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Childhood refers to the period in a person's life from birth to sexual development ( puberty ). The definition of childhood as regards content relates less to a biological phase of life  - its meaning is primarily culturally and socially determined. In developmental psychology , childhood follows toddler age (2 and 3 years of age) and is divided into early childhood (4 to 6 years of age), middle childhood (7 to 10 years of age) and late childhood ( 11 to 14 years of age). After childhood comes the phase of adolescence, adolescence .

Girls in the Indian state of Sikkim (2007)
Smiling Boy ( Macaulay Culkin , 1991)


In childhood, people have a special legal position. This is regulated by a number of German federal laws and internationally by the UN Children's Rights . The legal capacity of the child begins in Germany according to ( BGB ) § 1 "with the completion of birth," his conditional capacity , it is getting progressively later.

After the birth of a child, the acceptance into society is documented by issuing a corresponding certificate .

The medical record of a newborn child is part of the maternal medical record until the child has left the hospital for the first time under insurance law and alive. Since every live born child is entitled to a birth certificate, the records in the delivery room are of particular importance, regardless of whether the child left the hospital alive. According to the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child , a “child” is someone who has not yet reached the age of 18 (see children's rights ).


Old traffic sign 136 of the children as right-hand position (Germany)

According to German law, a “child” is anyone who is not yet 14 years old is a young person who is 14 but not yet 18 years old (see Section 1 of the Youth Protection Act ). In the Youth Labor Protection Act § 2 , however, the limit is only drawn at 15 years of age. In the context of Book 8 of the Social Security Code ( Section 8 of Book VIII of the Social Code ), the so-called Child and Youth Welfare Act ( KJHG ), a child is “who is not yet 14 years old” ( Section 7 (1) No. 1 of Book VIII of the Social Code). - with the exception of the provisions on the care and upbringing of children as a right and duty of the parents (child in this sense is "who is not yet 18 years old") and for adoption as a child (child in this sense (BGB family law) are " People who have not yet reached the age of 18 "); Children belong to the “ young people ” defined in SGB VIII . According to Paragraph 32 of the Residence Act, a minor “child” is anyone who has not yet reached the age of 16 (see child reunification ).


The Austrian youth protection law is a matter of the state and the term "child" is anchored differently. While the federal states of Styria, Carinthia, Tyrol and Vorarlberg address people up to the age of 14 as children and from the age of 14 to 18 as adolescents , the law of Upper Austria only recognizes the designation adolescents for people up to the age of 18 . Age. Vienna, Lower Austria and Burgenland use the term young people for this  - the legal term child does not exist in these four federal states. Notwithstanding these views, as well as by federal law, which at minors principle the boundary between immaturity sees and maturity to date perfected 14 years, the Youth Protection Act Salzburg puts teenagers to adults over the age of 12  until the age of 18 and speaks in front of it of child.

In federal law, the term child can usually only be found in the sense of “descendant”. Due to the implementation of an EU directive , section 28 in the appendix of the law against unfair competition between children is mentioned ; according to the decision of the Supreme Court , minors under the age of 14 are to be understood here in any case. The legal literature disputes whether older minors could also be included.

Stages of development

Stratz - child's body 13.jpg
Stratz - the child's body 12.jpg
Stratz - child's body 14.jpg
Stratz - Child's Body 15.jpg
Anatomical illustrations of children from Body of the Child by Carl Heinrich Stratz 1909

In general, developmental psychology differentiates between the following stages of development according to the level of biological, psychological and social development: newborns (the first four weeks), infancy (1st year of life), toddler age (2nd and 3rd year of life), early childhood (4th - 6th year of life), middle childhood (7th to 10th year of life) and late childhood (11th to 14th year of life). This is followed by the phase of adolescence . In the 4th year of life, twice the birth length is usually reached.

In developmental psychology, the concept of developmental tasks is often associated with the stages of development. These are tasks that children (people) have to work on and solve in accordance with their age in order to be able to contest a social existence at the next level up ( Robert J. Havighurst ; see, above all, Rolf Oerter / Leo Montada: Developmental Psychology). Age groups have their corresponding development tasks that are pending for everyone to work on.

See also:

Childhood through the ages


So far, only a few traces of a childhood phase are known from the Stone Age , as archaeological evidence for this is difficult. Evidence for children's play is provided by Upper Paleolithic rock carvings with childlike fingerprints from the Rouffignac cave , which show that children playfully left their mark here. There are further indications with figurative grave goods in children's graves, such as the carved horse in the Upper Paleolithic double burial of two youths from Sungir (Russia). Instead of toys , these can also be totem objects, as is assumed for the more than 30,000 year old ivory figures from the Swabian Vogelherd cave . The same applies to the small animal figures made of burnt loess that were found in the archaeological sites of Krems-Wachtberg , Pavlov and Dolní Věstonice .

