|Street in Düsseldorf|
|View from the ferris wheel onto Königsallee (2016)|
|Hist. Names||Neue Allee, Mittelallee, Kastanienallee|
|Connecting roads||Elberfelder Strasse, Talstrasse|
|Cross streets||Theodor-Körner-Strasse, Schadowstrasse , Trinkausstrasse, Königstrasse, Benrather Strasse, Steinstrasse, Bastionstrasse, Grünstrasse, Bahnstrasse, Graf-Adolf-Strasse , Adersstrasse, Luisenstrasse|
|Places||Corneliusplatz , Schadowplatz , Graf-Adolf-Platz|
|Buildings||Breidenbacher Hof , Görres-Gymnasium , Kaufhof an der Kö , Kö-Galerie , Parkhotel , Sevens , Trinkaus-Galerie|
|User groups||Pedestrian traffic , bicycle traffic , car traffic , public transport|
|Road design||Kö-Graben, Triton Group, Giradet Bridge|
|Street length||1 km|
|Street width||87 m|
The King Avenue , just Koe called, is a running north-south boulevard in the center of Dusseldorf . The Kö is one of the leading luxury shopping streets in Europe. The city moat (also called Kö-Graben) and the impressive tree population are characteristic of its design . With almost 87 meters continuously, it is the widest street in Germany, measured from house to house facade. Instead of the usual two, it has four sidewalks - two on the sides of the ditch and one along the rows of houses. The western, traditionally less frequented side with - in the northern part - only a few shops is also known as the "bank side" or the "quiet side".
Location and surroundings
The avenue is to the east of Düsseldorf's old town and Carlstadt . It was part of them until the fortifications were razed. The areas freed up as a result were designed as a “green ring” around the city center and connect to Königsallee. In the north this is the Hofgarten and in the south-west Graf-Adolf-Platz or the Ständehauspark . The house numbers begin with the counting at the Hofgarten and end at Luisenstrasse. The last part between Graf-Adolf-Straße and Luisenstraße, also called "Kleine Kö", is separated from the actual Königsallee by the busy Graf-Adolf-Straße. All considerations of better connecting this stretch of road for pedestrians and thus making it more lucrative for business owners, for example through an overpass, were ultimately rejected again.
The Peace of Lunéville in 1801, in Article VI of which the Holy Roman Empire pledged to France not to restore the city fortifications of Düsseldorf, created the conditions for the establishment of Königsallee. Between 1802 and 1804, court architect Kaspar Anton Huschberger , court gardener Maximilian Friedrich Weyhe and hydraulic engineer Wilhelm Gottlieb Bauer replaced the demolished fortress structures with a moat that was over 30 meters wide, 5 meters deep and almost 1000 meters long. The Triton Fountain that feeds it draws its water from the nozzle . As a public promenade , laid out with several rows of trees, this street, located on the eastern city limits, was designated in plans as "avenue outside the city".
Two bridges over the city moat were provided with toll booths in order to collect the corresponding customs duties. By the end of the 19th century, Königsallee ended in the south just behind Bahnstrasse . In 1890, after the corner house on avenue no. 47-49 with Bahnstrasse, only building no. 52 of the railway operations office was in the area of the later intersection with Graf-Adolf-Strasse . At this southern end of Königsallee were the stations of the first railway line in West Germany from 1838 , the Düsseldorf-Elberfelder Eisenbahn-Gesellschaft (hence also called Elberfelder Bahnhof, later taken over by the Bergisch-Märkische Eisenbahn-Gesellschaft ) and from 1845 and 1846 the Cologne -Mindener Railway Company . At that time, the Königsallee was a “lifeline” with lively excursion and promenade traffic, with the hurrying travelers, the fancy soldiers and officers, the café and hotel visitors and the people who wanted to go to the post office and later to the telegraph office .
Earlier names of the street layout east of the ditch were “Neue Allee”, “Mittelallee” or “Kastanienallee” - up to that legendary “horse droppings attack” in 1848. King Friedrich Wilhelm IV was pelted with horse droppings here when he was in Year of the revolution , coming from the train station in the south to Jägerhof Palace . The exact process is unclear. The fact is, however, that in 1851 the “Kastanienallee” was renamed “Königsallee” in order to reassure the royal family. At that time, the west side of the avenue was still little developed and was called Kanalstrasse .
