Düssel


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Düssel
Course of the Düssel (interactive map)

Course of the Düssel ( interactive map )

Data
Water code DE : 27392
location North Rhine-Westphalia , Germany
River system Rhine
Drain over Rhine  → North Sea
source In Wulfrath -Blomrath
51 ° 17 '49 "  N , 7 ° 4' 37"  O
Source height approx.  240  m above sea level NN
muzzle In Düsseldorf in the Rhine coordinates: 51 ° 10 ′ 52 ″  N , 6 ° 47 ′ 45 ″  E 51 ° 10 ′ 52 ″  N , 6 ° 47 ′ 45 ″  E
Mouth height 32  m above sea level NN
Height difference approx. 208 m
Bottom slope approx. 5.2 ‰
length 39.9 km (Brückerbach estuary, GEWKZ: 27392)
Catchment area 162.88 km²
Left tributaries Kleine Düssel , Eselsbach
Right tributaries Holzer Bach, Mettmanner Bach, Pillebach, Hubbelrather Bach, Rotthäuser Bach
Big cities Wuppertal , Düsseldorf
Medium-sized cities Wülfrath , Mettmann , Haan , Erkrath
The Düssel at the place where the Neanderthal man was found

The Düssel at the place where the Neanderthal man was found

The Düssel is an approximately 40 kilometer long right tributary of the Rhine in North Rhine-Westphalia . It rises in Wülfrath- Blomrath on the city limits of Velbert-Neviges in the Mettmann district . After running through the cities of Wülfrath, Wuppertal , Mettmann , Haan and Erkrath , it flows into the Rhine with four arms in the urban area of Düsseldorf . The Düssel is the namesake for the Wülfrath district of Düssel and the Düssel house there , the city of Düsseldorf and its district of Düsseltal .

etymology

The name Düssel probably goes back to the Germanic thusila and means “roar, rustle, roar”, old high German doson . Around 1065 the brook is called Tussale (the showering, rushing, roaring).

The course of the Düssel

Natural spatial structure of the course

According to the handbook of the natural spatial structure of Germany, the Düssel crosses several natural spatial units in its course . The source area is in the Düsselhügelland (337 1 .18), the upper course briefly touches the Dornaper limestone area (337 1 .16) and the middle course with the Neandertal crosses the Mettmann loess terraces (337 1 .00). At Alt-Erkrath there is a short section through the natural area of ​​the Düsseltal estuary (550.13). The mouth delta is located in the Düsseldorf-Duisburg Rhine plain (575.30).

Course to Düsseldorf

The Düsselschlucht in the Neandertal 1835
The Düssel with inlets and tributaries on a map from 1645. The main Düssel begins at the top right at Tennes Heyde ( W.Blaeu / J.Blaeu - Atlas Maior : Iuliacensis et Montensis Ducatus - excerpt)
Düsselquelle in Wülfrath
Source of the Düssel near Velbert-Neviges
Confluence of the Mettmanner Bach and Düssel at the work of art Woher-Wohin
The Düssel in the Neandertal
The Düssel in the Neandertal at high water
The Düssel in Erkrath in normal condition
The Düssel in Erkrath at high water
The Northern Düssel in Düsseldorf-Gerresheim
The city moat on Düsseldorf's Königsallee is fed with water from the Düssel
On the Kühlwetterstrasse behind the ice rink on Brehmstrasse
Barrage of the Kittelbach in Heinrichstrasse

The Düssel is formed from four to eight spring waters. The highest of the springs, the actual Düssel, is in Wülfrath near Gut Blomtrath on the city limits of Neviges. From here the Düssel flows through the Wülfrath districts of Schlupkothen , Aprath and Düssel, past the former Aprath Castle and the Aprath Mühle , before it passes in the Hahnenfurth and Schöller Wuppertal area and continues its course in the area of ​​the city of Haan . Here it unites in the center of Gruiten -Dorf with the Kleine Düssel , a tributary that is 4.3 km long and rises to the east in the Bolthausen district in the Vohwinkel district of Wuppertal .

