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Depiction by Alexander Zick
Illustration by Carl Offterdinger

Cinderella (near Bechstein Cschenbrödel ) is a well-known fairy tale ( ATU 510 A). It is in the children's and house tales of the Brothers Grimm at position 21 (KHM 21) and goes back in part to Charles Perrault's Cendrillon ou la Petite Pantoufle de verre ( Cinderella or the little glass slipper ) from 1697. Ludwig Bechstein took it over in his German fairy tale book as Cinderella (1845 No. 70, 1853 No. 62). Perrault's version with the apple moldTransformed mice and the pumpkin, which turns into a carriage with the help of the fairy, had a major impact on Walt Disney's 1950 cartoon Cinderella .

Content based on the Brothers Grimm (1812)

Picture by Jenny Nystrøm , around 1890
Illustration by Hermann Vogel

The daughter of a rich man grows up well protected. When the mother dies, she asks the daughter on her death bed to plant a tree on her grave that she should shake if she has a wish, which the daughter does. Two years after the death of her mother, the father marries a widow who brings two daughters into the house. Stepmother and stepsisters make life difficult for the girl in all possible ways. Because she not only does the roughest dirty work, but from now on also has to sleep in the ashes next to the stove, the girl is called Cinderella .

One day the king gives a ball that lasts three days. The stepsisters let Cinderella prepare them for the ball and give her a bowl full of lentils to read until evening. As Cinderella gets to work, two pigeons fly in and ask them if they should help her. Cinderella replies: “Yes, the bad ones in the croup, the good ones in the potty.” Then she stands on the top step of the dovecote and can see her sisters dancing with the prince.

The next day, when the sisters see the lenses they have read and hear Cinderella watching them, they tear off the dovecote. They give the girl a sack full of sweet peas for Cinderella to pick up again. Again the pigeons fly over and help her with the task. They advise her to go to the little tree on her mother's grave and ask for nice clothes, but she should be home before midnight. So when Cinderella shakes the little tree and says "Shake the little tree and shake yourself, throw down nice clothes for me!", A silver dress, pearls, stockings and silver slippers lie in front of her. When she has put on the dress, a car with six black horses is standing in front of her door that will take her to the castle. In the castle, the prince thinks she is a strange princess and the sisters who do not recognize her are annoyed that someone is more beautiful than her. At midnight Cinderella leaves the ball and gives the clothes back to the tree on the grave.

The next morning the sisters are in a bad mood and give Cinderella another bowl of peas that she has to sort out. Again the pigeons help her and she goes to the tree for a new dress. This time it is made entirely of gold and precious stones and has gold slippers. This time there is a car with six white horses in front of her door that drives her to the ball. When the sisters see them and fail to recognize them, they turn pale with envy. But so that she could not run away so quickly, the prince covered the castle stairs with pitch . Cinderella forgets time while dancing. When she hears the bell, she remembered the warning from the pigeons and she was startled. When running out, one of her slippers gets stuck in bad luck. The prince announces that he will marry the virgin who fits the shoe, but the shoe is too small for everyone. The king's son also investigates in the father's house. The two stepsisters try in vain to pull the delicate shoe over their feet. At the mother's advice, the first one cuts off her heel and the second cuts off her big toe. On the way to the gate, however, the fraud is revealed both times by the pigeons: "Jerk di peep, jerk di peep! There's blood in the shoe: (shoe) The shoe is too small, the bride on the right is still at home. ”Cinderella, who is the only one that fits the shoe, is finally recognized as the true bride.

Changes in Grimm (1819) and Bechstein (1845)

From the version from 1819 onwards, Cinderella plants the hazelnut rice that his father asked for on his mother's grave. A little bird then perches on the tree and gives Cinderella what it wants. Now it's no longer just two pigeons helping Cinderella to read the lenses, but a whole flock. When Cinderella says to the tree, “Little tree, shake yourself! throw gold and silver over me! ”the bird throws down a gold and silver dress. The prince's son accompanies Cinderella on the way home, but he escapes into the pigeon house, which the prince breaks in two with an ax in search of him. The next evening the process is repeated, this time Cinderella escapes onto a pear tree in the garden, which his father beats with an ax. When the stepsisters want to ride away with the prince, they pass the hazel tree on the grave, from where the two pigeons point to the blood in the shoe. Compared to the original version from 1812, which ends with the recognition of the right bride, the Brothers Grimm in the version from 1819 expand the fairy tale to include Cinderella's wedding with the prince. The stepsisters who accompany Cinderella to church receive their just punishment when the two doves peck their eyes.

The fate of the wicked stepmother is not reported in any version of the fairy tale, not even in the Ludwig Bechstein collection, where the fairy tale is reproduced in a shortened form without serious deviations from the version by the Brothers Grimm.