Around 1890, both train stations at the end of the eastern Königsallee were demolished and the railway systems relocated to the south of the city. After the railway facilities were dismantled, Königsallee was extended to the south and received three more cross streets: Graf-Adolf-Straße, Adersstraße and Luisenstraße. Proof of these cross streets is possible in the city's address books for 1894 for Graf-Adolf-Strasse and Bahnstrasse and for 1897 for Luisenstrasse. However, the construction of buildings in this part of the newly laid street areas took place a little later, for example the Apollo Theater on the corner of Adersstraße. Today the Apollo high-rise stands here .
During the National Socialist era , 1933–1945, the part of the street west of the Kö-Graben, the former Canal Street, was called " Albert-Leo-Schlageter- Allee". The Bergische Löwe ( Philipp Harth , 1963) stands at the southern end of the moat and the Triton Fountain (created in 1902 by Fritz Coubillier ) is a well-known Kö monument at the northern end . At the southern end of the moat, up to Graf-Adolf-Straße, there is a small enclosed garden called the flower garden . It contains the bronze figure of the ball player by Walter Schott , cast in 1897 , a gift from city councilor Gustav Herzfeld in 1902, which was to be removed in 1935 for ideological reasons, because Herzfeld was a Jew, but remained in the flower garden on the intercession of the Art Academy director Peter Grund after the inscription with the reference to the author of the donation had been removed. The Neckereibrunnen , which is now a listed building and is located on the corner of Königsallee and Bastionstraße, dates from the beginning of the 20th century . The bronze sculpture in the center of the natural stone ornamental fountain, which depicts two boys, was cast in 1909 by Gregor von Bochmann the Younger .
To the west of the city moat , Kanalstrasse , also written Canalstrasse in old scripts, was laid out. It was one of the roads that were rebuilt after the eastern fortifications were razed around 1805. In the city map of Düsseldorf from 1809, the new streets Heinrich-Heine-Allee , Kanalstraße, Elberfelder Straße and Breite Straße are shown next to the city moat , both of the latter are verifiable from 1809. Furthermore, Benrather Strasse and Grabenstrasse, both of which were laid out when Carlstadt was built at the end of the 18th century, were extended to the city moat. Kanalstrasse began on Elberfelder Strasse and ended on Benrather Strasse until the beginning of the 20th century. South of Benrather Strasse, between Stadtgraben and Kasernenstrasse, was a barracks area with the associated parade ground, which prevented the Kanalstrasse from being extended.
The entire area east of Heinrich-Heine-Allee was only sparsely developed until the middle of the 19th century. While many buildings were erected on the avenue after 1810, this was less the case further east at that time. The first buildings on Kanalstrasse can be traced back to 1817 and 1824. A corner house at Kanalstrasse / Benrather Strasse had already been built in 1817. For the corner house on Elberfelder Strasse for Kanalstrasse No. 1 or 2, this was possible in 1824 by a note in an official gazette. From the 1830s the iron foundry "Schimmelbusch & Comp." Of the businessman and industrialist Franz Schimmelbusch was located in the corner of Kanalstrasse and Grabenstrasse . He was the first president of the "Düsseldorf Chamber of Commerce" founded in 1831. His house was given as Grabenstrasse No. 789. This must have been the corner house on Kanalstrasse, as the widow Helene Schimmelbusch and her iron foundry 1850 are listed at Kanalstrasse 789.
In 1859, north of Bazarstrasse , at that time the narrow cross street between Alleestrasse (today Heinrich-Heine-Allee) and Kanalstrasse, only buildings 1 and 2 on Kanalstrasse had already been built. Plots no. 3 and 4 were vacant as the schoolyard of the Royal Prussian High School and no. 5 and no. 6 (south of Bazarstrasse). Plots No. 7 to 10, which lay north of Grabenstrasse, were developed, while plots 12 to 15 to the south had not yet been developed with residential buildings. However, there was a warehouse on property no. 14 and a remise with an apartment was available on the corner property at Benrather Strasse no. It was not until 1880 that the Kanalstrasse was largely developed with buildings.