Miniature objects from the European Neolithic Age are sometimes interpreted as toys, such as the miniature ax from Motzenstein (Upper Franconia), which comes from the Cord Ceramic Culture . There are also known grave goods from early deceased Egyptian pharaohs , which are interpreted as toys and thus prove a child-friendly material equipment.

Greek antiquity

Concepts of a general upbringing of children did not emerge until ancient Greece and Rome - at least as far as traditional sources suggest. The Greek city-state Sparta provides a particularly drastic example . The warrior caste ruling there had an interest in bringing in hardened fighters. The legendary legislator Lykurg is said to have laid the principles of this Spartan upbringing ; however, they did not refer to all the inhabitants of Sparta, but to the higher classes: historically, initially to full bourgeois Spartians . Accordingly, the strongest men and women were selected to produce offspring together. An older man was allowed to give his wife to another (younger) man and then recognize the child as his own.

The children conceived in this way were tempered early on in play and gymnastics . Wet nurses took care of their education. The poet Plutarch reports: “The wet nurses accustomed the children to be content with any food and to be left alone in the dark without fear.” At the age of twelve the boys left their parents' home and were raised by older boys in youth barracks. Flogging was common. The young cadets had to sleep without blankets and were trained in combat. After completing this training, the boys were placed under the care of an experienced mentor , usually an elderly fighter. This taught his squire the warrior trade. This introduction, which lasted until the age of 18, also included sexual relationships between master and student.

The girls were also given a tough upbringing. They should be hardened to give birth to healthy, vigorous children. Greeks from other city-states particularly noticed the light clothing worn by the Spartan gymnasts who were mocked as "thigh pointers". Neither boys nor girls had the right to self-determination, and neither did their parents, but they did have the right, even the duty, to education. According to Lykurg, the children belonged to the state. However, the whole class of the Helots, as the deepest integral social grouping of the Lacedaemonian state, was state property. This group had a status similar to slaves , but differed from the slave groups of buyers, looters and debt slaves that were widespread at the time due to various peculiarities .

It was different in Athens. A quote from the Athenian philosopher Socrates (469–399 BC) at least suggests: “Today's children are tyrants. They contradict their parents, mess with their food and annoy their teachers. ”But chastisements were also the order of the day in Athens. The philosopher Plato (427–347 BC) recommends bending disobedient children "with threats and blows like a piece of warped wood". Children who were unwanted or misshapen were abandoned. Examples of this can also be found in Greek tragedies, as Oedipus shows. The Greeks are commonly considered to be the inventors of the general school. But this was mostly - as in Athens - reserved for male citizens' children. They started school at the age of seven, which was usually taught by a single teacher. Subjects were writing and mathematics, poetry and sports. School time usually lasted until the age of 16. Older students were educated in rhetoric and science by philosophers and sophists . They asked for money for their lectures. Children of rulers like Alexander the Great were raised by famous teachers. Alexander's teacher was, for example, Aristotle (384–322 BC). Girls were raised at home; in most of the classical Greek states they had no access to school, except in special cases as daughters of members of the elite or of philosophers. In Sparta, however - in complete contrast to the other Greek city-states - the girls went through an education organized by the state. However, this was a little less focused on physical exercise than the training of the boys.

The relationship with the parents was not always intimate. Those who could afford it entrusted wet nurses and slaves with raising their offspring. In her care, however, a carefree childhood was quite possible. This is evidenced by vase pictures with children playing and traditional fables for the next generation. The children of slaves and the offspring of foreigners who did not enjoy citizenship in Athens were to be expected.

Playing children, Roman relief, 2nd century AD

Roman Empire

Many aspects of Greek upbringing can also be found in ancient Rome. After the conquest of Greece, the Romans brought numerous Greek teachers into their homes for their children or sent the youngsters to Greek schools. Many aspects of Greek family life can also be found in Rome. Only the pater familias , the male head of the family, had rights. After the birth, he had the newborn brought to him and decided whether or not to accept it as his child. Exclusion criteria were not only physical deformities, but also purely practical considerations, such as whether the father could still afford to take in a girl for whose marriage a dowry later had to be paid. Abandonment of children was also a simple means of restricting births, especially in poor families. The remote places where unwanted children were abandoned were well known. Childless women could take unwanted babies there. Orphans who were less fortunate were taken in by entrepreneurs as cheap labor. Brothels also found offspring there. Even the founders of the Roman state were - according to legend - orphans. Romulus and Remus were abandoned and suckled by a she- wolf .