Table of contents according to Perrault (1697)

Illustration by Gustave Doré , 1897

Like the Brothers Grimm, who took over the fairy tale from oral stories (adaptations by Perrault) and added it to their collection, Cendrillon is the humiliated girl from the first marriage of a nobleman. The motif of the grave and the hazel tree is missing in Perrault. Instead, it is a fairy godmother , one of Cendrillon's aunt, who helps the beautiful girl. When the stepsisters want to go to the ball, Cendrillon, who has to perform the services of a low maid, is not allowed to accompany them. In her need she turns to her aunt. She first has Cendrillon fetch a pumpkin, which the aunt hollowed out and transformed into a carriage with her magic wand. Mice and rats and a few lizards are turned into dapple mold, a coachman and lackeys. When the fairy touches Cendrillon with her wand, she is wearing splendid clothes. The fairy also gives her glass slippers (glass slippers) in which Cendrillon appears at the ball. However, the interpretation as glass shoes may be due to a misunderstanding. En vair in French refers to the squirrel's winter fur, while de verre means glass.

A decisive motif, which Perrault worked out more clearly, is that Cendrillon must return before midnight, otherwise the magic will pass.

Cendrillon is considered the prettiest at the ball and is not recognized by the stepsisters either. On the second evening of the ball, when Cendrillon is dressed up even more splendidly, she almost missed midnight, rushes out at the first stroke of the bell and loses one of her glass slippers that does not change back. Now the prince has announced across the country that he only wants to marry the girl who fits the shoe. He instructs a courtier to do the fitting. The two stepsisters fail while trying to fit the Cendrillon shoe. She now pulls the second shoe out of her pocket. At that moment, the fairy comes in and transforms Cendrillon's kitchen smock into the most magnificent clothes.

The stepsisters are not punished because Cendrillon has forgiven them. On the day of Cendrillon's wedding to the Prince, the stepsisters are also married to two distinguished gentlemen from the court.

Style at Grimm

Illustration by Otto Ubbelohde , 1909
Illustration by Otto Ubbelohde , 1909

In addition to verbatim speeches, the text is decorated with verses at key points that are repeated. When Cinderella has to read lenses, it calls out both times:

"The good ones in the potty,
the bad ones in the crop. "

And before the festival starts:

“Little tree, shake yourself and shake yourself
throw gold and silver at me. "

The pigeons expose the false sisters with the words:

"Jerk you look, jerk you look,
There is blood in the shoe:
The shoe is too small
the right bride is still at home. "

The third time it says: "... no blood in the Schuck: / the Schuck is not too small / the real bride, he will lead her home." It repeats (from the 2nd edition) the bird motif of becoming one two and then many birds, the grave tree is repeated as a motif in the pear tree.

Text history at Grimm

Illustration by Otto Ubbelohde , 1909

In the text of the 1st edition from 1812, the birds do not appear until they read Cinderella's lenses, the first evening of the festivities then only looks from the dovecote. From the 2nd edition, the grave tree (cf. KHM 47 , 130 ) is created from the father's present (cf. KHM 88 ), the hazel rice, where the crying child now encounters the bird. So it can ask for help on the festive evening. All the little birds under the sky are added (the scene was often depicted), "gold and silver" can be thrown from the tree. So three festive days only bring an increase with even more beautiful clothes (cf. KHM 65 , 186 ). The pigeon house and the newly introduced pear tree are only hiding places from the prince. The father suspects "it should be Cinderella." Instead of the midnight disappearance of the party clothes (as with Perrault), the unlucky trap now occurs, in which Cinderella loses its shoe. That the pigeons punish the sisters with blindness is new. Cinderella's complaint: “if my mother only knew!” (Cf. KHM 89 ) and the phrase that the prince wanted to know “where she came from and where she was going” (cf. KHM 9 ) did not apply .

Later editions only change individual formulations. From the 3rd edition the sisters rant “What should the creature (instead of“ What does the useless ”) want in the rooms", from the 6th edition “Should the stupid goose (cf. KHM 15 ) sit in our room!" ", They mock:" Just look at the proud princess, how she is dressed! ". From “you have nothing on your body, and you have no clothes, and you can't dance, and you want to go to the wedding!” Becomes the 4th edition: “you want to go to the wedding, and you have no clothes, you want to dance and you have no shoes!” For the 4th edition, “pear tree full of wonderful fruit” becomes a “tree on which the most wonderful pears are hanging”, the heroine climbs “nimbly like a squirrel”. The bad luck trap on the stairs is clearly named as the prince's ruse, the sisters suffer pain with injured feet. The father's “little, nasty Cinderella”, from the 4th edition “little pissed off Cinderella”, presses the foot a little into the shoe, “so it said as if it were cast on him”, from the 6th edition it sits up a stool and just put your foot in the shoe.


Cinderella , oil painting by Karl Heinrich Hoff
Picture by Louis Adolphe Tessier , 1909

Ludwig Bechstein's Cinderella appeared in Deutsches Märchenbuch in 1845 first at position 70, later at position 62. In terms of content, it largely corresponds to the then current 4th or 5th edition of Grimm's fairy tales, which he also cites as a source, but is shorter and the wording is new. with less literal speeches. The lens reading takes place in the garden by the hazel tree, the heroine is given two hours twice, instead of only half an hour as with Grimm. The bird calls:

"My dear child, tell me
I'll give you what you want! "

Cinderella answers:

“O dear little tree, shake yourself!
O dear little tree, shake yourself!
Throw nice clothes over me! "

Pigeon house, pear tree and bad luck trap are missing, it loses the shoe "by accident", and the prince rides it from house to house. During the rehearsal, the sisters' feet appear to grow larger with no toe or heel cut off.