In 1904, Girardet & Cie. Verlag the corner building Grabenstrasse / Canalstrasse no. 11. From 1905 this residential building was rebuilt together with the buildings at Canalstrasse no. 12 and 13 and the Girardethaus was built , now at Königsallee no. 27–31. The Düsseldorfer General Anzeiger was published here until 1917 and then the Düsseldorfer Nachrichten until 1945 . The “Giradet Bridge”, crossing the city moat from Garbenstraße (today Trinkausstraße) to Königstraße, was renewed in 1906.
After the middle of the 19th century, the former peripheral location for Kanalstrasse had become a sought-after city location. The residential buildings that had been built in the meantime were increasingly replaced by commercial and bank buildings from the end of the 19th century. However, a road connection to the south of the city was still prevented by the parade ground of the barracks. This only changed after 1904 when the city took over the entire barracks area from the military. At the end of 1905, Kanalstrasse could be extended to Carl-Theodor-Strasse and was then renamed Königsallee. Striking new buildings from 1905 were the bank building no.45 of the Bergisch-Märkische Bank , which was taken over by the Deutsche Bank from 1914, and the noble patrician buildings no.49 and 51.The latter were built in 1990 when the post-war high-rise building of Deutsche Bank, corner building no. 53–55 on Bastionstrasse, integrated into the architecturally uniform 7-storey new buildings. At the beginning of the 20th century, the upper floors of Canalstrasse 3 and 4, now Königsallee 11 and 13 , were used for hotel purposes under the management of the Breidenbacher Hof. At Königsallee 1/9 at the corner of Bazarstrasse (today Theodor-Körner-Strasse) the Tietz department store was built according to plans by Joseph Maria Olbrich . In 1913, Julius Stern opened an art shop and gallery in the buildings at Königsallee 23 and 25, which he ran together with his son Max Stern from 1928 .
Appearance, function and structure today
The internationally known boulevard is a busy shopping street with many high-class shops and shopping centers on the east side, such as the Kö-Center , the Kö-Galerie and the Sevens Center , as well as banks and the WZ- Center on the west side. The upper floors of the houses that were formerly mainly used for residential purposes are now mainly used as offices and practices, for example for lawyers, notaries, doctors and consulting companies. In addition, the west side of the Kö has developed into a luxury hotel location. In addition to the traditional Breidenbacher Hof and the Steigenberger Park Hotel, the Hotel Intercontinental opened in 2005 . The wide sidewalks invite both locals and visitors to stroll. On the east side of the street there are numerous cafes and restaurants that operate street terraces.
In July / August 2004 the Königsallee celebrated its 200th anniversary. The housing stock along the street is constantly changing. For example, the new building of the Breidenbacher Hof, the demolition of the Heinemann fashion house and the subsequent construction of a new building with the Mayersche bookstore and the precious jeweler Tiffany & Co. In the fashion sector, the entry of low-priced brands ( H&M , Esprit , Zara etc.) can be recorded. The US label Abercrombie & Fitch has opened its first store for the German market on the Düsseldorf Kö.
A landmark on Königsallee is the cast-iron grandfather clock called "Slim Else" or "Green Mathilde" in front of the north end of Königsallee at the south-east end of Corneliusplatz. It is the last of the eight grandfather clocks that were left in the city center. There used to be a flower stand at the place of installation, the place was considered a meeting place for lovers. The clock made by the Berlin factory Urania was installed in 1905. At the beginning of 2015 it was dismantled, restored and rebuilt on April 28, 2017, slightly shifted towards Theodor-Körner-Straße, since mid-May 2017 it has been in operation again.
The designs for the historicizing Kö lanterns and for the manhole covers with a wheelbeater motif come from Gerhard Kaletha (* 1927), an architect of the Düsseldorf Building Department, urban design department.