If the father had adopted a child, the bulla, an amulet, was hung around him to protect him from harm. Child mortality was high. That depressed the average age. But those who survived the fifth year of life had great chances of being 60 years and older. To compensate for the high child mortality, large families with six to seven children were common. As in Greece, wet nurses were popular in Rome. They mostly came from the slave class and took care of the child even if it could no longer breastfeed. Goat milk was used to feed the toddlers. Corporal punishment was common. In 374 a law was passed for the first time that forbids infanticide. However, this new idea received little attention in the following decades.

middle Ages

With the spread of Christianity in Europe, a mixed relationship between society and children established itself. Children were definitely wanted and welcome. After all, having offspring was the highest goal of Christian marriage. At the same time, however, the skepticism towards newborns and small children also grew. The church father Augustine of Hippo (354–430) pointed out that infants are born in sin because they arise from the sinful lust of the flesh of men and women. They are afflicted with the original sin of Adam and Eve . They are also loud, moody, jealous, and instinctual. "Only the child's limbs are weak and innocent, not the child's soul," writes Augustine. The widespread superstition assumed that the devil and fairies are trying to take possession of infants. It was therefore very important that the children were baptized after a week at the latest. Infants who are at risk of dying after or during birth should also be baptized quickly. The emergency baptism could take place every adult. According to the medieval view, unbaptized children came to limbo .

Wet nurse with baby , 15th century

Was widespread, the wrap of the entire body of infants in the first six months of life. Rumors said that if the hands were free to move, the little ones would otherwise scratch their eyes, dislocate bones or tear off their ears. Instead of pacifiers, so-called " sucking bags " were known in the Middle Ages , which were filled with poppy seeds , which promoted the need for sleep in babies. The practice of giving children as much to eat as possible was also widespread. This corresponded to the experience of often impending famine. Children who were given a lot to eat in good times were more likely to survive bad times.

Wet nurses were also widespread in the Middle Ages. Well-to-do families have their own wet nurse. Those who had less money gave the toddler to a wet nurse who had several children to breastfeed. In aristocratic circles it even went so far in some places that children spent the first two years of their lives with a wet nurse and only then returned to their parents. This made it easier for the mothers to have children in quick succession, which was still the goal because of the high child mortality rate. However, there were also families who tried to control births. Contraception, however, was considered a pagan magic and a mortal sin. Abortion, abandonment and infanticide, as well as contraception, were counted as murder. Still, they weren't uncommon. In southern Germany it was said that unwanted infants were drowned. In northern Germany there were more frequent live burials with impaling. This was to prevent the spirits of the dead from returning. However, there are no reliable statements on the frequency of such incidents.

The father had the right over the children. He had to look after his offspring, even if he was born out of an illegitimate relationship. In cities in particular, it was not uncommon for a number of children to live in the household that the father had fathered with different women. Unmarried mothers were even the father of her child before a church court on maintenance (alimony) sue. In the 15th century, especially among the French aristocracy, it was considered chic to father numerous bastards . They were able to achieve outstanding positions in the church and the military. However, legitimate children were always given preference. Nevertheless, there were orphanages in the Middle Ages that took in children who could not find a connection.

In the Middle Ages, childhood was generally divided into three phases: infantia , puertia and adolescentia. Each lasted about seven years. The offspring spent the first seven years at home. They are most likely to be compared with today's ideas of childhood. The little ones were raised at home by their parents and were largely kept out of domestic duties.

At the age of seven the final decision was made as to whether the son should take an ecclesiastical or secular path. In any case, at seven the start of school or training. In the orphanages too, children up to the age of seven were given care. At seven, however, they were on their own. In many farming or artisan families, however, it was already the order of the day for children at the age of four to five to relieve their mother of her daily chores. From the age of seven, the father took over the education of his sons. Daughters were generally trained to run the household. However, especially at a young age, there were many activities that boys and girls had to do equally. Later, the women also had to work in the fields.

