Peas (genus)

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Pea (Pisum sativum)

Pea ( Pisum sativum )

Eurosiden I
Order : Fabales (Fabales)
Family : Legumes (Fabaceae)
Subfamily : Butterflies (Faboideae)
Tribe : Fabeae
Genre : Peas
Scientific name

The plant genus of the peas ( Pisum ) belongs to the subfamily of the butterflies (Faboideae) within the family of the legumes (Fabaceae). The garden pea ( Pisum sativum ) used as a food crop is of economic importance . Many species from other genera also contain the name component -pea, for example the chickpea .


Illustration of the garden pea ( Pisum sativum ).

Vegetative characteristics

The Pisum species grow as annual , herbaceous plants, usually climbing with leaf tendrils. The pencil-shaped stems are hairless and are often not independently upright.

The alternate leaves are pinnate in pairs with one to three pairs of leaflets. The ovate to elliptical leaflets have a smooth or serrated edge. The rachis ends in a tendril usually with three or five branches . The leaf-like stipules are heart-shaped and up to 10 cm larger than the leaflets.

Generative characteristics

One to many flowers stand together in often long-stalked, racemose inflorescences . The bracts are small and obsolete and bracts are missing.

The hermaphroditic, zygomorphic , five-fold flowers have a double flower envelope . The five leaf-like, unequal sepals are fused bell-shaped, with at least two calyx teeth at most twice as long as the calyx tube. The five crown is often white, more rarely red to pink to bluish. The nailed flag is obovate. The two wings are fused with the shuttle and are larger than the same. There are ten stamens, the stamen tube is not cut off at an angle and the anthers are all the same. The ovary is almost sitting and contains many ovules . The dished pen is longitudinally grooved, slightly flattened at the top and bearded hairy. The scar is small.

The long, elliptical, flattened legume contains many seeds. The almost spherical seeds have a hilum that is covered by an aril .


The genus of the pea is common in the Mediterranean and Asia Minor . Pisum sativum is grown in the temperate zones around the world.


External system

The genus of peas belongs to the tribe Fabeae (Syn .: Vicieae) in the subfamily of the Faboideae within the family of the Fabaceae .

The genus Pisum is closely related to the genus of flat peas ( Lathyrus ). According to genetic analyzes, the genus Vavilovia is closely related to one, possibly two species. Whether the common clade of Pisum and Vavilovia is sister group of Lathyrus or possibly nested within this genus (i.e. possibly more closely related to some flat peas than these to other members of the genus) is scientifically controversial. The genus comprises only three genetically clearly separated species that are not fully fertile intercrossable: Pisum sativum L. , Pisum fulvum Sibth. . & Sm (wild species: Jordan Syria, Israel, Lebanon), Pisum abyssinicum A. Brown (cultured family: Ethiopia, Yemen possibly as a hybrid of. Pisum sativum subsp. Elatius and Pisum fulvum originated and independently cultivated)

A Molecular phylogenetic analysis of the tribe fabeae has recently suggested that the genus Pisum in the genus of grass pea ( Lathyrus could be nested), the peas would be so phylogenetically properly considered vetchlings and inscribed. The new nomenclature combination that would be necessary if this result is confirmed has not yet been carried out.

Internal system

The generic name Pisum was first published in 1753 by Carl von Linné in Species Plantarum . Type species is Pisum sativum L.

The genus includes three types. The following subspecies and varieties are also recognized under the widely accepted Maxted and Ambrose system

  • Pea ( Pisum sativum L. )
    • Pisum sativum subsp. sativum
      • Pisum sativum subsp. sativum var. sativum
      • Pisum sativum subsp. sativum var. arvense (L.) Poir.
    • Pisum sativum subsp. elatius (Steven ex M.Bieb.) Asch. & Graebn.
      • Pisum sativum subsp. elatius var. elatius
      • Pisum sativum subsp. elatius var. brevipedunculatum P.H. Davis & Meikle
      • Pisum sativum subsp. elatius var. pumilio Meikle
  • Pisum fulvum Sm . : It occurs in the Middle East and the Aegean Sea.
  • Pisum abyssinicum A. Braun : It occurs in Ethiopia and Saudi Arabia.

Other systems, especially that of Christian O. Lehmann (partly based on the work of Leonid I. Govorov), differentiate numerous other subspecies and varieties, Lehmann alone 101 varieties of Pisum sativum subsp. sativum . As he himself clearly stated, this system is artificial. It is primarily intended to help growers cope with the abundance of forms.

All species have a chromosome set of 2n = 14. Subspecies and varieties of Pisum sativum can be crossed with one another in a fully fertile manner. Pisum fulvum and Pisum sativum can be crossed to a limited extent, F1 hybrids are only viable if the first species is a pollen donor.


Individual evidence

  1. a b c d Pisum in the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN), USDA , ARS , National Genetic Resources Program. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland.
  2. a b Hanno Schaefer, Paulina Hechenleitner, Arnoldo Santos-Guerra, Miguel Menezes de Sequeira, R Toby Pennington, Gregory Kenicer Mark A Carine (2012): Systematics, biogeography, and character evolution of the legume tribe Fabeae with special focus on the middle -Atlantic island lineages. BMC Evolutionary Biology 2012, 12, p. 250 doi : 10.1186 / 1471-2148-12-250 (open access)
  3. Runchun Jing, Alexander Vershinin, Jacek Grzebyta, Paul Shaw, Petr Smýkal, David Marshall, Michael J Ambrose, TH Noel Ellis, Andrew J Flavell (2010): The genetic diversity and evolution of field pea (Pisum) studied by high throughput retrotransposon based insertion polymorphism (RBIP) marker analysis. BMC Evolutionary Biology 2010, 10:44 am doi : 10.1186 / 1471-2148-10-44 (open access)
  4. ^ A b c Nigel Maxted, Mike Ambrose: Peas (Pisum L.) Chapter 10 in Nigel Maxted & Sarita Jane Bennett (editors): Plant Genetic Resources of Legumes in the Mediterranean (Current Plant Science and Biotechnology in Agriculture 39). Springer, 2001 ISBN 9780792367079
  5. Carl von Linné: Species Plantarum. Volume 2, Lars Salvius, Stockholm 1753, p. 727, digitizedhttp: //vorlage_digitalisat.test/ IA% 3D ~ MDZ% 3D% 0A ~ SZ% 3D ~ double-sided% 3D ~ LT% 3D ~ PUR% 3D
  6. Enter Pisum in the search mask at ILDIS . (accessed on February 5, 2015)
  7. Ram J. Singh, Prem P. Jauhar: Grain Legumes Volume 1: Genetic Resources, Chromosome Engineering, and Crop Improvement. CRC Press, 2005. ISBN 9780203489284

Web links

Commons : Peas ( Pisum )  - Collection of images, videos and audio files