Sweet pea ( Lathyrus odoratus )
The Pea (Faboideae) are a diverse subfamily of the family of legumes (Fabaceae). There are many species in this subfamily that are used by humans in a wide variety of ways. There are a variety of reports of interactions between animal species and species in this subfamily. Due to the nodule bacteria , they are important for many ecosystems, but also for agricultural soils as green manure.
Overall, this species-rich subfamily is very diverse and only a few common features can be named.
The leaves are usually arranged alternately. Feathered leaves are considered to be original; this can be paired or unpaired: however, numerous modifications and metamorphoses occur, e.g. E.g. three-leaved ( clover ) or single-leaved ( tragacanth ). Stipules (stipples) are present and are often important identifying features at the genus and species level, because they are very diverse: from long-lasting to quickly perishable, from tiny to conspicuously large, they can grow together with the petioles to a greater or lesser extent and there are many shapes . The stipules can be transformed into thorns ( Robinia ) or take on leaf function, since deciduous leaves are transformed into tendrils ( Lathyrus aphaca ).
Inflorescences and flowers
The hermaphrodite flowers are zygomorphic and five-fold. There are five (but often four) sepals . As a rule, there are five petals , which are arranged in the typical shape of the butterfly flowers as a characteristic feature of this subfamily . The middle upper petal is often enlarged and curved upwards (in the picture on the right a little darker reddish). It is called a "flag". The two lower petals are fused or at least glued to one another and form a keeled, boat-like tub, often curved upwards at the tip, the "boat". In this the stamens and the carpel are consisting of ovary , style and stigma. Finally, the two lateral petals form the so-called "wings" next to the shuttle. Often they completely cover the boat. This type of flower is called a "butterfly flower". The number of stamens is ten (rarely nine or five). The stamens are fused together except for one that is free. The flower formula of the Faboideae is or , but there are numerous deviations from this for genera or species.
Distribution and systematics
The subfamily comprises about 420 genera and more than 12,000 species. They occur from the tropics to the arctic regions. However, they prefer dry areas or at least areas with a pronounced annual dry season . Most species are found in the temperate latitudes of the northern hemisphere .
Tribe and genera
The subfamily Faboideae is divided into the following 28 tribes , here with all the genera contained therein (or in the article on the tribe):
- Tribus Abreae Hutch. : It contains only one genus:
- Abrus Adans. : The approximately 17 species are common in the tropics.
- Tribe Amorpheae Borissova emend. Barneby : The basic chromosome number is usually x = 10, only with Dalea it is x = 8 or 7. It contains about eight genera and 240 to 250 species only in the New World :
- Amorpha L .: The 15 or so occur mainly from North America to Mexico.
- Apoplanesia C.Presl : The only two species in Central America and perhaps Venezuela home.
- Dalea L .: The approximately 170 species are widespread in the New World from North America to Chile.
- Errazurizia Phil . : There are about four species in North America.
- Eysenhardtia Kunth : There are about twelve species from North to Central America.
- Marina Liebm. : There are about 40 species mainly in Mexico; two species are native to California.
Parryella Torr. & A.Gray : It contains only one type:
- Parryella filifolia A.Gray : It occurs only in the southern United States.
- Psorothamnus Rydb. : There are about nine species from the southwestern United States to northern Mexico.
- Tribe Bossiaeeae Hutch. : The seeds have an aril . It contains about six genera with about 60 species that occur only in Australia including Tasmania , mainly in temperate to subtropical areas:
- Aenictophyton A.T. Lee : It contains only one species:
- Bossiaea Vent. : The 48 or so species are widespread in Australia.
- Goodia Salisb. : The only two species are native to Australia including Tasmania.
- Muelleranthus Hutch. : The only three species are only native to Australia.
- Platylobium Sm .: The four species are native to Australia including Tasmania.
- Ptychosema Benth. ex Lindl. : The only two species are only native to Australia.
- Tribe Brongniartieae (Benth. & Hook.f.) Hutch. : It contains about eleven genera with around 150 species with a disjoint area : six genera in Australia and five genera in the Neotropic :
- Brongniartia Kunth : There are about 50 species in the Neotropic.
Cristonia J.H.Ross : it contains only one type:
- Cristonia biloba (Benth.) JHRoss (Syn .: Bossiaea biloba Benth. ): It occurs only in southwestern Western Australia.
- Cyclolobium Benth. : There are about five species in the Neotropic.
- Harpalyce DC. : There are about 28 species in the Neotropic.
- Hovea R.Br. : The 38 or so species occur only in Australia, mainly in semi-arid areas.
- Lamprolobium Benth. : The only two species are originally only found in Queensland .