Bechstein's ash blower with the whip is similar , it is in the first place in New German Fairy Tale Book . In The Nut Branch, the branch hits the father's hat. The festivals are similar to The Rose Queen , the tree poem The Garden in the Fountain , these fairy tales are missing in later editions.


Illustration by Sarah Noble Ives , ca.1912
Illustration, 1916
Illustration by Elenore Abbott , 1920

Already Grimm's commentary on Cinderella in the 1st edition of 1812 begins with the words: "belongs to the most famous and is told of all ends" and mentions various Lower and Upper German, Danish, Polish and Slavic names of Cinderella, a stage play Aescherling and other versions : Perraults Cendrillon ou la Petite Pantoufle de verre , Aulnoys Finette Cendron , Basiles La gatta cenerentola , KHM 65 Allerleirauh . Grimm's fairy tales themselves use Cinderella as a standing term when in the introduction to Frau Holle the good daughter is “the Cinderella in the house” and Virgo Maleen is called “Cinderella” by the false bride. De wilde Mann is referred to as the male Cinderella in the commentary.

Grimm's comment from 1856 notes on the origin "After three stories from Hesse." One of them "from Zwehrn" (probably by Dorothea Viehmann ) ends with the king leaving the key to the forbidden chamber there (like Bluebeard ), in which she finds a blood well, into which the wicked sister throws them to replace them, as in little brother and sister . The end of a fourth story “from Meklenburg” reminds us of Genoveva von Brabant : stepmother and sister swap the queen's newborn sons for dogs and have them killed by the gardener, who takes them to a forest cave where they grow up with a doe, in the end the king becomes aware of the wild golden-haired boys. In a fifth “from Paderbörnischen” the countess wants a child as red and white as rose and snow (like Snow White ), the nurse rushes her out of the window, the child cries on the grave and receives the key to a tree (like Mary Child ) . In it are clothes, soap and a prayer book, the count holds it tight by coating the church threshold with pitch. In a sixth in Büsching's “Wochenentl. Messages 1, 139 ”a dog barks at the wrong bride“ Wu, wu, wu! / Shoe full of blood! ", On the right" wu, wu, wu! / Shoe fits well! ”In“ Hagen's stories and fairy tales 2, 339 ”he barks“ hau, hau, hau, hau, hau, / my master doesn't have the right wife ”. They also mention Colshorn No. 44, Meier No. 4. The Brothers Grimm state that the fairy tale is "one of the most famous and is told at all ends", also as "Askenpüster", "Askenböel", "Askenbüel", "Aschenpöselken von pöseln, laboriously (the peas out of the ashes) search "," Aschpuck "," Aschenpuddel "," Cschenbrödel "," Äscherling "," Aschengrittel "," Aschengruttel "," Äschengrusel "," Danish and Swedish askefis, from blowing in. " the ashes (at fise i Asken). Jamieson v. Assiepet, Ashypet, Ashiepattle, a neglected child, employed in the lowest kitchenwork. Polish Kopciuszek from Kopec, soot, smoke. ”“ Aschenbrödel ”is also a boy despised by proud brothers, like Der Eisenhans ,“ Aschentagger ”by Zingerle “ S. 395 “, they collect examples. Odysseus sits in the ashes near Alcinous . The fact that pigeons read in is often mentioned, for example by Meister Sîgeher ("MS. 2, 221b"), "I am milten mustard bî / with linden sayings süezen / schône alz ez a turteltûbe have chosen." At Geiler von Keisersberg in “Brosamen Bl. 88b” the pigeon picks up the purest grains, therefore one says to clean grain, “it is just as if the deaf cuddly ones had carried it”. In Paulis Schimpf and Ernst (1535) “Cap. 315 sheet 60a “a woman kneels in the back of the church, a dove is picking up her tears. To identify the lost shoe, they name Rhodope ("Aelian Var. Lib. 13"). Kudrun becomes a Cinderella in disaster. They also name Basiles Cennerentola , Perraults Cendrillon ou la Petite Pantoufle de verre , Aulnoys Finette Cendron , in Norwegian at Asbjörnsen “S. 110 ", in Hungarian for Stier " S. 34 follow. ”, In Serbian at Wuk No. 32, KHM 65 Allerleirauh , KHM 130 One-Eyes, Two-Eyes and Three-Eyes .

A copy of Cinderella's handwritten original that was sent to Wilhelm Grimm in Marburg was part of the original handwritten version from 1810, but was lost in this case. The text of the 1st edition came partly from the so-called "Marburger Märchenfrau", from Perrault's Cendrillon and Laskopal and Miliwka in sagas of the Bohemian prehistoric times (anonymous, 1808), the 2nd edition also from Dorothea Viehmann .