The Kö-Bogen at the northern end of the avenue has changed the structure around the Kö to a considerable extent since 2013. New routes were created. The Kaufhof an der Kö was modernized at the same time, the Trinkaus gallery in the traditional bank of the same name was completely rebuilt around this time. Textile retailer Albert Eickhoff is considered to be the discoverer of the Italian designer Gianni Versace , Eickhoff ended his activity as a medium-sized specialist retailer for high-priced designer fashion in May 2014. He rented his striking shop on the corner of Königsallee and Königsstraße to the French fashion house Dior .
The Kö-Bogen by Polish-American architect Daniel Libeskind has been setting new accents since autumn 2013 . The main tenant of the business complex is the luxury department store Breuninger , the largest office tenant is the Boston Consulting Group . Another focal point of the complex is the showroom of the American electronics company Apple . There are also the brands Hallhuber , Laurèl, Joop , Windsor, Strenesse and the restaurants Poccino and Sansibar .
The prices and rents on the Kö are upscale, but still moderate in international comparison - undeveloped land is currently (as of January 1, 2015) valued at an official standard land value of € 17,400 per m². The Königsallee in Düsseldorf is still considered a quarter of the luxury segment, but increasingly in the form of premium brand chains. In Europe it has the second highest density of luxury brands after London's New Bond Street . Other comparable luxury shopping streets and places in Europe are the Rue du Faubourg Saint-Honoré , the Avenue Montaigne and the Place Vendôme in Paris, the Sloane Street in London, the Via Condotti in Rome, the Via Montenapoleone in Milan, the Bahnhofstrasse in Zurich, Calle Ortega y Gasset in Madrid, Maximilianstrasse in Munich, Neue Wall in Hamburg, Graben and Kohlmarkt in Vienna and Goethestrasse in Frankfurt. Although the Königsallee, with rent per square meter of around 250 euros, is one of the most expensive locations in the luxury segment in Germany, the rental price there for retail properties is rather low in an international comparison.
The trees of the Königsallee, especially the plane trees of the city moat , are a habitat of Indian ring-necked parakeets, which are also called "Kö-Parrots" in Düsseldorf. In the evenings they gather in large numbers and screeching loudly in the treetops to then spend the night there. They repeat the spectacle early in the morning before swarming out into the surrounding areas, including to Krefeld and Duisburg . Because they cause pollution and noise, it has been discussed to scare them off by irradiating them with water . In 2005, 800 specimens of the neobiotic bird species were identified in the urban area . In 2012, the number of green-feathered herbivores - on Königsallee alone - was estimated at around 1,500. Their biological invasion has been observed in Düsseldorf since 1983, and in 1984 the first breeding pair in Schlosspark Mickeln (Düsseldorf- Himmelgeist ).
Next to Burgplatz, Königsallee is the second place in downtown Düsseldorf for large regional and national events.
A book tour on the Kö transforms the boulevard into a huge bookstore. Dealers, publishers, associations and cultural institutes present themselves at this five-day literature festival . Old books, new presentations, readings and performances are offered. To this end, a tent city with a stage and gastronomy is being built on the eastern side of the romantic moat.
A well-known car dealer, Auto Becker , initiated the classic car festival Concours d'Élégance . The Classics à la carte are continuing this tradition.
From 2006 to 2008, as part of the opening ceremonies of the German Touring Car Masters, racing cars chased on both sides of the Königsallee. The drivers demonstrated their "donuts" turns in a very small space.
In front of the InterConti Hotel in particular, spotters photograph the current luxury vehicles from Maserati, Lamborghini and Porsche all year round.
In addition, sporting events are also held on Königsallee. The Kö-Lauf and the Rund um die Kö bike race are here as well as the Düsseldorf Marathon . Between 1971 and 2006 the wheel racket competition took place on it in June , which has now been relocated to the Rheinwerft.
As part of the Düsseldorf Carnival , the so-called Tuntenlauf started here for the first time. On Carnival Sunday, the boulevard is firmly in the hands of the unorganized street carnival, and on Rose Monday the big parade also takes place across the Kö. A former “winner” of the Tuntenlauf, the Freifrau von Kö , offers guided tours of the Königsallee and its surroundings, with the focus on urban development projects such as the Kö-Bogen , the history of the city and its Grandes Dames .