Plagiocarpus Benth. : It contains only one type:
- Plagiocarpus axillaris Benth. : It occurs only in the Australian states of Northern Territory, Queensland and Western Australia.
- Poecilanthe Benth. : There are about nine species in the Neotropic.
- Tabaroa L.P.Queiroz, GPLewis & MFWojc. : It contains only one type:
- Templetonia R.Br. : The twelve or so species occur only in Australia, mainly in its arid center.
Thinicola J.H. Ross : It contains only one species:
- Thinicola incana (JHRoss) JHRoss (Syn .: Templetonia incana JHRoss): It occurs only in Western Australia.
- Tribe Cicereae Aleph. : It contains only one genus:
- Tribe Crotalarieae Hutch. : It contains around eleven genera and more than 1200 species worldwide. Most of the species are found in Africa and the center of biodiversity is the Capensis :
Aspalathus L .: There are about 255 species. They occur mainly in the south-western Fynbos regions in South Africa; over 50 species arenativeto the Cape Peninsula . The best known type is:
- Rooibos ( Aspalathus linearis Burm.f.) R.Dahlgren )
- Bolusia Benth. : There are about five species in tropical and southern Africa.
- Calobota Eckl. & Zeyh. : In 2009 this genus name was reactivated with 16 species that were separated from the genus Lebeckia . They are only at home in the Capensis.
- Crotalaria L. (Syn .: Goniogyna DC. , Heylandia DC. , Pentadynamis R.Br. , Priotropis Wight & Arn. , Quirosia Blanco ): The approximately 690 species occur mainly in tropical to subtropical areas worldwide.
- Lebeckia Thunb. : Before 2009 about 43 species were included, nine species werespun offinto the new genus Wiborgia and 16 into the genus Calobota . There are only about 14 species left. They only occur in the South African provinces of the North, West and East Cape.
- Lotononis (DC.) Eckl. & Zeyh. : There are about 160 species in Africa, southern Asia and southern Europe .
- Pearsonia Dummer : The eleven or so species occur mainly in southern tropical Africa; one species each is native to Central Africa and Madagascar.
- Rafnia Thunb. : The approximately 25 species occur in the Capensis; only one species extends to KwaZulu-Natal .
- Robynsiophyton R. Wilczek : It contains only one species:
- Rothia Pers. : It contains only two species in the Old World:
- Spartidium pomel : it contains only one type:
- Wiborgia Thunb. : This genus was newly established in 2009 with nine species that were separated from the genus Lebeckia . The nine or so species occur only in the Capensis.
- Aspalathus L .: There are about 255 species. They occur mainly in the south-western Fynbos regions in South Africa; over 50 species arenativeto the Cape Peninsula . The best known type is:
- Tribus Dalbergieae Bronn ex DC. : It contains about 49 genera with about 1355 species and occurs almost worldwide, its focus is in the tropics.
- Tribe Desmodieae (Benth.) Hutch. : It contains two subtribes, about 23 to 30 genera and 520 to 530 species.
- Tribus Dipterygeae : It contains about three genera with about 15 species:
- Dipteryx Schreb. : There are about eight types, for example:
- Pterodon bird : The only two species are common in Brazil and Bolivia.
- Taralea Aubl. : The approximately five species occur in South America.
- Tribe Euchresteae (Nakai) Ohashi : It contains only one genus with about four species:
- Euchresta Benn. : The four or so species are common in Asia.
- Tribe Fabeae Rchb. , Syn .: Vicieae DC. : It contains about five genera and about 330 species mainly in the northern temperate latitudes, but also to tropical East Africa, South America and on Pacific islands.
- Tribus Galegeae Lindl. : It contains about 24 genera and about 2900 to 3200 species mainly in Eurasia and North America .
- Tribus Genisteae Bronn : The approximately 25 genera and 550 to 570 species are mainly distributed in Africa and Europe, but most of the Lupinus species are native to North and South America:
- Gorse ( Adenocarpus DC. ): The 15 or so species are mainly found in the Mediterranean region. Three species are native to the Canary Islands and one species occurs in the afromontane vegetation zone in central Africa.
- Anarthrophyllum Benth. : There are about 80 types.
Argyrocytisus (Maire) Frodin & Heywood ex Raynaud : It contains only one species:
- Silver gorse ( Argyrocytisus battandieri (Maire) Raynaud ): also Moroccan gorse, is only native to Morocco. In the UK she is a neophyte.
Argyrolobium Eckl. & Zeyh. : There are about 95 types. Including:
- Silver sleeve ( Argyrolobium zanonii (Turra) PWBall ).