According to Hans-Jörg Uther , the origin cannot be clearly identified. For comparison, he names Perrault's Cendrillon , but also d'Aulnoy's Finette Cendron and La Belle aux chevaux d'or , as well as Laskopal and Miliwka in legends of Bohemian prehistoric times (anonymous, 1808). He notes that there were German versions of Aulnoy's fairy tales well into the 19th century, but also mentions publications that emphasized the spread in Zittau or the Harz Mountains around 1810 . Apparently, a leading version had not yet emerged. The Brothers Grimm chose the Low German form of the name Cinderella, probably in contrast to earlier versions from the French. One of the first Perrault translations was called Aschen-Brodel around 1760 , and d'Aulnoy's Finette Cendron in The Blue Library of All Nations (Vol. 4, 1790) Cinderella .

Rainer Wehse explains the name of the heroine with the Greek achylia (ash) and pouttos or poutti (female genitalia), Achylopouttoura in Greek is a woman crouching at the stove, actually a cat that is dirty from the ash below. It only has names with "ash" in Europe. Reading grains is supposed to keep the heroine at home, so it can be replaced by other unsolvable tasks. The fleeing woman throws money, jewels or ashes behind her (cf. Atalante ) or creates fog with magic formulas. Younger is the motif of the bad luck trap in which she loses her shoe. The fact that a beautiful foot is small fits in with oriental origins. The animal witnesses, often speaking in verse, reveal the heroine hiding place in the older form, the broken feet of the sisters in the younger form. The tree is a stone, hill, or house in Great Britain and Scandinavia. The grave with the tree seems to be the remains of a “dead mother as a helper” or the “cow as a helper”, in whose belly there is a gem or on whose grave the “clothes donating tree” stands. These forms are older, more widespread and, as AaTh 511, often form the beginning of the fairy tale (as in Grimm's One-Eye, Two-Eyes and Three-Eyes ). The combination of AaTh 511 and AaTh 510 A occurs from Ireland to Japan, the reduced form AaTh 510 A in Northern, Central and Eastern Europe, less in Southern Europe, where AaTh 510 B (like Grimms Allerleirauh ) is more common.


Illustration by Anne Anderson

Cinderella remains one of the most popular fairy tales. For Ernst Tegethoff it was a “lucky dream of the socially disenfranchised”, for Max Lüthi it was also the anticipation of future possibilities, a draft of a development, according to Rainer Wehse perhaps because it is a magical fairy tale and realistic portrayal of fate. Doves are a Christian symbol of the Holy Spirit ( Mt 3,16  EU , cf. KHM 33 ). The anthroposophist Rudolf Meyer also speaks of the glow of the “soul clothes” for unification with the “spirit self” ( 2 Cor 5,2  EU ). With Edzard Storck , the pious girl learns, thanks to the motherly “powers of wisdom of the past”, through the father of the heavenly Father ( Eph 3:15  EU ), for which “head forces of the mind” have to step back. The hazel is holy ( Isa 11.1  EU ), according to Rudolf Steiner it draws forces into the ground, the tears like a cultic consecration. The cross becomes the tree of life ( Novalis ' hymns to the night , 3: “… melancholy flowed into a new, unfathomable world”), divine love reality present ( Mk 11:24  EU ). Plato speaks of the dovecote of the soul, where thoughts fly back and forth and one has to read them out again and again ( Theaetetos , chap. 36, 37), as in the parable of the sower , thought formation is sacrifice ( Lk 8.5  EU ), clothes perhaps resurrection forces ( 2 Cor 3,18  EU , Col 3,9  EU ). Taubenhaus and pear tree suggest thinking and feeling, only earthly bad luck, will, brings the prince on the trail. For the pigeons cf. KHM 76 The Carnation .

Hedwig von Beit explains that stepmother and step-sisters are taking over as shadow aspects of the heroine, which split off the positive image of the mother and displace the true personality core. Cinderella draws strength from the female intimate sphere that has been pushed into the realm of the dead. The hazel rice as the germ of self-development grows out of painful devotion to the unconscious and bears the bird as a symbol of inspiration. The lentils are a symbol of fertility, and ashes are the source material often despised in alchemy. Cinderella's ash reading is a patient parting in the chaos of the unconscious, from which the germs of future fate must be extracted. The prince rules as an animus figure in the unconscious, where the secular, collective attitude of the stepsisters fails. Her beautiful clothes mean the profane, the heroine, on the other hand, is instinctively given the right attitude to the animus from the unconscious. Her dance means a harmony with the infinite, but this experience is initially to be hidden from a renewed daytime consciousness. Hedwig von Beit compares Móirín in Irish Fairy Tales , No. 20 ( The Fairy Tales of World Literature ), The Beautiful Wassilissa in Alfred Loepfe's Russian Fairy Tales , The Macassar Cinderella in Malay Fairy Tales , No. 42, The Fairy Tale of Mrile in African Fairy Tales , No. 9 . Bruno Bettelheim According dear children Cinderella whose sibling rivalry they understand well. The child is thrilled that everyone believes in its innocence, because it believes it deserves its lot. The malice of the stepmother and step-sisters justifies every bad thought, at the same time relativizes one's own suffering with the real family.