Older people from Düsseldorf still remember fashion shows for the Igedo , the street festival Kö-Festival or the celebration of the German preliminary decision on the organization of the 2012 Olympic Games in 2003.
On July 6, 2016, Nintendo released the mobile game Pokémon Go , a hunt for virtual characters in real space, which has since been played by mainly young players. The large number of hunters initiated by the game developers on the Girardet Bridge on Königsallee met with broad media coverage. The onslaught of the actors became so strong that at the end of July 2016 the city decided to close the bridge to car traffic and to set up two mobile toilet houses. On August 10th of that year “the city pulled the emergency brake” and asked the game developer Niantic to shut down three of the four PokéStops . About a month later, the PokéStops were then reduced to two.
For the winter of 2017/2018, an ice rink was built for the first time on Corneliusplatz at the north end of the Kö, combined with a wide range of restaurants. The ice surface, which is unusually large for an inner city center, includes the “bowl fountain” that was set up again shortly before.
“Do you know what Düsseldorf's favorite sport is? Well, look stupid 400 meters - on the Kö! "
“The arterial artery pulsates down there, the world-famous Königsallee, belittled by the people of Düsseldorf, called Kö; an ironic miniaturization for Fifth Avenue in the Ruhr metropolis. This is where the biggest and dirtiest deals are done. The Kö is a double-headed Janus; on the one hand the banks, on the other the fashion stores. The unity of the sexes. On the left the men and on the right the women. On the left the gold safes and on the right the most elegant dressing rooms in Germany, where the troubled millionaires hang their delicate figureheads with velvet and silk. The city moat flows in the middle, moss green and ancient: a wonderful anachronism in the city's cauldron. "
“Düsseldorf has its Unter den Linden, its Rotten Row, its Rue de Rivoli and its Newskij-Prospect as well as Berlin, London, Paris and Petersburg. It is the Königsallee, the center of the city. This is where metropolitan life and Düsseldorf's highest elegance are concentrated. Here you can have everything, suits, lottery tickets, chocolate, books in cardboard and pigskin, pants fabrics and oil paintings, gramophones and the 'Düsseldorfer Nachrichten', chestnut trees, a moat and a large selection of ladies in all colors and sizes, both from the Kaiser -Wilhelm- like from Rethelstrasse. Here they go for a walk during the day, the ladies, over whom the gentlemen ride at night. Here the gentlemen hotel students stroll with beer tips, colorful hats and silk couleur ribbons, the gentlemen high school students with the swastika in their buttonhole and change from Mr Papa's postage cash in their trouser pockets. And look after the respectable bourgeois daughters who, with short skirts, see-through blouses and pile stockings, would like to copy their colleagues from the faculty with their legs spreading. "
- Important streets and squares in the Rhine-Ruhr region
- Kurfürstendamm - comparable, important street in Berlin (national)
- Avenue des Champs-Élysées - comparable, important street in Paris (international)
- Roland Kanz and Jürgen Wiener: Architecture Guide Düsseldorf . Dietrich Reimer Verlag, Berlin 2001, ISBN 3-496-01232-3 .
- Jens Prüss: The Kö. 54 825 days of Königsallee in Düsseldorf . Grupello Verlag, Düsseldorf 2002, ISBN 3-933749-50-6 .
- Hans Pleschinski: Königsallee . Novel. Verlag CHBeck, Munich 2013, ISBN 978-3-406-65387-2 .
- "City of Düsseldorf - The Königsallee"
- General information / shopping / parking garage information
- History workshop Düsseldorf - information on Königsallee
- StopsHistory (s) Königsallee (Steinstraße)
- “Königsallee-Düsseldorf” website of the Königsallee eV interest group with lots of information
- Panorama Königsallee Interactive 360 ° city panorama
- Deal Magazine March 30, 2010, accessed April 1, 2010
- Dusseldorf surveying office - map measurement. Retrieved December 8, 2018 .
