The first works for violin without accompaniment can be found mainly in baroque music : Here polyphony was often created by playing double stops on the single instrument . Examples of this are the Passacaglia at the end of the 16 Rosary Sonatas by Heinrich Ignaz Franz Biber and Johann Sebastian Bach's Three Sonatas and Three Partitas .
Solo sonatas for melody instruments were very unpopular in the classical and romantic periods , so that masters like Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy arranged the Bach sonatas and added a piano accompaniment.
It was not until the 20th century that the form came back to life: in violin literature, the Six Sonates by Eugène Ysaÿe are particularly prominent , in which polyphonic, chordal playing challenges the virtuosity of the instrument. Further solo sonatas, such as those by Paul Hindemith , Max Reger , the solo sonata by Béla Bartók , Artur Schnabel and Boris Blacher followed.
Violin sonata with keyboard instrument
There are some sonatas for violin and figured bass from baroque music . However, they are much rarer than the popular trio sonata from which the sonata for violin and obbligato harpsichord developed later (for example with JS Bach) : His six sonatas for violin and harpsichord are consistently three-part, with the violin and the right hand of the Harpsichordists form the upper voices and are accompanied by the left hand on the keyboard instrument.
The tradition from which the classical violin sonata developed originated in Paris around 1730, around the same time as Bach's sonatas, and envisages the violin as an accompanying instrument. In Joseph Haydn , too , it is initially rather subordinate to the piano; in the later sonatas by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and in Ludwig van Beethoven , it is then put on an equal footing with it.
The dominance of the violin did not begin until the Romantic period, up to Robert Schumann the work names were also called Sonata for pianoforte and violin or even Sonata per pianoforte con accompagnamento di violino (for piano with violin accompaniment) , and not the other way around. In the great sonatas by Johannes Brahms , César Franck or Maurice Ravel , the virtuoso-performing tasks are divided between both partners.
Selection of works
Works for violin solo
- Heinrich Ignaz Franz Biber (1644–1704): Sonata XVI: Passacaglia from the Rosary Sonatas
- Johann Paul von Westhoff (1656–1705): 6 suites (1696)
- Johann Joseph Vilsmayr (1663–1722): 6 partitas
- Francesco Geminiani (1680? -1762)
- Georg Philipp Telemann (1681–1767): 12 Fantasies TWV 40: 14-25
- Johann Sebastian Bach (1685–1750): 3 sonatas and 3 partitas BWV 1001–1006
- Johann Georg Pisendel (1687–1755)
- Pietro Nardini (1722-1793)
- Friedrich Wilhelm Rust (1739–1796): 3 sonatas
- Eugène Ysaÿe (1858–1931): 6 sonatas op.27 (1923)
- Max Reger (1873–1916): 4 sonatas op. 42 (1900), 7 sonatas op. 91 (1905), 7 preludes and fugues and Chaconne op. 117, 6 preludes and fugues op. 131a
- Richard Wetz (1875–1935): Sonata in G major op. 33 (1913)
- Julius Weismann (1879–1950): Sonata op. 30 (1910)
- Béla Bartók (1881–1945): Sonata for solo violin, Sz 117 (1944)
- Artur Schnabel (1882–1951): Sonata (1919)
- Sergej Prokofjew (1891–1953): Sonata in D major op.115 (1947)
- Philipp Jarnach (1892–1982): Sonata op.13
- Paul Hindemith (1895–1963): Sonata op. 11 No. 6 (1917), op. 31 No. 1 & 2 (1924)
- Paul Ben-Haim (1897–1984): Sonata in G major
- Bernd Alois Zimmermann (1918–1970): Sonata (1951)
- Bertold Hummel (1925–2002): Suite for violin solo op. 78 (1982)
- Iván Eröd (1936–2019): Three pieces for violin solo op. 27 (1979)
Others from Wilhelm Kempff , Eduard Erdmann , Emil Bohnke , Lothar Windsperger , Egon Wellesz , Ernst Krenek , Nikos Skalkottas , Carl Nielsen , Willem Pijper , August Halm , Walter Courvoisier , Julius Röntgen , Armin Knab , Arthur Honegger , Henk Badings , Johann Nepomuk David , Iannis Xenakis , Krzysztof Penderecki , Krzysztof Meyer , Niels Viggo Bentzon , Giselher Klebe , Boris Blacher , Roger Sessions , David Diamond , Richard Rodney Bennett , Ernest Bloch , Milko Kelemen , Cristóbal Halffter , Alfred Schnittke , Edison Denisov .
Violin sonatas with keyboard instrument
- Heinrich Ignaz Franz Biber (1644–1704): Numerous works, including:
- Rosary Sonatas (1678?)
- Sonatae violino solo (1681)
- Johann Jakob Walther (1650-1717):
- Scherzi da Violino solo with il basso continuo (1676)
- Hortulus chelicus (1688)
- Arcangelo Corelli (1653–1713): Sonate da camera a violino, e violone o cimbalo (1700)
- Johann Sebastian Bach (1685–1750): Be suonata à harpsichord concertato e violino solo (1724)
- Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach (1714–1788): Sonatas in F, B, B and C (1776)
- Andrea Lucchesi (1741–1801): Be Sonata per il harpsichord con l'accompagnamento di un Violino op. 1 (1772)
- Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756–1791): Numerous works, including:
- Mannheim Sonatas, KV 301–306 (1778)
- Sonatas in Bb (KV 454), in Eb (KV 481) and in A (KV 526)
- Ludwig van Beethoven (1770–1827): 10 sonatas, a. a .:
- Franz Schubert (1797–1828): Sonatas in D (D 384), in A (D 385), in g (D 408) and in A (D 574)
- Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy (1809–1847): Sonatas in F major (1820) and F minor (1823)
- Robert Schumann (1810-1856): Sonatas in A minor, D minor (1851) and A minor (1852)
- Eduard Franck (1817-1893): Sonatas in C minor, Op. 19, A major, Op. 23, E major, Op. 60 and D major (1861)
- Johannes Brahms (1833–1897): G major op. 78 , A major op. 100 and D minor op. 108
- Antonín Dvořák (1841–1904): Sonata in F major (1880)
- César Franck (1822–1890): Sonata in A major (1886)
- Edvard Grieg (1843–1907): Sonatas in F major, G major and C minor
- Richard Franck (1858–1938): Sonatas in D major op. 14 and C minor op. 35
- Richard Strauss (1864–1949): Sonata in E flat major op.18
- Hans Pfitzner (1869–1949): Sonata in E minor op. 27 (1918)
- Max Reger (1873–1916): 9 violin sonatas and 2 small sonatas
- Paul Hindemith (1895–1963): Sonata in D for piano and violin op. 11 No. 2 (1918)
- Dmitri Shostakovich (1906–1975): Sonata op.134
- Iván Eröd (1936–2019): 1st violin sonata op.14 (1970), 2nd violin sonata op.74 (2000)
Further sonatas by Leoš Janáček , Claude Debussy , Maurice Ravel , Bohuslav Martinů , Ottorino Respighi , Béla Bartók , George Enescu , Wilhelm Furtwängler , Othmar Schoeck , Sergei Prokofjew , Bertold Hummel , Peter Mieg , Alfred Schnittke , Edison Denisov , Valentin Silvestrov , Volker David Kirchner , Constantinos Stylianou .
- Dagmar Glüxam: Violin Sonata. In: Oesterreichisches Musiklexikon . Online edition, Vienna 2002 ff., ISBN 3-7001-3077-5 ; Print edition: Volume 5, Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Vienna 2006, ISBN 3-7001-3067-8 .