For Friedel Lenz man as a merchant has forgotten the source of his spiritual wealth, so the rice should hit him on the hat, a hazel bush as a tree of life attracts cosmic forces. The heroine is forced into a gray smock and wooden shoes by the hypocritical daughters of the sensory world: the aura becomes gray, life lignified, only at the stove, so in the heart she can still live. The holy spirit must work from the dovecote and pear tree (spirit and feeling), in patient self-education the false sisters depart from us, who live in mere sensuality on a big foot. Wilhelm Salber sees over-excitability with a feeling of disadvantage and ugliness ideas, with the secret hope that life will calculate everything and actually begin at some point. The division of the polarities of over-peacefulness and enmity between opponents is supposed to sort out the unrest, which always kindles a new beginning. The homeopath Martin Bomhardt compares the fairy tale with the remedies Carcinosinum , Formica rufa , and Natrum muriaticum . Eugen Drewermann sees Cinderella as a misunderstood, lonely orphan. From a psychological point of view, Drewermann sees the poor miller's boy and the kitten as the male equivalent of the “women's fairy tale” Cinderella, which here reveals the “male” Cinderella. The psychotherapist Jobst Finke sees the doves (Perrault's fairy) as an alter ego or helpful companion for the heroine and a symbol of her deep bond with her mother. The fairy tale is suitable for childhood experiences of violence and abuse in a broken home, in order to internalize protective figures of identification and to allow closeness again.

Receptions and parodies

In Johann Geiler von Kaysersberg's sermon, Eschengrüdel does the lowest service in the monastery and is then honored. August von Platen-Hallermünde wrote the comedy The Glass Slipper (1824), Christian Dietrich Grabbe the satire Cinderella (1829), Ernst Moritz Arndt an art fairy tale. Three Hazelnuts for Cinderella is a fairy tale by Božena Němcová and was written between 1842 and 1845.

Erich Kästner's poem Cinderella, newly renovated, and Uta Claus ' vulgar German retelling, relocate the plot to the present. So also Werner Münchow in Cinderella's ashes , whereby the heroine emancipates herself from her passive role. Fabius von Gugel wrote a parody. Poems by Michail Krausnick , Karl Krolow or Rolf Krenzer play with the victim motif. Cinderella also appears in mangas such as Kaori Yuki's Ludwig Revolution or another by Nina Werner . Marissa Meyer's Luna Chronicles retell it, along with other fairy tales, as a sci-fi romance. By Nathalie Azoulai is Cinderella or the little silk glove: Leurs Contes de Perrault in Hold the current state of things. Contemporary literature from France. ( die horen , 62, 267, autumn 2017; poetic variant, ironic, in German).

As one of the best-known fairy tales, Cinderella is synonymous with the disadvantaged girl, stepchild or inconspicuous wallflower . Fontane's bold Effi Briest says to her mother: “Forgive me, I want to hurry now; You know, I can be quick too, and in five minutes Cinderella is transformed into a princess. ”The vernacular likes to quote“ the good in the potty, the bad in the croup. ”In English, the Cinderella complex denotes female gender stereotypes. The Antarctic Ugly Sisters Nunataks are named after Cinderella's step-sisters. The Sinderellas is the name of an artist group.

Origin and development of the fairy tale

According to the research of the Grimm researcher Holger Ehrhardt, the narrator through whom the Grimm brothers learned their version of both the Cinderella and the fairy tale The Golden Bird was Elisabeth Schellenberg, impoverished and childless in a hospital in Marburg in 1814.

Like other fairy tales, however, Cinderella as an archetype also has a long history behind it. The first traces can be found with the Greeks and Romans ( Rhodopis ), in the Chinese Empire of the 9th century ( Youyang zazu ) ; in Persia, especially at the end of the 12th century, in the Seven Beauties , also called The Seven Princesses , written by Nezāmi , there are preliminary formulations of the Cinderella motif. The North American natives also have this fairy tale motif. According to Ulf Diederichs there are no fewer than 400 circulating variants.

The effect and further narration of the Cinderella fairy tale motif is literarily complex. Particularly in the literature of the German, English, Russian and French Romanticism and in the literature of the symbolism that defines the history of international style, there are interesting combinations and echoes of Cinderella - like many fairy tale motifs. In particular, Puschkin , Novalis , Tieck , Brentano , Eichendorff , ETA Hoffmann , Hans Christian Andersen , Tennyson , Wilde , Mallarmé , Maeterlinck and Hofmannsthal should be mentioned here. The subject of Cinderella is explicitly used by z. B. at Christian Dietrich Grabbe in which he published in 1835 Cinderella , go to Robert Walser in his 1901 in the island published Dramolett Cinderella used. The Russian poet Yevgeny Lwowitsch Schwarz wrote a fairy tale play in the 1930s called Cinderella .