- Thorn gorse ( Calicotome Link ): The four or so species are common in the Mediterranean.
- Dwarf gorse ( Chamaecytisus Link ): All species belong to the genus Cytisus .
Cytisophyllum O. Lang : It may only contain one species:
- Cytisophyllum sessilifolium (L.) O. Lang : It is native to Spain, France and Italy. It is not certain whether the stocks in Algeria are original. In some areas of Eurasia (for example Ukraine and Moldova) it is a neophyte.
- Goat clover ( Cytisus Desf. , Syn .: Chamaecytisus Link , Chronanthus K.Koch , Lembotropis Griseb. , Sarothamnus Wimm. , Spartocytisus Webb & Berthel. ): The 30 to 70 species are widespread in Europe, West Asia and North Africa and are particularly rich in species in the Mediterranean area represented.
- Dichilus DC. : The five or so species are widespread in southern Africa.
- Echinospartum (Spach) Fourr. : The only three species occur in Spain, Portugal and France.
- Erinacea Adans. : The only two types are common in the Mediterranean area.
- Gorse ( Genista L. , Syn .: Asterocytisus (WDJKoch) Schur ex foot , Chamaespartium Adans. , Enantiosparton K.Koch , Genistella Ortega , Pterospartum (Spach) K.Koch , Rivasgodaya Esteve , Teline Medik. ): 90 to 120 species are widespread in Europe, West Asia and North Africa.
- Gonocytisus Spach : The three types occur in Israel, Lebanon, Syria and Turkey; only one species occurs in the European part of Turkey.
Hesperolaburnum Maire : It contains only one species:
- Hesperolaburnum platycarpum (Maire) Maire : It occurs only in Morocco.
- + Laburnocytisus C.K. Schneider. : It is a chimera from Chamaecytisus + Laburnum . There is only one type:
- + Laburnocytisus adamii (Poit.) CKSchneid. : It was first published in 1825 from JL Adam's garden in Vitry near Paris, France.
- Laburnum ( Laburnum Fabr. ): The only two species are mainly based in Europe, but in many areas neophytes .
- Lupins ( Lupinus L. ): Depending on the author, there are 100 to several hundred (550) species, with 200 to 280 species being mentioned most frequently since 2000. The genus has an almost worldwide distribution with main centers of biodiversity in southern to western North America, the Andes and New Zealand and parts of Australia; a secondary center of diversity is in the Mediterranean and Africa.
- Melolobium Eckl. & Zeyh. : There are about 27 types.
- Petteria C. Presl : It only contains one species:
Podocytisus Boiss. & Hero. : It contains only one type:
- Podocytisus caramanicus Boiss. & Hero. : It occurs in Albania, former Yugoslavia, Greece and the Asian part of Turkey.
- Polhillia C.H. Stirt. : There are about six types.
- Retama Raf. : The roughly four species occur on the Iberian Peninsula, Sicily, the Canary Islands, in North Africa from Western Sahara to Egypt and in Western Asia from Lebanon to Saudi Arabia. Two types are neophytes in Australia and South America.
Sellocharis deaf. : It contains only one type:
- Sellocharis paradoxa deaf. : It occurs in South America.
Spartium L .: It contains only one species:
- Wax broom ( Spartium junceum L. ): It is native to North Africa and the Canary Islands, but is now also found in other areas of Africa as far as South Africa.
- Stauracanthus Link : The only two species are found on the Iberian Peninsula and in Morocco:
- Gorse ( Ulex L. ): There are about 13 species in Western Europe and northwestern Africa. The center of biodiversity is the Iberian Peninsula.
- Tribe Hedysareae DC. : The approximately ten genera and approximately 400 to 460 species are distributed across the entire northern hemisphere .
- Tribe Hypocalypteae ALSchutte : It contains only one genus:
- Hypocalyptus Thunb. : The only three species occur only in South Africa.
- Tribus Indigofereae Benth. : It contains about six to seven genera and about 800 species in the tropics and subtropics worldwide:
- Cyamopsis DC. : The five or so species are mostly common in Africa.
- Indigastrum Jaub. & Spach : There are about eight types.
- Indigofera L .: The approximately 700 species occur worldwide in tropical to warm-temperate areas. Their main distribution is with about 490 species in Africa and Madagascar.
- Microcharis Benth. : There are about 35 types.
- Phylloxylon Baill. : There are about seven types.
- Rhynchotropis Harms : The only two species occur in Angola, Malawi, DR Congo and Zambia.
- Vaughania S.Moore : There are about eleven species.
- Tribus Loteae DC. (Syn .: Coronilleae Adans. ): It contains about 17 to 18 genera and about 270 species in the temperate areas.