The goal of education should be pious people who live in the service of God. Chastisement was definitely a common means of education. The rod is often found as the most important attribute on pictorial representations by teachers. Saint Augustine is said to have said at the age of 62 that he would rather suffer death than go to school again. Punishment was also widespread in the parental home. Writes Bertold of Regensburg in 1260 in his sermons: "From the time when the child speaks the first words of evil, you shall a little small wand ready. But you shouldn't hit it with your hand on the bare temples, otherwise you could turn it into a fool. "

Schools were private institutions in the early Middle Ages for which school fees had to be paid. Village pastors usually gave free lessons to one or two gifted children. To compensate for this, the children were obliged to serve acolytes in the church or to help their teachers in the house. The language of instruction was initially Latin. It was not until the 13th century that instruction in the vernacular appeared. With the third and fourth Lateran Councils, access to church schools was also made easier. School fees were waived for children from poorer families. Lesson content was reading, writing and a little math. Talented pupils or those from rich families could attend higher Latin schools after elementary school . The aim here was above all the fluent learning of the learned language Latin. It was not common to attend university until the age of 16. But this was reserved for very few.

In addition to the secular, a church career was also possible for children. Especially rich and noble families often gave one or more of their children to a monastery. For this, especially boys were selected who appeared too weak for a knight training. Often it was also younger siblings who no longer had any prospect of part of the inheritance. Girls were also sent to the monastery when they were not supposed to be married. The parents had to pay a dowry for such novices . But it turned out to be smaller than in a marriage. The training to become a priest was mostly reserved for the offspring of the nobility or the urban population. At the age of seven children could receive their first minor orders .

Pieter Bruegel: The Children's Games , 1560

But there were also pleasant sides to childhood in the Middle Ages. There are many references to toys that were accessible to the children. In written sources, however, reference is made again and again to "appropriate" games, which must by no means be "immoral". The hobby horse is likely to have been widespread . There is also evidence of ball, catch and dance games. Originally preserved toys are mainly clay dolls and figures. They were not only found in stately homes, but also in towns and villages. The game of marbles with clay balls also seems to have been popular. In a Nuremberg police order from the 14th century, such "rolling" and shooting around small coins is prohibited. Apparently such games were also popular with adults.

Childhood as a social construction

In many cultures, childhood is characterized by freedom of employment and learning, whereby the rights of children to protection, upbringing and personal development are expanded. In childhood research , the view is increasingly gaining ground that children are no longer just “people in development”, but also “people in their own right”. Development is rejected as a metaphor of paternalism, since it reduces childhood to a transitional stage to adulthood. The child's subjective needs, wants, and interests are highlighted.

Boys and girls with school uniform in an English school in Nepal

According to Zinnecker, there are two main ideas behind the change in assessments: participation and credibility. Since it would contradict the progressive (self-) understanding of a democratic society if entire sections of the population were excluded from political formation, it was only natural that efforts to include the group of children in this would become stronger. Children are also increasingly seen as “authorities on their own behalf” (3). For example, it is no longer just adult experts on children's life that are interviewed, but children themselves are included in investigations. The basis for these central ideas is primarily the prevailing notion of childhood as a construction . "Constructions of childhood are social representations that are created through the values ​​a society attaches to children, the opinions it has about children, etc."

Glogger-Tippelt & Tippelt (1986) justify the consideration of childhood as a social construction on the basis of two arguments. They see an explanation in the fact that different historical epochs have brought about different ideas about childhood and child development. They see a second argument in the different ideas about childhood and child development in different cultures.

Situation of children in the industrialized countries

“Our children are our future!” (“Çocuklar geleceğimizdir, onları destekleyelim”); Joint information
stand of the Federation of Turkish Parents' Associations in Germany ( FÖTEV , here the Lower Saxony one ) with mentor - Die Leselernhelfer Hannover ;
2015 at the "Discovery Day of the Hanover Region "

In 2007 UNICEF presented an international study on the situation of children in 21 industrialized countries. The situation in the Netherlands was judged to be the most favorable, with the United States (20th place) and Great Britain (21st place) coming in last . Germany took 11th place. In addition to the material situation, health, education, relationships with parents and peers, lifestyle and risks as well as the children's and young people's own assessment were taken into account. The percentage of children living in households with an income below 50% of the median income was determined for child poverty .

More than half of 15-year-old Germans say that their parents hardly have time to talk to them. In Hungary and Italy only around a quarter of young people have this experience. German parents apparently talk to their children particularly rarely - Germany ranks last in this regard. "

According to studies, there has been a development in German-speaking countries as well as internationally from a largely unplanned childhood ( street childhood ) to a housed, planned childhood ( housed childhood , isolated childhood , fixed- term childhood ). Those children whose free time is filled with special educational offers acquire not only specific skills and knowledge in sport , languages or art, but also communication skills , increased self-esteem and a general feeling of empowerment ; According to studies, however, children with a pre-structured, well-organized childhood tend to have less ability to organize their own time and the durability of social relationships.