The central images of the fairy tale are the pigeons, the shoes and in the many variants also the hazelnuts or the hazelnut tree. The Brothers Grimm noted as early as 1812 that the pigeons were considered pure animals, which therefore also “read pure”, and that this linguistic image can already be found in old German. Pigeons have also been Aphrodite's traditional companions since ancient Greece . The picture of the nut or the cracked nut is a metaphor of perfect knowledge - this meaning is also associated with this sense of knowledge in Dutch still life painting .

If the basic motif of the fairy tale is reduced and banalized to a heroine who is unhappy in life and hopes for the love of a prince, in combination with a moral that good is always rewarded, there are also continuations of Cinderella in trivial literature, such as with Marlitt and Hedwig Courths-Mahler .

Cultural-historical transformations

Cinderella has inspired numerous dramas, operas, as well as a number of works of visual art and films. A fairy tale fountain in Wuppertal and a fairy tale fountain in Weißenfels show Cinderella motifs. There is a sculpture in the Märchenbrunnen in Volkspark Friedrichshain , one in the Märchenbrunnen in Schulenburgpark in Berlin, and a statue in Josaphatpark .


Lithograph by Anton Seder


Bronze statue of Edmond Lefever in Josaphat Park , Brussels


Fairy tale sculpture in the fairy tale fountain in Volkspark Friedrichshain , 1913



Cinderella's shoe at the castle ruins in Polle


Eugen d'Albert composed the Cinderella Suite op. 33 in 1924. Cendrillon also appears in Georges Brassens ' 1952 Chanson la chasse aux papillons . Cenerentola is a single by Martinelli (1985), Cindarella is a song by the band Erste Allgemeine Verunsicherung (1994), Cinderella Man by Eminem (2010), Sinderella is a double CD by The Tiger Lillies (2009). Also Faun sings Cinderella .

Film and television adaptations

Cinderella's shoe at Moritzburg Castle (Saxony)

Individual motifs or echoes can also be found in First Love (1939), Grimm's Fairy Tales of Lascivious Pärchen (1969), 3 Misses (1998), Ghosts (2005), Shrek the Third (2007), Cinderella - True Love Wins (2007), Rags (2012), Into the Woods (2014), Tell Me a Story (2019).



  • Original French Version: Charles Perrault: Cendrillon. La petite pentoufle de verre. Conte . In: Histoires ou Contes du temps passé . Claude Barbin, Paris 1697, p. 117-148 ( Wikisource , ).
  • German version from 1852: Cinderella or the little glass slipper . In: Julius Grimm (Ed.): New Mährchenbuch for boys and girls by Carl Perrault and Madame d'Aunoy . Th. Grieben, Berlin 1852, p. 33–39 ( Bavarian State Library digital ).


  • Version of 1812: Cinderella . In: Brothers Grimm (ed.): Children's and house fairy tales, large edition . 1st edition. tape 1 . Realschulbuchhandlung, Berlin 1812, p. 88-101 ( Wikisource ).
  • Version from 1819: Cinderella . In: Brothers Grimm (ed.): Children's and house fairy tales, large edition . 2nd Edition. tape 1 . G. Reimer, Berlin 1819, p. 114-123 ( Wikisource ).


  • Cinderella . In: Ludwig Bechstein (ed.): German fairy tale book . Georg Wigand's Verlag, Leipzig 1846, p. 242–244 ( Bavarian State Library digital ).

Text editions in various versions

  • Alfred Auerbach: Cinderella. A fairy tale in modern form in 4 pictures . Arbeiter-Theaterverlag, Leipzig, 1931.
  • Margrit Glaser (arr.): Cinderella. A fairy tale game based on the Brothers Grimm for the stage arranged by Margrit Glaser . Production by Hilde Hellberg / Stadt-Theater Worms, season: 1946/47.
  • Ludwig Bechstein : German fairy tale book - Complete fairy tales . Edited by Walter Scherf. Complete edition after the last edition, taking into account the first edition, with notes and an afterword by Walter Scharf. With 187 illustrations by Ludwig Richter . Darmstadt, 1966.
  • Brothers Grimm : Children's and Household Tales . Last hand edition with the original notes by the Brothers Grimm. With an appendix of all fairy tales and certificates of origin, not published in all editions, published by Heinz Rölleke. Volume 3: Original Notes, Guarantees of Origin, Afterword. Pp. 46-51, pp. 451-452. Revised and bibliographically supplemented edition, Stuttgart 1994. (Reclam-Verlag; ISBN 3-15-003193-1 )
  • Ulf Diederichs: Who's who in fairy tales. Dtv 2002, ISBN 3-423-32537-2 .
  • Marian Roalfe Cox: Cinderella: 345 Variants of Cinderella, Catskin and Cap o'Rushes. Kraus Reprint 1967 (reference work, without the variants from the Asian-speaking area)
  • The fairies' cabinet. French fairy tales of the 17th and 18th centuries . Edited by Friedemar Apel and Norbert Müller, Munich 1984.
  • Božena Němcová : Three hazelnuts for cinderella . Eulenspiegel-Verlag, Berlin 2002.