To the west of Gruiten it flows through the Neandertal nature reserve and marks the city boundary between Erkrath and Mettmann . There the river has cut deeply into the subsoil made of Devonian clay schist and reef limestone and thus forms a partially narrow valley that was only accessible for limestone mining in the first half of the 20th century between Gruiten and Braken by the routes of a company's own small railway (today Routes). The canyon-like narrowness of the bottle has disappeared with the limestone mining. The second narrow, mentioned in 1672 and restored in 1986 and located between the Thunis and Bracken farms, Huppertsbracken lime kiln is still preserved. Numerous mill buildings such as the Winkelsmühle are located in this section of the valley. In some cases, systems for irrigation of meadows have been preserved ( raft ditches ) .

As the largest tributary, the Düssel, coming from a wider valley, flows into the Mettmann Bach . At this point, a small valley widening, the medieval Kölnische Straße (Strata coloniensis) crossed the valley. After that it narrowed abruptly to a gorge, called rock or dog cliff , which was unusual for northwestern Germany .

This gorge was named Neandershöhle from around 1800 after the famous pastor, composer and church musician Joachim Neander , who lived in Düsseldorf, and Neanderthal from around 1850 . In the first half of the 19th century, the valley was a popular destination for painters from the Düsseldorf School , who conducted their studies of rock formations and plants here. In 1837 the Neanderthal inspired the painter Eduard Steinbrück to paint the allegorical picture The Nymph of the Düssel , which Prince Carl of Prussia bought from him. With the limestone mining from 1849, the narrowness of the former Neanderthal, which inspired the painters to create romantic motifs, has disappeared and a spacious valley has emerged.

At the confluence of the Mettmanner Bach there is the art trail MenschenSpuren and the Neanderthal Museum, inaugurated in 1996 . A little further on, following the Düsseldorf run, on the picturesque Rabenstein rock outcrop is the site of the famous fossil Neandertal 1 , which gave the Neanderthal man its name, a prehistoric man of the Pleistocene . The site was rediscovered in 1997 and opened to the public a few years ago. A little further in the heart of Erkrath, there has been the sculpture trail on the Düssel since 2018. There are currently nine art objects by members of the artists' association Neanderartgroup and artist colleagues who are friends on the banks of the Düssel between Bachstrasse and Toni-Turek-Stadion (Neanderlandsteig) .

Coming from the Neandertal, the Düssel flows through the city of Erkrath , where it was relocated to a new river bed in some places between the 1950s and 1970s due to the expansion of residential areas, road construction and new buildings such as the town hall. Here the Hubbelrather Bach, into which the Stinderbach flowed shortly before, and the Rotthäuser Bach flow into the Düssel. After leaving the village, it meanders past Haus Morp through the predominantly agricultural area between Erkrath and Düsseldorf-Gerresheim ; this is the last remaining natural section of the river.

Inland delta in Düsseldorf

Division into the southern (left) and northern Düssel (right) in Gerresheim

The Düssel is eponymous for Düsseldorf . An inland delta with four arms to the Rhine is completely within the urban area. For the first time, the river at Höherhof in Düsseldorf-Gerresheim divides into the northern and southern Düssel . Both streams later split again. The Kittelbach branches off from the northern Düssel and the Brückerbach from the southern Düssel. To differentiate, from there on, with a view of the entire delta, one also speaks of the Inner Northern or Southern Düssel. The only little distant underground mouths of these two arms, which run in Düsseldorf's old town , are piped up because of the Rhine bank tunnel, while the mouths of the other two streams flow naturally into the Rhine. The drainage can be regulated by splitting works on the three sheaths. When the Rhine floods, the inflow to the inner arms is throttled so that their more critical mouths in the city center are relieved. Almost all of the city's water architecture , with the exception of Benrath Castle ( Itter ) and Kalkumer Castle ( Schwarzbach ), are fed by water from the Düssel.