Childhood in different countries

Children in Germany

Children according to the BGB (Germany)

The German Civil Code (BGB) determines:

  • Illegitimate children: Even if there is no longer a marriage , but one existed 306 days before the birth of the child, this child is considered to be born in wedlock (compare illegitimate ).
  • Illegitimate children: Detects the father rather than his own, which establish paternity, if provided by the child paternity tests and paternity is through the family court found
  • Adopted children: Adopted children are treated as legitimate children from the day of pronounced adoption ; the relationships to the previous biological family are canceled (they expire ) and from that point there is a legal relationship to the adoptive parents and their ancestors and descendants. If only one of the spouses adopts, there is a corresponding relationship only to their children (corresponds to half-siblings).

Child poverty

Share of children who receive
social allowance in Germany (June 2005)
state proportion of
Bavaria 6.6%
Baden-Württemberg 7.2%
Rhineland-Palatinate 9.9%
Hesse 12.0%
Lower Saxony 13.5%
North Rhine-Westphalia 14.0%
Saarland 14.0%
Schleswig-Holstein 14.4%
Hamburg 20.8%
Thuringia 20.8%
Brandenburg 21.5%
Saxony 22.8%
Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania 27.8%
Saxony-Anhalt 27.9%
Bremen 28.1%
Berlin 30.7%
Germany (total) 14.0%

Child poverty describes the poverty of people of a given age range. This is generally defined in such a way that children from birth and adolescents up to 18 years are taken into account. Child poverty has risen sharply in Germany over the past few decades. The discovery of a doubling of the number of children in need of social assistance every ten years based on the period since 1965 met with great media interest.

Large differences in child poverty can be identified between the federal states.

Compulsory education and schooling

Schooling is compulsory for children in Germany . This is not regulated in the Basic Law (GG) or any other federal law, but - as an expression of the cultural sovereignty of the states - only in the individual state constitutions . Private or church-owned schools offer an alternative to state schools. Some of the non-state schools also consciously rely on alternative teaching methods such as Waldorf education or Montessori education or are boarding schools. Most independent schools charge school fees to be paid by the parents because the state only partially finances these schools. Compulsory schooling in Germany has been criticized time and again in the course of its history. On the conservative religious side, social interaction and individual lesson contents are rejected (such as swimming lessons or the theory of evolution). From a libertarian perspective, compulsory schooling is rejected as an impermissible interference with personal freedom and indoctrination.

Vernor Muñoz , UN Special Rapporteur on the right to education , expressed in his published in Berlin report of 21 February 2006 concerned that the restrictive German compulsory education claiming the right to education through alternative forms of learning such as home schooling criminalizing .

Under educational disadvantage is understood that a group of children or adults in the education system systematically have fewer opportunities to achieve than others an educational destination. In Germany, an educational disadvantage was found on the basis of the IGLU study and the PISA study . This particularly affects working-class children and migrant children.

Overall, children from families in the upper social classes (children of people from high, mostly academic positions, for example top managers) go to grammar school 6.06 times as often as children from skilled workers' families and children from the lower classes (e.g. children of professors or doctors ) go to high school 3.64 times as often as children of skilled workers.

The chances of skilled workers' children are worst in cities with over 300,000 inhabitants; There, the chances of the child from the upper service class to attend grammar school are 14.36 times as high as those of the skilled worker child and the chances of a child from the lower service class are 7.57 times as high as that of a skilled worker child. This situation has worsened over the last few decades, and since the early 1980s, the participation of children of socially disadvantaged families in higher education has been declining (see development of participation in education in the Federal Republic of Germany ).

In the eastern German federal states the measured educational disadvantage is less pronounced than in the western ones.

number of children

The number of children is the number of children in a marriage or the number of children of one person (from several marriages plus children out of wedlock).

In 2005 there were around 12 million children in Germany . In 2013, 682,069 children were born alive in Germany.

For population history and current demographics , the number of children who remarry themselves or who reach marriageable age is particularly important, after deducting child mortality . To keep the population constant, societies with a low mortality rate, such as those in Europe, need a total fertility rate (TFR) of 2.1. A higher TFR is necessary in societies with higher child mortality rates.

In Europe, the TFR decreased from 1.7 to 1.4 between 1990 and 2002. In Germany it was 1.40 in 2012 and 1.41 in 2013.

The probability with which certain families appear in ancestral lists also depends on the number of children . In general, up until 1800 wealthy families in the countryside (full farmers , millers ) had more children than cottagers and rural families more than urban ones. Different marriage ages of women, different birth intervals and differences in fertility due to often inadequate nutrition all influenced the number of children born.

