Information and communication technology
Information and communication technology ( ICT ; also information and communication technology , IuK technology , IuK technology ; often also English information and communications technology , ICT ) is technology in the area of information and communication .
The abbreviation ITK is customary in the industry for services, trade and manufacturers, and is the result of the merging of the terms IT ( information technology ) and TC ( telecommunications ). In a broader sense, “information and communication technology” stands for any communication application, including radio , television , cell phones , smartphones , hardware and software for computers and networks , satellite systems , and the various services and applications associated with them.
Information and communication technology can be used for three types of applications:
- the transmission of information through the room (from location A to location B, i.e. "communication"),
- the transmission of information through time (from moment 1 to moment 2, read "storage") and
- the regulated transformation of information in space and time by an algorithm (pronounced "computer calculations").
Development of technical capacity
- Worldwide technical capacity, information about (unidirectional) broadcast - and Broadcasting received networks to, is of 432 Exa byte (optimally compressed) in 1986, has grown to 1,900 exabytes in of 2007. The global effective capacity to exchange information through (bidirectional) telecommunications networks has grown from 281 petabytes (optimally compressed) in 1986 to 65,000 petabytes (optimally compressed) in 2007.
- The global technical capacity to store information has grown from 2.6 exabytes (optimally compressed) in 1986 to 295 exabytes (optimally compressed) in 2007. That is the informational equivalent of 404 billion CD-ROMs for 2007. If you stacked these compact disks , you would have a stack that would stretch from the earth to the moon and another quarter that distance beyond.
- The technical capacity of the world to compute information with general purpose computers has grown from 3.0 × 10 8 MIPS in 1986 to 6.4 × 10 12 MIPS in 2007.
Historical development of the term
The collective term arose at the beginning of the 1980s when the digitalization of telephone networks began and information technology was used both in the digital end devices of the networks and in the local and public transmission networks themselves . Services such as teletext , video text and dedicated data networks such as Datex-L and Datex-P emerged at this time. The idea developed that the originally completely different branches of industry, information technology on the one hand, which at that time mainly dealt with large and office computers, and communication technology, on the other hand, which was mainly concerned with the telephone network, would grow together to form a new large industrial complex. In the German association system, the groups that represent the branches of industry were merged and renamed accordingly.
From the 1990s onwards, there has been a rapidly growing diversification in both areas, the end of which is not yet in sight. The basic technologies have not only covered these areas, but have also led to a growing variety of products in a multitude of other industries (from vehicle technology to building technology ).
Since 2000, due to the widespread use of the Internet and the central role of IP -based services in IT (as IP networks ) and increasingly in communication technology (as IP telephony ) in politics, management and especially in the eponymous industries gained in importance again.
Information and communication technology is also defined as an umbrella term that includes any communication instrument or application, including radio , television , cell phones (cell phones), hardware and software for computers and networks , satellite systems , etc., as well as the various services and applications associated with these Connected to things.
- Law on the use of information and communication technology in public administration
- Information society
- Telematics (ICT as an independent course with a wide range of applications)
- Green IT
- Norbert Gronau, Marcus Lindemann: Introduction to information management. GITO Verlag, Berlin 2010, ISBN 978-3-942183-07-9 .
- Lothar Beyer: Information management and public administration. Deutscher Universitätsverlag, Wiesbaden 1992, ISBN 978-3-8244-2033-9 .
- Michael Hompel, Thorsten Schmidt: Warehouse Management. Automation and organization of storage and picking systems, Springer Verlag, Berlin / Heidelberg 2003, ISBN 978-3-662-10832-1 .
- K. Franke, Uwe Hübner, Winfried Kalfa (eds.): Communication in distributed systems. Springer Verlag, Berlin / Heidelberg 1995, ISBN 978-3-540-58960-0 .
- Marianne Buder, Werner Rehfeld, Thomas Seeger, Dietmar Strauch (eds.): Basics of practical information and documentation. 4th edition, KG Saur Verlag, Munich 1997, ISBN 3-598-11309-9 .
- Horst Völz : That is information. Shaker Verlag, Aachen 2017, ISBN 978-3-8440-5587-0 .
- ^ A b c d “The World's Technological Capacity to Store, Communicate, and Compute Information” , Martin Hilbert and Priscila López (2011), Science , 332 (6025), 60-65; There is free access to the article through this page: martinhilbert.net/WorldInfoCapacity.html
- ↑ "Video animation about The World's Technological Capacity to Store, Communicate, and Compute Information from 1986 to 2010" ( Memento of the original from January 18, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.