Shortly before it flows into the Rhine, the southern and northern Düssel are connected by the moat on Königsallee . The open connection of the moat to the Northern Düssel was completed in 2018. First excavations in 2012 confirmed the assumption that this connection already existed historically. The short connection to the southern Düssel is piped. Then as now, the four bodies of water form a square around the former core city of Düsseldorf.

Northern Düssel

After the division of the Düssel at the Höherhof in Gerresheim , the Northern Düssel crosses under the railway tracks from Düsseldorf to Wuppertal and the site of the former glassworks . North of the road to the Mauresköthen it flows again above ground but dead straight and canalised past allotments to the northwest until it crosses Dreherstraße. Then it flows through the Ostpark , crosses Grafenberger Allee and Simrockstraße, behind it also Graf-Recke-Straße and continues north. At the Heinrichstraße splitting plant, which is at the beginning, the Kittelbach branches off, which runs further north, while the Innere Nördliche Düssel finds its way west towards the Zoopark in the Düsseltal district . It flows through this park, where the Düsseldorf Zoo used to be, and is one of the few places in the Düsseldorf city area where the Düssel is allowed to flow relatively naturally through a green area. Behind the zoo, it crosses the ice stadium on Brehmstraße between the main stadium and the newly built training hall, flows under Brehmstraße and then runs above ground along Kühlwetterstraße under Grunerstraße to Buscher Mühle . It then crosses the north-south railway line, on Yorckstrasse the northern Düssel has been renatured in a small park (an extension is under construction as part of the Derendorf new urban quarters ), and then piped across the city for several hundred meters underground to run away. Here it crosses Bülowstrasse and Sommersstrasse, then bends to Jülicher Strasse, only to reappear briefly on Annastrasse. It then flows again as a tunnel towards the south along Eulerstraße, reappears and flows along Prinz-Georg-Straße as a very narrow, canalized stream between the streets before it runs underground again. After she has crossed Vagedesstrasse, she emerges again. In the Malkastenpark , at the Jacobihaus and at the Malkasten-Haus in Pempelfort , it forms an important landscape design element and feeds the “Venusteich”. The sculptor Leo Müsch paid her artistic reverence there in 1898 as the “Düsselnixe” fountain sculpture . In canal-like severity, it then flanks the gardens on Goltsteinstrasse and Seufzerallee in the Alter Hofgarten , there feeds the pool at the end of the Reitallee and flows into the Neue Hofgarten, where it forms the pond at the Landskrone and flows under the Golden Bridge . The open branch to the city ​​moat on Königsallee has been there since 2018 , where the Neptune fountain is also fed with water from the Düssel.

Under Heinrich-Heine-Allee it becomes a tunnel again and flows, invisible to visitors to the old town, past the North Rhine-Westphalia art collection , Grabbeplatz and Kom (m) ödchen under Mühlenstrasse. At Josef-Wimmer-Gasse it emerges for the last time and flows in a canal in the area of ​​Liefergasse. Directly at the beginning of Burgplatz it flows piped across and invisibly under the square, past the castle tower , only to be diverted into the Rhine at a jetty, invisible from the bank and only a few hundred meters from the inlet area of ​​the southern Düssel . At this point, the Düssel gave the village on its banks the name Düsseldorf as early as the Middle Ages .

Mouth of the northern Düssel at the castle tower
Kittelbach

The Kittelbach is a tributary of the Northern Düssel, which branches off towards the north along Heinrichstrasse. Compared to the Northern Düssel, it is less piped underground. It runs north-west to the Mörsenbroicher Ei , past the ARAG Tower and then along Grashofstrasse. Here the stream is partially tunneled and changes its direction to the north. After the Kittelbach the north-south railway line and a large industrial area in Dusseldorf-Derendorf has flowed under, he comes back to the fore and flows through the district Unterrath . It crosses the An der Piwipp street and continues almost straight to the north. In Unterrath the brook runs northwest and crosses Unterrather Straße. The river bed in the Kittelbach landscape park was subsequently renatured , crosses the A44 motorway and then meanders through a parking area at the airport. Afterwards the Kittelbach flows underground again through the area of ​​the Düsseldorf airport and its runways and reappears behind it, only to flow westwards towards Düsseldorf-Kaiserswerth . There it crosses the Alte Landstrasse and the Niederrheinstrasse and flows south of the ruins of the Kaiserpfalz Kaiserswerth into the Rhine.

