The subfamily of the leek family or bulb family (Allioideae) belongs to the plant family of the Amaryllis family (Amaryllidaceae) in the order of the asparagus-like (Asparagales) within the monocotyledons . Many species are used as food or ornamental plants.
They are perennial herbaceous plants . All species are not evergreen, so they only have leaves during the favorable season (summer or rainy season). They often form bulbs with tunics, tubers or rhizomes as persistence organs. The roots are often contractile. Most species have the typical onion smell.
The leaves are alternate and spiral or two-lined, almost always arranged in a basal rosette. The simple, whole-edged leaves are designed very differently. A petiole is rarely developed (for example Allium ursinum , Allium victorialis ).
There is a more or less long, leafless inflorescence stem. The shamrock inflorescences are composed of compressed, zymous partial inflorescences and are sometimes almost spherical. When budding, the inflorescence is protected by two or more membrane-like bracts. There are no cover sheets.
The hermaphroditic, mostly radial symmetry , more or less zygomorphic in Miersia , Gethyum and Solaria , flowers are threefold. Almost all species have two circles with three bloom cladding except Gilliesia and Schickendantziella that lack a circle. The bracts are identical and mostly fused at their base. There are usually two circles with three fertile stamens each. In Gilliesia , Gethyum , Miersia and Solaria , the stamens have grown together to form a tube surrounding the style. Whereby Gilliesia and Gethyum only have three fertile stamens and the other three are reduced to short staminodes . In Trichlora and some Leucocoryne species, a fertile stamen alternates with a staminodium. The three pistils have become a top permanent, dreifächerigen ovary grown. In each ovary chamber there are usually a few ovules , in Allium only one or two ovules . There are mostly septal nectaries in the upper part of the ovary, except for Gilliesia and Gethyum . In all species, the styles are not hollow in contrast to the Themidaceae . Pollination is mostly done by insects ( entomophilia ).
There are fruit capsules formed.
The 2 to 20 µm long chromosomes are present in a base number of x = 4, 6, (7), 8, (9) depending on the tribe.
Typical, but not present in all species, is the accumulation of sulfur-containing compounds, which cause the release of the characteristic-smelling leek oils after cells are damaged by splitting. Steroid saponins are commonly found. Only rarely are idioblasts with mucus and Oxalatraphiden filled. There are flavonoids present.
Systematics and distribution
The subfamily Allioideae occurs worldwide in all climates. Only a few species are found in Australia and neighboring areas.
The molecular genetic investigations in the last ten years have led to the fact that the family boundaries within the order of the Asparagales have shifted significantly. The systematics of this subfamily, earlier family, has been discussed for a long time. Subfamilies and tribes were set up and discarded again, so one will often come across seeming inconsistencies in literature. The systematics according to Mark W. Chase et al. 2009. The Amaryllidaceae Family J.St.-Hil. was expanded to include the taxa of the former families Agapanthaceae and Alliaceae. The previous subfamilies of the previous Alliaceae are placed one rank lower and form the three tribes of the subfamily Allioideae Herb. s. l. The family name Alliaceae was published by Moritz Balthasar Borkhausen . The type genus is Allium L. Further synonyms for Allioideae Herb. are Cepaceae Salisb. , Gilliesiaceae Lindl. , Tulbaghiaceae Salisb. , Milulaceae Traub . In the past, these taxa were also classified in the lily family (Liliaceae).
- Tribe Allieae Dumort. : The onions do not contain starch. It contains only one genus:
- Tribus Gilliesieae Baker (Syn .: Gillesiaceae Lindl. , Gilliesioideae Arnott , Ipheieae): Since 2014 it contains only about nine (before about thirteen) genera and about 20 species in the Neotropic :
- Ancrumia Harv. ex Baker (sometimes incorporated into Solaria ): It contains only one species:
Erinna Phil. (Sometimes incorporated into Leucocoryne ): It contains only one species:
- Erinna gilliesioides Phil .: The home is central Chile.
- Gethyum Phil .: The roughly two species are common in southern Chile.
- Gilliesia Lindl. : The six or so species are common in Chile.
- Miersia Lindl. : The six or so species are common in Chile.
- Schickendantziella Speg. : It contains only one type:
- Solaria Phil. (Sometimes including Ancrumia Harv. Ex Baker ): The three to six species are distributed in southern Chile and southern Argentina.
- Speea Loes. : The only two types are common in Chile.
- Trichlora Baker : The only two types are common in Peru.
- Tribe Leucocoryneae (Ravenna) Sassone, SCArroyo & Giussani : It contains six neotropical genera since 2014:
- Beauverdia Herter : It was reactivated in 2014 and the four species are distributed from southern Brazil and Uruguay to northeastern Argentina.