- Tribe Millettieae Miq. : It contains about 43 genera and 900 to 920 species in the tropics and subtropics worldwide.
- Tribus Mirbelieae (Benth.) Polhill : It occurs only in Australia including Tasmania and contains about 24 genera:
- Almaleea Crisp & PHWeston : The five or so species occur in Tasmania , New South Wales, Victoria and Queensland.
- Aotus Sm . : There are about 14 types.
Callistachy's Vent. : It contains only one type:
- Callistachys lanceolata Vent. : It occurs only in Western Australia.
- Chorizema Labill. : There are about 16 types.
- Daviesia Sm . : There are about 80 types.
- Dillwynia Sm . : There are about 21 species.
Erichsenia Hemsl. : It contains only one type:
- Erichsenia uncinata Hemsl. : It occurs only in Western Australia.
Euchilopsis F. Muell. : It contains only one type:
- Euchilopsis linearis (Benth.) F. Muell. : It occurs only in Western Australia.
- Eutaxia R.Br. : There are about seven types.
- Gastrolobium R.Br. : The 35 to 60 species are mainly found in southwestern Western Australia, only two species are native to northern Australia.
- Gompholobium Sm . : There are about 35 species.
- Isotropis Benth. : There are about twelve types.
- Jacksonia R.Br. ex Sm . : There are about 37 types.
- Latrobea Meisn. : The five or so species occur only in Western Australia.
- Leptosema Benth. : The six or so species occur only in Western Australia, Northern Territory and South Australia .
- Mirbelia Sm . : There are about 26 types.
- Oxylobium Andrews : There are about 17 types.
- Phyllota, DC. Benth. : The approximately five species occur in Tasmania, Western Australia, New South Wales, Victoria and Queensland.
Podolobium R.Br. : It contains only one type:
- Podolobium ilicifolium (Andrews) Crisp & PH Weston : It is found in New South Wales, Queensland and Victoria.
- Pultenaea Sm . : There are about 104 species.
- Sphaerolobium Sm . : There are about 18 species.
Stonesiella Crisp & PHWeston : It contains only one type:
- Stonesiella selaginoides (Hook.f.) Crisp & PHWeston : It is only found in Tasmania.
- Urodon Turcz. : The only two species occur only in Western Australia.
Viminaria Sm . : It contains only one species:
- Viminaria juncea (Schrad.) Hoffmanns. : It occurs in Tasmania, New South Wales, Queensland, South Australia, Victoria and Western Australia.
- Tribe Phaseoleae Bronn ex DC. : It contains seven subtribes, about 90 genera and about 1570 species worldwide.
- Tribus Podalyrieae : The approximately nine genera with around 90 species occur mainly in southern Africa , but a few species also in other parts of the African continent and Madagascar :
- Amphithalea Eckl. & Zeyh. : The approximately 20 species occur only in South Africa .
- Cadia Forssk. : Of the approximately seven species, six occur only in Madagascar and one in Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, Oman, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, but not in Madagascar.
- Calpurnia E. Mey. : Of the approximately seven species, six occur only in southern Africa. Only one species, Calpurnia aurea , is widespread on the African continent. Calpurnia aurea is a neophyte in many areas of the world.
- Honey bushes ( Cyclopia Vent. ): The approximately 23 species are floral elements of the Cape flora (Capensis) and are only native to the South African provinces of the Western Cape and Eastern Cape.
- Liparia L .: The only two species occur only in South Africa.
- Podalyria Willd. : Of the 17or sospecies all occur in the Capensis , only one of them extends further east into southern KwaZulu-Natal .
- Stirtonanthus B.-E. van Wyk & ALSchutte : The only three species occur only in South Africa.
- Virgilia Poir. : Of the only two species, one occurs only in South Africa and the other also in Kenya, Tanzania, and Zimbabwe.
- Xiphotheca Eckl. & Zeyh. : The nine or so species occur only in the Capensis.
- Tribus Psoraleeae Lowe : It contains nine to ten genera with 185 to 188 species. Seven of them occur only from North America to Mexico:
- Bituminaria Heist. ex Fabr .: The only two types are common in Eurasia .
- Cullen med. : The eleven or so species are distributed almost worldwide.
- Hoita Rydb. : The only two species are found in Mexico and California.
Orbexilum Raf. : It contains only one type:
- Orbexilum virgatum (Nutt.) Rydb. : It occurs only in Florida and Georgia.
- Otholobium C.H. Stirt . : Of the approximately 61 species, 53 occur in southern and eastern southern Africa and eight species in South America.
- Pediomelum Rydb. : The five or so species are all found in the USA and one of them also in the Mexican state of Chihuahua.