The Kittelbach gave its name to the “Kittelbachpiraten”, a “militant right-wing youth association” founded in 1925, the majority of which joined the Hitler Youth or the SA in 1933 . During the Second World War , the name was adopted by a loose group of resistant and persecuted young people, comparable to the Edelweiss pirates in Cologne.

Southern Düssel

After the division of the Düssel at the Höherhof in Gerresheim , the Südliche Düssel flows above ground in a southerly direction through Düsseldorf-Vennhausen, initially parallel to Reichenbacher Weg. Here she crosses the Sandträgerweg. It then runs roughly parallel to Neusalzer Weg and Kamper Weg until it reaches the Duisburg – Cologne freight line north of Eller station . It crosses under this railway line and less than 100 meters further - in the meantime in the area of Düsseldorf-Eller - also the tracks of the S-Bahn line 1. Now it flows parallel to Vennhauser Allee, crosses under Gumbertstraße, at a very acute angle Karlsruher Strasse and finally Heidelberger Strasse. It then runs between Reiterhof and Schützenplatz to the underpass of the Düsseldorf – Cologne railway line, around 200 meters south of the Eller Süd S-Bahn station . Behind the underpass, the Südliche Düssel flows in a south-westerly direction at a certain distance, parallel to the street Am Straußenkreuz to its end. Then, running along the edge of the Eller cemetery , it initially maintains its direction. In this way it is close to the A46 motorway . There, where the Eselsbach joins the southern Düssel, it makes a right turn and initially flows on the northern side for around 200 meters parallel to the motorway and the cemetery border.

Before its confluence, the Eselsbach flows as a union of the Sedentaler Bach (source in Millrath ), Mahnerter Bach and Hühnerbach (sources north of Haan ) in Erkrath- Sandheide, past the Unterbacher See , through the Eller Forest and the Eller Castle Park and unites around 700 meters before its confluence with the Hoxbach, which rises in Haan, flows through the Hildener Heide and Hilden -Nord and touches the Menzelsee, the Hasseler Forst, the Hassels district parallel to the A 59 and Ikea Reisholz. The area of ​​the southern Düssel from the inlet of the Eselsbach to the new splitting plant was regulated from October 1919. At the same time, two new concrete bridges were built over the Düssel in the area of ​​the splitting works and at the level of the Werstener Feld road .

Since the expansion of the A 46 in the 1970s, the southern Düssel has crossed under the motorway at the Werstener Feld road and then continues above ground on the southern side parallel to the motorway. Around 250 meters before the Düsseldorf-Wersten junction, where the motorway is located in a tunnel, it is led under the motorway in a culvert . Here the Brückerbach branches off at the Wersten splitting plant. On the northern side, the Innere Südliche Düssel again flows openly, first along Nixenstrasse and then behind the eastern properties of Kölner Landstrasse. Then it crosses under the Kölner Landstrasse at the Harffstrasse junction, flows through the eastern edge of the Südpark , past the Mitsubishi Electric Halle to the north and further west along the northern edge of the Volksgarten in the immediate vicinity of the railway line. For the 1987 Federal Garden Show , the event area of ​​which included the Südpark and the Volksgarten, the Düssel was renatured and expanded into a pond landscape at the level of the Philipshalle at the time, now the Mitsubishi Electric Hall. After crossing the Auf'm Hennekamp street, it first flows parallel to Feuerbachstraße and then in Düsseldorf-Bilk between the two directions of Karolingerstraße, where it crosses Merowingerstraße and Aachener Straße and continues its way north again. The major part of the following river course runs underground through the city center. Here it crosses Bilker Allee and flows under Konkordiastraße and Fürstenwall. Then it reappears on the school grounds of the Konkordiaschule and flows openly through the block between Konkordiastraße and Kronprinzenstraße to behind Reichsstraße (until 1871 Krautstraße) at height no.15, where the Kraut-Mühle was operated until 1867 . It crosses the access to the Rheinkniebrücke underground and then flows back to the Schwanenspiegel in a renatured section in the waterway area north of the bridge ramp behind the NRW bank . It flows through this and then flows under the intersection of Haroldstraße / Kavalleriestraße / Poststraße into the Spee'schen Graben . It flows underground through Düsseldorf-Carlstadt and then under Schulstrasse (where Heinrich Heine also went to school) along. It first empties into the small inland port on the banks of the town hall , and then finally is piped under the Rhine promenade , where, not far and very similar to the northern Düssel, it is diverted into the Rhine.