  • Hans-Jörg Uther: Handbook to the children's and house fairy tales of the Brothers Grimm. de Gruyter, Berlin 2008, ISBN 978-3-11-019441-8 , pp. 50-55.
  • Rainer Wehse: Cinderella. In: Encyclopedia of Fairy Tales. Walter de Gruyter, Berlin / New York 1981, pp. 39–57.
  • Hermann Bausinger : “Cinderella. On the problem of fairy tale symbolism. ”In: Fairy tale research and depth psychology . Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, Darmstadt 1969, pp. 284-298 ( full text ).
  • Bruno Bettelheim : Children need fairy tales . Stuttgart 1977, p. 225ff.
  • Marianne Butterwegge: Me and you: fairytale relationships through the ages; a fairy tale interpretation and a fairy tale . Internationales Kulturwerk, Hildesheim 2002.
  • Micael M. Clarke: Brontë’s Jane Eyre and the Grimm's Cinderel . Houston, Texas, 2000.
  • Annie Delatte: Il était une fois ... six versions of Cendrillon . Paris 1997.
  • Eugen Drewermann : Cinderella . Solothurn [u. a.] 1993.

Web links

Wiktionary: Cinderella  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations
Wikisource: Cinderella  - Sources and Full Texts
Commons : Cinderella  - collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. French cendre means "ashes", pantoufle in this context "shoe", not "slipper" or "slipper".
  2. The Brothers Grimm point out that similar terms can be found in German as early as the 18th century, for example "Aschepuddel" as "a slightly unclean girl" in Johann Georg Estor: "An attempt at an Upper Hessian dictionary". In: Ders .: Der Teutschen Rechtsgelahrheit . Vol. 3. Frankfurt am Main 1767, pp. 1403-1424, here p. 1403. Online in Dt. Text archive
  3. Movie releases: Fairy tales really were that cruel before Disney softened them. Retrieved May 21, 2020 .
  4. ↑ On the controversy, see the French Wikipedia article Controverse sur la composition des pantoufles de Cendrillon .
  5. Lothar Bluhm and Heinz Rölleke: “Popular speeches that I always listen to”. Fairy tale - proverb - saying. On the folk-poetic design of children's and house fairy tales by the Brothers Grimm. New edition. S. Hirzel Verlag, Stuttgart / Leipzig 1997, ISBN 3-7776-0733-9 , p. 62.
  6. ^ Hans-Jörg Uther (Ed.): Ludwig Bechstein. Storybook. After the edition of 1857, text-critically revised and indexed. Diederichs, Munich 1997, ISBN 3-424-01372-2 , pp. 292-295, 391.
  7. Wikisource: Cinderella (1812), Appendix
  8. Wikisource: Frau Holle (1812)
  9. Wikisource: Virgin Maleen (1857)
  10. Wikisource: De wilde Mann (1815), appendix
  11. Wikisource: Grimm's Note on Cinderella
  12. Heinz Rölleke (ed.): The oldest fairy tale collection of the Brothers Grimm. Synopsis of the handwritten original version from 1810 and the first prints from 1812. Edited and explained by Heinz Rölleke. Cologny-Geneve 1975 (Fondation Martin Bodmer, Printed in Switzerland), p. 298.
  13. Heinz Rölleke (ed.): The oldest fairy tale collection of the Brothers Grimm. Synopsis of the handwritten original version from 1810 and the first prints from 1812. Edited and explained by Heinz Rölleke. Cologny-Geneve 1975 (Fondation Martin Bodmer, Printed in Switzerland), pp. 387-388.
  14. Hans-Jörg Uther: Handbook on the children's and house tales of the Brothers Grimm. de Gruyter, Berlin 2008, ISBN 978-3-11-019441-8 , pp. 50-55.
  15. ^ Rainer Wehse: Cinderella. In: Encyclopedia of Fairy Tales. Walter de Gruyter, Berlin / New York 1981, pp. 39–57.
  16. ^ Rainer Wehse: Cinderella. In: Encyclopedia of Fairy Tales. Walter de Gruyter, Berlin / New York 1981, pp. 39–57.
  17. Edzard Storck: Old and new creation in the fairy tales of the Brothers Grimm. Turm Verlag, Bietigheim 1977, ISBN 3-7999-0177-9 , pp. 246-251.
  18. Hedwig von Beit: Symbolism of the fairy tale. Attempt at an interpretation. 4th edition. Francke, Bern / Munich 1971, pp. 722-733.
  19. Bruno Bettelheim: Children need fairy tales. Translated from the English by Liselotte Mickel, Brigitte Weitbrecht. 31st edition. dtv, Munich 2012, ISBN 978-3-423-35028-0 , pp. 275-324 (American original edition: The Uses of Enchantment , 1975).