- Psoralea L. ( Hallia Thunb. ): The 50 to 96 species occur in southern and eastern southern Africa . One species from St. Helena is extinct. The other types include, for example:
Psoralidium Rydb. : It contains only one type:
- Psoralidium junceum (Eastw.) Rydb. : It occurs only in Arizona and Utah.
- Rupertia J.W. Grimes : The only three species occur in the Canadian province of British Colombia and in the US states of California, Idaho, Oregon and Washington.
- Tribe Robinieae Bercht. & J.Presl : It contains about eleven genera and about 70 species in the New World .
- Tribe Sesbanieae Rydb. : It contains only one genus:
- Sesbania Scop. : The approximately 60 species distributed worldwide, except in Europe.
- Tribus Sophoreae Polhill : It contains about 43 genera and about 390 to 400 species mainly in the tropics and subtropics.
- Tribe Swartzieae DC. : It contains about 17 genera with about 258 species:
- Aldina Endl. : The 13 to 14 species are common in northern South America.
- Amburana Schwacke & Taub. : The only two types occur in South America.
- Ateleia, DC. Benth. : The 18 to 20 species are distributed in the Neotropic, with most species occurring in Central America and the Caribbean islands.
Baphiopsis Benth. ex Baker : It contains only one type:
- Baphiopsis parviflora Baker : It occurs in Angola, Cameroon, Gabon, Tanzania, Uganda and DR Congo.
- Bobgunnia J.H. Kirkbr . & Wiersema : The only two types are widespread in Africa.
- Bocoa Aubl. (Syn .: Trischidium Tul. ): There are about seven types.
Candolleodendron R.S. Cowan : It contains only one species:
- Candolleodendron brachystachyum (DC.) Cowan : It is found in South America.
- Cordyla Lour. : Of the approximately seven species, five are found in Africa and two in Madagascar.
- Cyathostegia (Benth.) Schery : The only two species occur in Peru and one of them also in Ecuador.
- Dupuya J.H. Kirkbr . : The only two species occur only in Madagascar.
- Exostyles Schott : The only two types occur in South America.
Harleyodendron R.S. Cowan : It contains only one species:
- Harleyodendron unifoliolatum Cowan : It occurs in South America.
Holocalyx Micheli : it contains only one species:
- Holocalyx balansae Micheli : It occurs in South America.
- Lecointea Ducke : The four or so species occur in South America.
Mildbraed Diodendron Harms : It contains only one species:
- Mildbraediodendron excelsum Harms : It occurs in Cameroon, the Central African Republic, Ghana, Nigeria, Sudan, Uganda and the DR Congo.
- Swartzia Schreb. (Syn .: Fairchildia Britton & Rose , Possira Aubl. , Rittera Schreb. , Riveria Kunth, Tounatea Aubl.): The approximately 150 species are common in the Neotropics.
- Zollernia Wied-Neuw. & Nees : The eight to ten species are common in South America.
- Tribus Thermopsideae R.Br. : It contains about six genera and about 50 with a disjoint area in temperate areas of the northern hemisphere.
- Tribus Trifolieae (Bronn) Endl. : It contains about six genera and about 485 species mainly in the northern temperate areas of the Old World .
- Some closely related genera, which were placed in the tribe Dalbergieae up to 2001, are about as closely related to the genera of the tribe Sophoreae as the tribe Dalbergieae and are therefore currently not classified in any tribe:
- Andira Juss. : The approximately 29 species are common in the Neotropic , only one occurs in Africa.
- Hymenolobium Benth. : The 13 to 18 species are mainly found in Brazil, the Guyanas and Venezuela; one species extends to Peru, one to Ecuador and one species occurs only in Central America (Panama, Costa Rica, Nicaragua).
- Vatairea Aubl. : There are about eight species are common in the Neotropic.
- Vataireopsis Ducke : The four or so species occur in Brazil, French Guiana and Suriname .
Many species are used as ornamental plants, here are some genres (selection): caragana ( Caragana ) colutea ( Colutea ) cytisus ( Cytisus ), broom ( Genista ), laburnum ( Laburnum ), grass pea ( Lathyrus ), lupine ( Lupinus ), wisteria ( Wisteria )
Plant parts of many species are eaten, especially the legumes and / or seeds, here some genera (selection): peanuts ( Arachis ), chickpeas ( Cicer ), glycine with soybeans , lentils ( lens ), lupins ( Lupinus ), phaseolus , zu this genus includes kidney beans , peas ( Pisum ) and rooibos ( Aspalathus ).
Some species serve as food. Some species are also grown as green manure .
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