Mouth of the southern Düssel below the Rhine promenade
Brückerbach
Brückerbach, Düsseldorf, Am Gansbruch

The Brückerbach is an estuary of the southern Düssel, which until the beginning of the 20th century branched off further north at the level of Harffstraße from the southern Düsselarm and flowed into the Rhine in Himmelgeist . At the beginning of the century, the planned gravel extraction to the southwest of the historic Scheidlings mill was hindered by the old course of the stream. In 1908, therefore, a split was built in the area of ​​the current Werstener Kreuz and the stream bed was relocated to the south.

The Brückerbach branches off in front of the culvert in the area of ​​the splitting works, flows through its own around 500 meter long tunnel and in this way crosses both the Kölner Landstrasse and the BA 46. It is then diked on both sides up to its mouth, around the residential areas Protecting flooding from Rhine floods. Between 2005 and 2008 not only were the dykes renewed, but the stream bed was also renatured, its slope reduced and, in this context, three fish ladders built. Initially, the Brückerbach runs parallel to the Am Gansbruch street, first in a southerly direction and then in a westerly direction. Then it turns back south and forms the border between the districts of Wersten and Bilk . On the Bilker side is the botanical garden of the Heinrich Heine University . Immediately before the underpass, the Brückerbach turns west again. After it has also passed under Himmelgeister Strasse and the access to the Flehe waterworks (formerly Himmelgeister Landstrasse), it flows into the Fleher Wäldchen water protection area, which is closed to pedestrians , where it flows unnoticed into the Rhine at the southern end.

natural reserve

The Düssellauf is partially protected. In the Wuppertal urban area near Hahnenfurth and Schöller , an area of ​​around 32 hectares of the flowing water with its banks is designated as the NSG "Düsseltal". At Grube 7 in front of Haan - Gruiten-Dorf , the Düssel only touches the edge of the 60-hectare NSG "Grube 7 and former clarification pond" while behind Gruiten-Dorf the entire Düsseltal with its surrounding heights and side valleys in the 223 hectare NSG "Neandertal" lies. From the Neanderthal Museum, the nature reserves NSG “Laubacher Steinbruch” (6 hectares) and NSG “Westliches Neandertal” (32 hectares) follow. Behind Erkrath the Düssel flows through the 146 hectare NSG "Düsselaue bei Gödinghoven".

The nature conservation areas in the Düsseltal and the Neandertal between Haan and Erkrath are also designated as fauna and flora habitats in accordance with Directive 92/43 / EEC within the Natura 2000 network .

See also

literature

  • Johann Heinrich Bongard : Hikes to the Neanders Cave - A topographical sketch of the area of ​​Erkrath on the Düssel. 70 pp., 1835, Arnz & Comp. Düsseldorf (available as a facsimile under ISBN 3-922055-19-2 ).
  • Karl Emerich Krämer : Through the Düsseltal to Düsseldorf. 1st edition, Mercator-Verlag Gert Wohlfarth, Duisburg / Munich 1968.
  • Different authors: "Die Düssel", nature lovers explore a landscape. Publisher of the tourist association “Die Naturfreunde”, Rhineland Regional Association - Düsseldorf local group ISBN 3-00-000265-0 .
  • Michael Brockerhoff, Michael Moll : The Düssel - adventure hikes from the source to the mouth. Droste Verlag, ISBN 978-3-7700-1434-7 .
  • Sebastian Brück: "Düssel-Flaneur" (blog) - "A travel report: 45 kilometers against the" current "- from the mouth to the source."

