesmühlen, Rehna, Gadebusch and Schwerin. Schwerin 1898, reprint Schwerin 1992, ISBN 3-910179-06-1 , p. 39/40; suspected an independent, superior artist.
  3. Complete text of the inscription on the tomb with explanation and translation by: Adolf Clasen: Verhabene Schätze - Lübeck's Latin inscriptions in the original and in German. Lübeck 2002, p. 46 ff. ISBN 3-7950-0475-6 .
  4. Gustav Lindtke: Lübeck Bronze baptisms of the Middle Ages. In Der Wagen 1966, p. 60.
  5. ^ Door puller on the Schleswig-Holstein museum server
  6. ^ Repert. f. Kunstwissenschaft 1881, p. 177 ff., Quoted from Thieme-Becker .

Web links

Commons : Hans Apengeter  - collection of images, videos and audio files