Violin Sonata No. 5 (Beethoven)
The violin sonata No. 5 in F major, op. 24 by Ludwig van Beethoven , is composed for pianoforte ( piano ) and violin . As with many other works, the nickname “Spring Sonata” came about later and is intended to describe the character of the piece. The work is dedicated to Count Moritz von Fries .
The work was written together with the Violin Sonata in A minor, op. 23. The opus numbers were only separated later. Op. 23 was also dedicated to Count Moritz von Fries, which underpins a joint development. The time of origin is dated to the years 1800–1801. The first edition took place in the spring of 1802 by T. Mollo & Co. in Vienna. The autographs of the first three movements have been preserved and are in the Austrian National Library in Vienna . The date of the premiere is unknown.
Structure and interpretation
The structure of the piece is already based on Beethoven's growing symphonic demands. This also requires the solution from the concertante three-movement form to the symphonic four-movement form.
The main theme begins in four bars on the violin. The first two bars begin with a half note and descending sixteenth notes. The following eighth notes seem a little more cautious, without slowing down the swing and the joy of the first bars. Afterwards, Beethoven is not satisfied with an equally long ending, but extends it by two bars in order to underpin the second part of the theme. Subsequently, the topic and the ending are repeated. Piano and violin change roles. After an ostinato of the dominant in the bass, the other voices also reach the dominant in bar 25. Usually the sub-theme would be introduced now. But first Beethoven precedes this with a dramatically charged passage. With the pounding chord accompaniment in the piano and the signal tones of the violin, the secondary theme seems very determined. This impression is maintained in the following by closely guided minor passages and syncopated rhythms. The implementation starts in measure 86 with a strong chord in shock terzverwandten A major. It is dominated by the splitting off of motifs and their sequencing . This is followed by a transition to the recapitulation , which with 86 bars is as long as the exposition , but is not a literal repetition. This time the piano begins with the melody of the main theme. In addition to harmonious features, the bass also takes part more intensively in the thematic and motivic work. In addition, Beethoven actually uses typical implementation techniques. Narrows and variations play a role here. At the end there is a sequenced phrase, which consists of motivic material from the main topic.
Adagio molto espressivo
In the second movement the piano begins with the theme. The violin only makes minor interjections. The violin also remains in the background and has a more supportive character. The delicate theme shows a relationship to the main theme of the first movement. This manifests itself not only in the character, but also in the dragging downward melody. The sentence is in a bar form .
Scherzo. Allegro molto
“In the short and concise Scherzo, Beethoven works as a musical caricaturist: The interplay between violin and piano seems“ wrong ”, an instrument rattles again and again.” Even the final note is not played together. Beethoven also used the Scherzo movements for such caricatures in other works. In his 6th symphony, for example, he had an entire village band teased in a similar way. In the trio, parallels of thirds in a simple scale movement over an ostinato bass, daring to fall back on the simplest folk music to reinforce this impression.
Rondo. Allegro ma non troppo
In terms of its extension, the rondo is in no way inferior to the first movement. This also shows that Beethoven tries to raise the final movement above its otherwise frequent “sweeping character”. The opening of the movement is reminiscent of Mozart . The initial motif begins with the fifth and goes over the double dominant to the sixth. This is then sequenced. The first couplet (part B) begins in bar 18 . Instead of repeating the counterphrase of this part, a further development occurs, which leads to a new character (part C). In measure 56, the rondo theme follows again, in which this time the violin, similar to the second movement, takes on more of an accompanying character and supports the piano part with upper octaves. In bar 73, part D begins, with the triplet rhythm of the violin (taken from part B) and syncopation in the piano, creating a more dramatic mood. In this part, Beethoven also includes the element of variation in the rondo. The subsequent rondo theme also appears varied. Lowered by a third and thus clouded a minor, the pizzicato chords of the violin provide a new timbre. Similar to a recapitulation , the B section can be heard afterwards. The last rondo theme appears rhythmically varied and leads to the final coda . Here the tense triplet movements appear again.
- Violin Sonata No. 5 (Beethoven) : Sheet music and audio files in the International Music Score Library Project
- Max Rostal: Ludwig van Beethoven: The sonatas for violin and piano. 2nd Edition. Piper, Munich 1991, p. 70.
- Georg Kinsky: The work of Beethoven. G. Henle, Munich 1955, p. 59.
- Jörg Riedlbauer: Violin Sonata in F major "Spring Sonata" op. 24. In: Carl Dahlhaus , Albrecht Riethmüller , Alexander L. Ringer (Eds.): Ludwig van Beethoven. Interpretation of his works. 3rd edition, volume 1. Laaber-Verlag, Laaber 2009, p. 197.
- Jörg Riedlbauer: Violin Sonata in F major "Spring Sonata" op. 24. In: Carl Dahlhaus, Albrecht Riethmüller, Alexander L. Ringer (Eds.): Ludwig van Beethoven. Interpretation of his works. 3rd edition, volume 1. Laaber-Verlag, Laaber 2009, p. 200.
- Jörg Riedlbauer: Violin Sonata in F major "Spring Sonata" op. 24. In: Carl Dahlhaus, Albrecht Riethmüller, Alexander L. Ringer (Eds.): Ludwig van Beethoven. Interpretation of his works. 3rd edition, volume 1. Laaber-Verlag, Laaber 2009, p. 201.