- In: Address book of the Lord Mayor's Office in Düsseldorf. II. Part, 2. Overview . 1890, p.  141.
- In: Address book of the Lord Mayor's Office in Düsseldorf. II. Part . 1894, pp.  527 and  567.
- In: Address book of the Lord Mayor's Office in Düsseldorf. II. Part . 1897, p.  571.
- City map from 1937 on www.landkartenarchiv.de
- Rolf Purpar: art city Dusseldorf. Objects and monuments in the cityscape . Grupello Verlag, 2nd edition, Düsseldorf 2009, ISBN 978-3-89978-044-4 , p. 74
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- Festschrift IHK-Düsseldorf. S. 9. Online version
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- In: Report on the status and the administration of the community affairs of the city of Düsseldorf . Period: April 1, 1904 to March 31, 1905 . S.  3.
- In: Internet site . Kö district
- Julius-Stern-Kunst-Auktionshaus, Galerie Max Stern (1933) , on arthistoricum.net, accessed on February 22, 2019
- Brigitte Pavetic: watchmaker. The funny master of time . In: Rheinische Post of October 28, 2017, p. Düsseldorf D10.
- In: RP Online from April 28, 2017 . Green Mathilde 1
- In: RP Online from May 19, 2017 . Green Mathilde 2
- Helmut Senf: A gymnast through and through - Gerhard Kaletha is 93 years old and still keeps fit. His gymnastics group is currently on pause due to Corona . In: Rheinische Post , April 8, 2020, p. C6.
- rp-online.de: Kö-Bogen: Quick opening is important , interview with Peter Acht / Handelsverband NRW, September 30, 2013
- rp-online.de: Kö is ready for the new Libeskind building , September 12, 2013
- express.de: Auf der Kö: Düsseldorf: Versace is coming, Checkers away , August 17, 2014
- Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung: Düsseldorfer Modehaus Eickhoff - "We stop at the peak" , November 11, 2013
- Rheinische Post online from March 30, 2010 ( Memento of the original from April 5, 2010 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- German metropolises are catching up in the luxury segment . Article from July 6, 2013 in the derhandel.de portal of the business magazine Der Handel , accessed on July 7, 2013
- The ring-necked parakeet. Düsseldorf as a habitat for parrots . Article from February 2005 in the portal duesseldorf.de , accessed on October 20, 2014
- Sabine Kricke: The parrots are back at the Kö . Article from October 20, 2014 in the portal rp-online.de , accessed on October 20, 2014
- Tim Röhn: The bizarre parrot plague on the luxury mile Kö . Article from November 17, 2013 in the welt.de portal , accessed on October 20, 2014
- Dimitri Soibel: Parakeets: Screeching alarm on the Kö . Article from November 21, 2012 in the express.de portal , accessed on October 20, 2012
- Parrot species is establishing itself in some regions: The ring-necked parakeet in Germany ( Memento of the original from March 8, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link has been inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. . Press release from the Federal Agency for Nature Conservation from January 10, 2012 in the bfn.de portal , accessed on October 20, 2014
- Editor: City wants to turn off Pokéstops . In: Rheinische Post , August 11, 2016, p. D1.
- Christoph Borschel: Played out !: Two out of four Pokéstops on the Girardet Bridge are switched off . In: Express.de . Düsseldorf ( express.de ).
- Quoted from: Walter Krämer, Eva Krämer: Lexikon der Stadtbeschimpfungen - Malicious reports and abuse from Aachen to Zurich , p. 80, Eichborn AG, Frankfurt, 2002, ISBN 3-8218-1689-9
- Quoted from: Beatrix Müller, Marianne Tilch (Ed.): Düsseldorf. Texts and images from four centuries. JBMetzlersche Verlagsbuchhandlung, Stuttgart 1991, ISBN 3-476-00784-7 , p. 305
- Until 1858 the house numbers in the city were not assigned to the streets, but were counted continuously for the city. In the present case, Kanalstrasse 679 was specified for the house number. The conversion took place according to an ordinance of July 29, 1858. (Evidence: Address book of the Lord Mayor's Office Düsseldorf . 1859, p.  -.)