- Star flowers ( Ipheion Raf. , Sometimes classified in Tristagma ): The three or so species are common in South America.
- Leucocoryne Lindl. (Syn.:, Erinna Phil. , Latace Phil. , Pabellonia Quezada & Martic. , Stemmatium Phil. ): The 15 to 45 species are common in Chile.
- Nothoscordum Kunth : The approximately 25 species are distributed in South America, Central America , Mexico and the southern USA .
- Tristagma Poepp. (Syn: Garaventia Looser , Steinmannia Phil. ): The 9 to 20 or up to 30 species are common in Chile and Argentina.
- Zoellnerallium Crosa (sometimes in Nothoscordum Kunth ): The only two species occur in Chile and Argentina.
- Tribus Tulbaghieae Endl. ex Meisn. (Syn .: Tulbaghioideae MFFay & MWChase , Tulbaghiaceae Salisb. ): Mostly with rhizomes. It contains only one genus:
Many genera that were previously classified in this subfamily Allioideae now belong to the subfamily Brodiaeoideae (Syn .: Themidaceae).
- Mark W. Chase, James L. Reveal, Michael F. Fay: A subfamilial classification for the expanded asparagalean families Amaryllidaceae, Asparagaceae and Xanthorrhoeaceae. In: Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society , Volume 161, No. 2, 2009, pp. 132-136, DOI: 10.1111 / j.1095-8339.2009.00999.x . (Section systematics)
- The Alliaceae family on the AP website. (Sections systematics and description)
- The Alliaceae family at DELTA. (Section description)
- Paula J. Rudall, Richard M. Bateman, Michael F. Fay, Alison Eastman: Floral anatomy and systematics of Alliaceae with particular reference to Gilliesia, a presumed insect mimic with strongly zygomorphic flowers. In American Journal of Botany. Volume 89, No. 12, 2002, pp. 1867–1883, DOI: 10.3732 / ajb.89.12.1867 (section description)
- Angiosperm Phylogeny Group: An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III. In: Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. Volume 161, No. 2, 2009, pp. 105-121, doi : 10.1111 / j.1095-8339.2009.00996.x .
- Mark W. Chase, James L. Reveal, Michael F. Fay: A subfamilial classification for the expanded asparagalean families Amaryllidaceae, Asparagaceae and Xanthorrhoeaceae. In: Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society , Volume 161, No. 2, 2009, pp. 132-136, DOI: 10.1111 / j.1095-8339.2009.00999.x .
- Allioideae in the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN), USDA , ARS , National Genetic Resources Program. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. Retrieved October 1, 2014.
- Rafaël Govaerts (Ed.): Enter taxon in search mask at World Checklist of Selected Plant Families of the Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew .
- Michael F. Fay, Rudall, Mark W. Chase: Molecular studies of subfamily Gilliesioideae (Alliaceae). In: Aliso. Volume 22, 2006, pp. 367-371.
- Agostina B. Sassone, Silvia C. Arroyo-Leuenberger, Liliana M. Giussani: New circumscription of the tribe Leucocoryneae (Amaryllidaceae, Allioideae) = Nueva circunscripción de la tribu Leucocoryneae (Amaryllidaceae, Allioideae) . In: Darwiniana, nueva series . tape 2 , no. 2 , 2014, ISSN 0011-6793 , p. 197–206 , doi : 10.14522 / darwiniana / 2014.22.584 ( edu.ar ).
- Agostina B. Sassone, Liliana M. Giussani, ER Guaglianone: Beauverdia, a resurrected genus of Amaryllidaceae (Allioideae, Gilliesieae). In: Systematic Botany , Volume 39, 2014, pp. 767-775. doi : 10.1600 / 036364414X681527
- Michael F. Fay, Mark W. Chase: Resurrection of Themidaceae for the Brodiaea alliance, and recircumscription of Alliaceae, Amaryllidaceae and Agapanthoideae. In: Taxon. Volume 45, No. 3, 1996, pp. 441-451, JSTOR 1224136 1224136 .
- Paola Jara-Arancio, Mary TK Arroyo, Pablo C. Guerrero, Luis F. Hinojosa, Gina Arancio, Marco A. Méndez, Mark Carine: Phylogenetic perspectives on biome shifts in (Alliaceae) in relation to climatic niche evolution in western South America . In: Journal of Biogeography . tape 41 , no. 2 , February 2014, ISSN 0305-0270 , p. 328–338 , doi : 10.1111 / jbi.12186 ( ieb-chile.cl [PDF]).
- Agostina B. Sassone, Liliana M. Giussani, ER Guaglianone: Multivariate studies of Ipheion (Amaryllidaceae, Allioideae) and related genera. In: Plant Systematics and Evolution , Volume 229, 2013, pp. 1561-1575. doi : 10.1007 / s00606-013-0819-5