Violin sonata

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A violin sonata is a sonata whose main instrument is a violin . The solo sonata for unaccompanied violin and the sonata for violin and piano are particularly common .

Solo sonata

The first works for violin without accompaniment can be found mainly in baroque music : Here polyphony was often created by playing double stops on the single instrument . Examples of this are the Passacaglia at the end of the 16 Rosary Sonatas by Heinrich Ignaz Franz Biber and Johann Sebastian Bach's Three Sonatas and Three Partitas .

Solo sonatas for melody instruments were very unpopular in the classical and romantic periods , so that masters like Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy arranged the Bach sonatas and added a piano accompaniment.

It was not until the 20th century that the form came back to life: in violin literature, the Six Sonates by Eugène Ysaÿe are particularly prominent , in which polyphonic, chordal playing challenges the virtuosity of the instrument. Further solo sonatas, such as those by Paul Hindemith , Max Reger , the solo sonata by Béla Bartók , Artur Schnabel and Boris Blacher followed.

Violin sonata with keyboard instrument

There are some sonatas for violin and figured bass from baroque music . However, they are much rarer than the popular trio sonata from which the sonata for violin and obbligato harpsichord developed later (for example with JS Bach) : His six sonatas for violin and harpsichord are consistently three-part, with the violin and the right hand of the Harpsichordists form the upper voices and are accompanied by the left hand on the keyboard instrument.

The tradition from which the classical violin sonata developed originated in Paris around 1730, around the same time as Bach's sonatas, and envisages the violin as an accompanying instrument. In Joseph Haydn , too , it is initially rather subordinate to the piano; in the later sonatas by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and in Ludwig van Beethoven , it is then put on an equal footing with it.

The dominance of the violin did not begin until the Romantic period, up to Robert Schumann the work names were also called Sonata for pianoforte and violin or even Sonata per pianoforte con accompagnamento di violino (for piano with violin accompaniment) , and not the other way around. In the great sonatas by Johannes Brahms , César Franck or Maurice Ravel , the virtuoso-performing tasks are divided between both partners.

Selection of works

Works for violin solo

Others from Wilhelm Kempff , Eduard Erdmann , Emil Bohnke , Lothar Windsperger , Egon Wellesz , Ernst Krenek , Nikos Skalkottas , Carl Nielsen , Willem Pijper , August Halm , Walter Courvoisier , Julius Röntgen , Armin Knab , Arthur Honegger , Henk Badings , Johann Nepomuk David , Iannis Xenakis , Krzysztof Penderecki , Krzysztof Meyer , Niels Viggo Bentzon , Giselher Klebe , Boris Blacher , Roger Sessions , David Diamond , Richard Rodney Bennett , Ernest Bloch , Milko Kelemen , Cristóbal Halffter , Alfred Schnittke , Edison Denisov .

Violin sonatas with keyboard instrument

Rosary Sonatas (1678?)
Sonatae violino solo (1681)
Scherzi da Violino solo with il basso continuo (1676)
Hortulus chelicus (1688)
Mannheim Sonatas, KV 301–306 (1778)
Sonatas in Bb (KV 454), in Eb (KV 481) and in A (KV 526)
Sonata in F major op. 24 (known as "Spring Sonata ", first four-movement violin sonata of the classical period)
Sonata in A major op. 47 (known as "Kreutzer Sonata")
Sonata in G major op.96

Further sonatas by Leoš Janáček , Claude Debussy , Maurice Ravel , Bohuslav Martinů , Ottorino Respighi , Béla Bartók , George Enescu , Wilhelm Furtwängler , Othmar Schoeck , Sergei Prokofjew , Bertold Hummel , Peter Mieg , Alfred Schnittke , Edison Denisov , Valentin Silvestrov , Volker David Kirchner , Constantinos Stylianou .


Web links

Wiktionary: Violin Sonata  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations

Individual evidence