Web links

Commons : Düssel  - collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. a b German basic map 1: 5000
  2. a b http://www.lanuv.nrw.de/fileadmin/lanuv/wasser/pdf/Gewaesserverzeichnis%20GSK3C.xls
  3. ^ Karl Klockenhoff: Around the Neandertal. Local history hike through a Düsseldorf landscape (= contributions to the history and folklore of the Dinslaken district on the Lower Rhine, Supplement III). Verlag Hermann Michael, Mettmann 1967
  4. ^ Albrecht Greule : German water names book. Etymology of the water body names and the associated area, settlement and field names . Walter de Gruyter, Berlin / Boston 2014, ISBN 978-3-11-019039-7 , p. 107 ( Google Books )
  5. Handbook of the natural spatial structure of Germany: Sheet 108/109: Düsseldorf / Erkelenz (Karlheinz Paffen, Adolf Schüttler, Heinrich Müller-Miny) 1963; 55 p. And digital version of the corresponding map (PDF; 7.4 MB)
  6. http://www.wz-newsline.de/lokales/kreis-mettmann/wulfrath/mit-dem-rad-um-wuelfrath-nahe-gende-entdeckungen-1.135414
  7. Die Nymphe der Düssel (1837) ( Memento of the original from March 4, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link has been inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. , accessed on September 11, 2013 in the asgard.nu portal @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / www.asgard.nu
  8. Ralf Buchholz: Sculpture Path on the Düssel is picking up speed . Local courier, May 6, 2018. Accessed April 18, 2020.
  9. Archived copy ( Memento of the original from January 1, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / www.rp-online.de
  10. Michael Brockerhoff: Düsseldorf: Old water canal exposed to the Kö. In: RP Online . Retrieved January 19, 2013 .
  11. https://www.antenneduesseldorf.de/nachrichten/duessel-soll-frei-lege-haben-arbeiten-am-corneliusplatz-gestartet_8072.html
  12. Kittelbach pirates. Nazi Documentation Center of the City of Cologne, accessed on September 13, 2010 .
  13. a b Administrative report of the state capital Düsseldorf, in: Special part, 3. Wasserbau , 1919/22, p. [319] 307. Online version
  14. a b Map services of the Federal Agency for Nature Conservation ( information )
  15. Laura Ihme: Düsseldorf: A declaration of love to the Düssel. In: RP ONLINE. Retrieved June 14, 2016 .

annotation

  1. In the area of ​​“Am Dammsteg”, “Reisholz”, “Elp” and “Hülsen” there were still some small streams up until the beginning of the 20th century, which no longer exist after the creation of the railway and motorway routes with their associated drainage. The Oerschbachstraße, a little southeast of the end of Werstener Dorfstraße, is a reference to one of these brooks, namely the "Oerschbach". This flowed into the Eselsbach, where the mouth of the Hoxbach is currently located, while it originally ran further northeast. Until the 1970s, older residents called Am Dammsteg the current area of ​​the Hoxbach creek from the underpass from the embankment of the motorway to the confluence with the Eselsbach Oerschbach . Evidence for the location of the former streams: "Reymann's topographical special maps, 1806–1908, map No. 122 (Düsseldorf)".
  2. Up to the beginning of the 19th century the Brückerbach was also called "Ikt-Bach". In the junction area from the Düssel and Ikt-Bach was the overpass for the then Provinzialstraße (currently: Kölner Landstraße), the "Käß Bridge". From the 1830s the name Brückerbach was common in official documents. Proof: For Ikt-Bach: CHA Mindel. In: Guide Dusseldorf's or based on ... . 1817, Düsseldorf, p. [10]. For Brückerbach: Official journals of the Düsseldorf administrative region .