Instructions per second
The instructions per second ( IPS for short , from English instructions per second ), usually specified as millions of instructions per second ( MIPS , from English million instructions per second or mega instructions per second ), is a unit of measurement for the computing power of computers , in particular the performance of the CPU (see also computer benchmark ). The unit indicates how many machine instructions (instructions) a microprocessor can execute per second . 1 MIPS means it can execute a million machine instructions per second.
Processors achieve high IPS values primarily with very simple commands for integer or logic calculations. For many calculations, however, the computing power with floating point numbers is decisive, for which there is a similar unit of measurement, " FLOPS " ( Floating Point Operations Per Second - floating point commands per second ).
Since machine languages of processor types of different architecture (such as x86 and PowerPC ) often have very different instruction sets, a comparison of pure MIPS numbers is usually only of limited significance. If one takes similar functions as a reference, the differences are much larger than shown by the MIPS values. For example, the "integer multiplication of two registers" of an Intel 8080 or Zilog Z80 is an 8 bit × 8 bit = 16 bit operation, but with modern processors it is a 64 bit × 64 bit = 128 bit calculation that is carried out on an Intel 8080 Would take 10,000 bars.
For some areas of application, in which mainly integers, texts, data transport or administrative tasks arise, IPS information can mean a rough estimate of the performance of a system for these purposes; Examples are web, file and database servers, routers, device controls, smartphones.
|Intel 8080||0.4||2 MHz||1974|
|Motorola 68000||1||8 MHz||1979|
|Motorola 68020||4th||20 MHz||1984|
|Motorola 68030||11||33 MHz||1987|
|Motorola 68040||44||40 MHz||1990|
|Intel 486DX||54||66 MHz||1992|
|DEC Alpha 21064 EV4||300||150 MHz||1992|
|Motorola 68060||88||66 MHz||1994|
|ARM 7500FE||35.9||40 MHz||1996|
|Atmel AVR||10||10 MHz||1996|
|PowerPC G3||671||366 MHz||1997|
|Zilog eZ80||80||50 MHz||1998|
|Pentium 3||1,354||500 MHz||1999|
|Athlon FX-57||8,400||2.8 GHz||2005|
|Athlon FX60||18,938||2.6 GHz||2006|
|Xeon Harpertown||93,608||3 GHz||2007|
|ARM Cortex-A15||35,000||2.5 GHz||2010|
|AMD Phenom II X6 1100T||78,440||3.3 GHz||2010|
|AMD FX-8150||108,890||3.6 GHz||2011|
|Intel Core i7 2600K||128,300||3.4 GHz||2011|
|Intel Core i7 5960X||336,000||3.5 GHz||2014|
The performance , expressed in instructions per second, is given by
where is the clock cycle length and the average number of cycles it takes for the computer to execute an instruction.
Multiples of the unit of measure
As with other units of measurement, the multiples of an IPS are also described with the usual decimal prefixes (see also prefixes for units of measurement ) .
Today, however, the “MIPS” (for mega-IPS = 10 6 IPS) is still common, as it virtually bridges the gap between the weakest and the strongest computing power in the consumer area. However, the multiples GIPS (for Giga-IPS = 10 9 IPS) and TIPS (for Tera-IPS = 10 12 IPS) are also increasingly being used. The latter, however, is more likely to be the case with high-performance computers .
A measure for the performance of a microprocessor that is no longer used is the “KIPS” (for Kilo-IPS = 10 3 IPS). The name KIPS is also used as a joke name for microprocessor designs developed by students during their training.
A MIPS value determined according to the Dhrystone benchmark.
Due to the difficult comparability of IPS values above architecture boundaries is MIPS sporadically jokeful as " M isleading I nformation to P romote S ales" ( Misleading Information for sales promotion ) or as " M eaningless I ndication / I nformation about P rocessor S peed “( meaningless information / information on the speed of a microprocessor ).
- ftp://22.214.171.124/pub/lib/info/dec/alpha-infosheet.ps.Z ( page no longer available , search in web archives ) Info: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.