There are no precise data on the number of children among women in Germany. This is because it is forbidden in Germany for data protection reasons to ask about the number of children ever born. Instead, the number of children in the household is asked. This is problematic as children who do not live in the mother's household are not recorded.

The following table shows the number of children in the household among 40-year-old women from various training groups living in West Germany. Children who do not live in the household are not included. In addition, only minor children are counted. Children over 18 years of age living in the household are not counted. This is problematic because it means that the children of young mothers are excluded from this statistic, because they are already adults when the mother is 40. The children that the woman gives birth to after the age of 40 are also not counted. Childlessness, especially among well-educated women, can be overestimated.

Children released for adoption are counted here with the adoptive mother and not with the birth mother. Children who grow up with their father are not counted. It's the same with children in homes. A statistic that records the number of children ever born would be ideal. However, since this is forbidden for privacy reasons, these are the most accurate numbers science has:

Training degree 1 child 1 child 2 children 3 and more children
without a degree 24.1% 23.0% 31.0% 21.9%
Training / apprenticeship qualification 25.4% 26.2% 36.1% 12.4%
Master / Technician 33.0% 22.9% 33.6% 10.4%
University of Applied Sciences / University 42.2% 21.7% 27.7% 8.5%

Children with a migration background

In Germany in 2006 around 30% of elementary school students came from families with a migration background , in large cities it was 40%. In principle, children with a migration background have poorer health opportunities for social reasons , maternal and infant mortality are also increased, as is the mortality of infants and young children (by 20%). Infants and schoolchildren are at greater than average risk from accidents.

Children with a migrant background show significantly worse school performance than children without such a background, both in the first and mostly in the second generation of immigrants. However, individual groups of immigrants - especially European ones - are just as successful at school as Germans, and sometimes even more successful. According to a study by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), the performance difference between immigrant and native children is particularly large in Germany, Austria, France and Sweden, among others - the proportion of immigrant students with basic knowledge of science, reading and mathematics was around over 30% less than among the students without a migration background (compare school successes with a migration background ).

Children in the United States

See also



  • Melvin Konner: The Evolution of Childhood: Relationships, Emotion, Mind. Harvard University Press, 2010, ISBN 978-0-674-04566-8 .
  • Norbert Kühne : Early Development and Upbringing - The Critical Period. In: Teaching Materials Pedagogy - Psychology. No. 694, Stark Verlag, Hallbergmoos 2012.