  20. ^ Friedel Lenz: Visual language of fairy tales. 8th edition. Free Spiritual Life and Urachhaus publishing house, Stuttgart 1997, ISBN 3-87838-148-4 , pp. 146–159
  21. ^ Wilhelm Salber: Märchenanalyse (= Armin Schulte (Hrsg.): Work edition Wilhelm Salber, psychological morphology. Volume 12). 2nd Edition. Bouvier, Bonn 1999, ISBN 3-416-02899-6 , pp. 8, 20, 56-59, 103.
  22. ^ Martin Bomhardt: Symbolic Materia Medica. 3. Edition. Verlag Homeopathie + Symbol, Berlin 1999, ISBN 3-9804662-3-X , pp. 396, 564, 955.
  23. Eugen Drewermann: The exhausted soul - of the opportunities and fate of depression. Seminar March 7th - 8th, 2008, Nuremberg, Auditorium, CD 1/4 (from 16 min.).
  24. Drewermann, Eugen: Landscapes of the Soul or How to Overcome Fear Grimm's fairy tales interpreted in terms of depth psychology, Patmos Verlag, 2015, p. 259.
  25. ^ Jobst Finke: Dreams, Fairy Tales, Imaginations. Person-centered psychotherapy and counseling with images and symbols. Reinhardt, Munich 2013, ISBN 978-3-497-02371-4 , pp. 156, 157, 186-188, 202, 208, 216.
  26. ^ Rainer Wehse: Cinderella. In: Encyclopedia of Fairy Tales. Walter de Gruyter, Berlin / New York 1981, pp. 39–57.
  27. Erich Kästner: Cinderella, newly renovated. In: Johannes Barth (ed.): Texts and materials for teaching. Grimm's fairy tales - modern. Prose, poems, caricatures. Reclam, Stuttgart 2011, ISBN 978-3-15-015065-8 , pp. 103-106 (1930; first published in: Otto Zarek (Ed.): Deutsches Künstlertheater. Program. ).
  28. Uta Claus: Cinderella. In: Johannes Barth (ed.): Texts and materials for teaching. Grimm's fairy tales - modern. Prose, poems, caricatures. Reclam, Stuttgart 2011, ISBN 978-3-15-015065-8 , pp. 111–113 (1984; first published in: Uta Claus, Rolf Kutschera: Total tote Hose. 12 strong fairy tales. Eichborn, Frankfurt a. M. 1985 , Pp. 19-24.).
  29. Werner Münchow: Cinderella's ashes. In: Charlotte Erpenbeck (Hrsg.): Grimms Märchen Update 1.1 Froschkönig not kissed. Machandel Verlag 2012, ISBN 978-3-939727-18-7 , pp. 75-81.
  30. Fabius von Gugel: Aschen-Brödel. In: Wolfgang Mieder (Ed.): Grim fairy tales. Prose texts from Ilse Aichinger to Martin Walser. Fischer Verlag, Frankfurt (Main) 1986, ISBN 3-88323-608-X , pp. 127–128 (first published in: Jochen Jung (ed.): Märchen, Sagen, Abenteuer. Newly told by authors of our time. German paperback Verlag, Munich 1976, pp. 91–92)
  31. Johannes Barth (Ed.): Texts and materials for teaching. Grimm's fairy tales - modern. Prose, poems, caricatures. Reclam, Stuttgart 2011, ISBN 978-3-15-015065-8 , pp. 110, 111, 113-114.
  32. Grimm's Manga. Special tape. Tokyopop, Hamburg 2012, ISBN 978-3-8420-0638-6 .
  33. The text comes from a French anthology with 11 authors who tell the Contes anew for today. ISBN 2714469043
  34. Huimin Xu, Zhang Zhang, Lingfei Wu, Cheng-Jun Wang: The Cinderella Complex: Word embeddings reveal gender stereotypes in movies and books . In: PLOS ONE . Volume 14, No. 11 , 22 November 2019, doi : 10.1371 / journal.pone.0225385 (English).
  35. ^ University of Kassel: Kassel Grimm researcher reveals the secret of the "Cinderella" narrator. In: Archived from the original on November 13, 2016 ; accessed on November 21, 2016 .
  36. Strabon , Geographie , Book 17, 33 (Eng.); Älian , Varia historia , Book 13, 33 (Eng.)
  37. Cinderella (1812) - Wikisource. In: Retrieved November 21, 2016 .
  38. ^ Photograph of MacDonald's Cinderella ( Memento from May 31, 2012 in the Internet Archive )
  39. Cinderella illustrations by A. Münzer in Grimm's Fairy Tales illustrated in Art Nouveau, ed. in the Arena Verlag Edition Popp, Würzburg 1982 in the reprint of the Cinderella art book from the Verlag Josef Scholz from 1904; ISBN 3-88155-102-6
  40. Cinderella with the dwarf. Retrieved June 9, 2020 .
  41. Peter Hamann u. a .: Ermanno Wolf-Ferrari . Schneider, Tutzing 1986 ISBN 3-7952-0481-X
  42. Scenic Works, 2005, Cendrillion, In: and en: Cendrillon (Viardot)
  43. ^ Cinderella in Harlem. Retrieved April 22, 2019 .