History, Sociology, Politics and Dictionaries

  • Thomas Altgeld, Petra Hofrichter: Rich country, sick children? Health consequences of poverty among children and adolescents. Mabuse-Verlag, 2000, ISBN 3-933050-21-9 .
  • Sabine Andresen, Klaus Hurrelmann: Childhood. Beltz, Weinheim 2010.
  • Philippe Ariès : Childhood Story. dtv, Munich 1978, ISBN 3-423-04320-2 .
  • Lloyd deMause : Do you hear the children crying. A Childhood Psychogenetic Story. Suhrkamp, ​​Frankfurt am Main 1977, ISBN 3-518-07458-X .
  • Klaus Arnold : Child and Society in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Contributions and texts on the history of childhood (= Zebra Collection. Series B, Volume 2). Munich and Paderborn 1980, ISBN 3-506-13152-4 .
  • the same: the attitude towards children in the Middle Ages. In: Man and the Environment in the Middle Ages. Edited by Bernd Herrmann 1986, 3rd edition Stuttgart 1987, pp. 53-64.
  • Hugh Cunningham: The History of the Child in Modern Times. Artemis & Winkler, Düsseldorf 2006, ISBN 3-538-07229-9 .
  • Imke Behnken, Jürgen Zinnecker (Ed.): Children, childhood, life story - a manual. Kallmeyersche Verlagsbuchhandlung GMBH, Seelze-Velber 2001, ISBN 3-7800-5245-8 .
  • Jutta Buchner-Fuhs, Burkhard Fuhs: Good childhood? Concepts, designs and ways of life of successful childhood in historical change. Past Publishing, Berlin 2011, ISBN 978-3-86408-002-9 .
  • Gabriele Gloger-Tippelt , Rudolf Tippelt : Childhood and child development as social constructions. In: Education and Upbringing. Volume 39, 1986, pp. 149-164.
  • Manfred Günther : Childhood - Youth - Old Age. The paperback dictionary . 2nd expanded edition 2020 with over 1250 words; Foreword by HG Butzko , 37 illustrations: Stuttmann ; Rheine 2020, ISBN 978-3-946537-62-5 .
  • Otto Hansmann: Childhood between the Middle Ages and the Modern Age. Deutscher Studien Verlag, Weinheim, 1995.
  • Heinz Hengst: childhood as fiction. Frankfurt am Main 1981, Suhrkamp-Verlag, ISBN 3-518-11081-0 .
  • Michael-Sebastian Honig, Hans Rudolf Leu, Ursula Nissen (Ed.): Children and Childhood. Sociocultural Patterns - Socialization Theory Perspectives. Juventa, Weinheim 1996.
  • Klaus Hurrelmann, Heidrun Bründel: Introduction to Childhood Research. Beltz, Weinheim 2003.
  • Michael Hüter: Childhood 6.7: a manifesto. Edition Liberi & Mundo, Melk an der Donau July 2019, ISBN 978-3-200-05507-0 .
  • Joe L. Kincheloe: Children's Culture: The Corporate Construction of Childhood. Westview Press, 1997, ISBN 0-8133-2310-X .
  • Jacqueline Knörr (Ed.): Childhood and Migration. From experience to agency. Transcript, Bielefeld 2005, ISBN 3-89942-384-4 .
  • Neil Postman : The Disappearance of Childhood. Fischer, Frankfurt am Main 1987, ISBN 3-596-23855-2 .
  • Andreas Rett : The story of childhood as cultural history. Picus, Vienna 1992, ISBN 3-85452-310-6 .
  • Otto Rühle : The proletarian child. A monograph. Langen, Munich 1911
  • Herbert Schweizer: Sociology of Childhood. VS Verlag, ISBN 978-3-531-14222-7 .
  • Shulamith Shahar : Childhood in the Middle Ages. Patmos, Düsseldorf 1990, ISBN 3-491-69107-9 .
  • Edward Shorter : The Birth of the Modern Family. Reinbek 1990.
  • Ingeborg Weber-Kellermann: Childhood - a cultural history. Insel, Frankfurt am Main 1997.
  • World Vision Germany: Children 2007, 2010, 2013. Beltz, Weinheim.

Psychology and psychoanalysis

  • Anna Freud : Paths and wrong turns in child development. 7th edition. Klett-Cotta, Stuttgart 2003, ISBN 3-608-96004-X .
  • Melanie Klein : The soul life of the toddler and other contributions to psychoanalysis. 8th edition. Klett-Cotta, Stuttgart 2006, ISBN 3-608-95107-5 .
  • Wolfgang Schneider; Ulman Lindenberger; Rolf Oerter; Leo Montada (Ed.) (2012): Developmental Psychology. 7., completely revised. Weinheim [u. a.]: Beltz.
  • Peter Rossmann: Introduction to Developmental Psychology of Childhood and Adolescence. 4th edition. Huber, Bern 1996, ISBN 3-456-82723-7 .

Childhood in film

  • Chuck Jackson: Little, Violent, White: The Bad Seed and the Matter of Children - Critical Essay. In: Journal of Popular Film and Television. Summer, 2000.
  • Emma Wilson: Cinema's Missing Children. Wallflower Press, 2003.
  • Children's films - Attempts to draw boundaries: German documentary film for children big and small from nine decades. Retrospective of the Bundesarchiv-Filmarchiv during the 42nd International Leipzig Festival for Documentary and Animated Film; [10/27 until October 31, 1999] / [Ed .: Bundesarchiv-Filmarchiv Berlin. Ed .: Karla Schröder]. - Berlin: Bundesarchiv-Filmarchiv, 1999.



  • Childhood. A journal of global child research.

Films about children (excluding children's films)

Broadcast reports

Web links

Commons : Kinder (children)  - Collection of pictures, videos and audio files
Wiktionary: Childhood  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations

Individual evidence

  1. a b Lexicon entry: short version "Development of the Child". ( Memento from December 26, 2008 in the Internet Archive ) In: 2008, accessed October 8, 2019.
  2. § 7 SGB VIII
  3. Overview: Children and Adolescents. In: Federal Ministry for Health, Family and Youth , January 1, 2019, accessed on October 8, 2019 .
  4. Entry: Law RS0128245. In: RIS . Republic of Austria, September 18, 2012, accessed on May 6, 2019 .
  5. decision text of the Supreme Court: Annual number 4Ob110 / 12y. In: RIS. Republic of Austria, September 18, 2012, accessed on May 6, 2019 .
  6. Overview: The Newborn. ( Memento from July 28, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) In: 2014, accessed October 8, 2019.
  7. Wilfried de Nève, Wolfgang Presber (ed.): Ergotherapy: Basics and techniques. 4th edition. Urban & Fischer, Munich / Jena 2003, ISBN 3-437-47980-6 , p. 384.
  8. Leif Steguweit (Red.): Stone Age Children. Catalog accompanying the exhibition in the Erlangen City Museum. Büchenbach, Faustus-Verlag, 2012. (PDF download)
  9. Thomas Einwögerer: The Upper Palaeolithic station on the Wachtberg in Krems, Lower Austria. A reconstruction and scientific presentation of the excavation by J. Bayer from 1930. Information from the Prehistoric Commission, Vol. 34, Vienna 2000.
  10. On the special exhibition "AXT and RAD en miniature" (accessed on January 21, 2015)
  11. Ulrich Zoeger: Family history of Antiquity and the Middle Ages. on:
  12. Jürgen Zinnecker: Development in Social Change. Weinheim 1999.
  13. Daniela Bickler: Target group children - open up scope for action, avoid dependencies. Baden-Baden 2001.
  14. ^ Gabriele Gloger-Tippelt , R. Tippelt: Childhood and child development as social constructions. In: Education and Upbringing. 39, (1986), pp. 149-164.
  15. UNICEF: Germany only mediocre , February 14, 2007.
  16. Alma von der Hagen-Demszky: Familial educational worlds: Theoretical perspectives and empirical explorations. In: Deutsches Jugendinstitut e. V. (Ed.): Materials on the topic of family and education I. Munich, October 2006, p. 50 ( PDF: 667 kB, 142 pages on ( memento from October 20, 2011 in the Internet Archive )).
  17. ZEFIR data pool: recipients of social benefits according to SGB II under the age of 15 in June 2005. ( Memento from October 18, 2007 in the Internet Archive ) 2007, accessed on October 8, 2019 (source: Federal Employment Agency, own calculations; ZEFIR overview ( Memento of December 18, 2007 in the Internet Archive )).
  18. ^ Vernor Muñoz : Report of the Special Rapporteur on the right to education. ( Memento of June 10, 2007 in the Internet Archive ) Retrieved on May 5, 2019 (English).
  19. ^ Johanna: Forged translation of the report of the UN Special Rapporteur on the Right to Education. ( Memento from September 25, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) In: Mailing list, September 12, 2007, accessed May 5, 2019.
  20. a b c German PISA Consortium (ed.): PISA 2000 - The countries of the Federal Republic in comparison. Leske and Budrich, Opladen 2002, p. 166.
  21. German PISA Consortium (Ed.): PISA 2000 - The countries of the Federal Republic in comparison. Leske and Budrich, Opladen 2002, pp. 171/172.
  22. Federal Statistical Office p. 50 ff. ( Memento from June 16, 2006 in the Internet Archive ) (PDF)
  23. a b Federal Statistical Office (ed.): 682,000 children were born in 2013. Press release No. 434/14 dated December 8, 2014.
  24. Status: 2002, World Population ( Memento from September 28, 2007 in the Internet Archive )
  25. Scientific Advisory Board for Family Issues at the Federal Ministry for Family, Seniors, Women and Youth: Parenthood and Education - Analyzes and Recommendations on a Problem Area at the Interface of Family and Education Policy ( Memento of March 14, 2012 in the Internet Archive ), p. 25
  26. Martin Spiewak: Integration: One speaks (not only) German. In: The time. February 16, 2006 ( online at
  27. Antje Richter: Poverty Prevention - A Mission for Health Promotion. In: Margherita Zander: Child poverty. VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften, Wiesbaden 2005, ISBN 3-531-14450-2 , p. 202.
  28. Tobias Kaiser: Migrants at Schools: Germany has a major new education problem. In: March 19, 2018, accessed on March 6, 2019 (OECD study: This is how difficult it is for migrants to attend German schools).
  29. ^ Dietrich Thränhardt: Spanish immigrants create educational capital: Self-help networks and integration success in Europe. Without publisher, place or date ( PDF: 66 kB, 16 pages ( Memento from June 30, 2007 in the Internet Archive )).
  30. Panagiotis Kouparanis: Migrant children with educational success: The example of the Greek students. In: Deutschlandfunk Kultur. November 15, 2005, accessed March 6, 2019.
  31. Heike Klovert: OECD education study: How the integration of immigrant children succeed. In: Spiegel Online. March 19, 2018, accessed March 6, 2019.
  32. ^ Berlin International Film Festival 2008 : Son of a Lion. Forum, accessed June 24, 2019.