|coat of arms||Germany map|
|State :||Lower Saxony|
|Height :||68 m above sea level NHN|
|Area :||119.66 km 2|
|Residents:||49,990 (Dec. 31, 2019)|
|Population density :||418 inhabitants per km 2|
|Postcodes :||31224, 31226, 31228|
|Primaries :||05171, 05176 , 05177|
|License plate :||PE|
|Community key :||03 1 57 006|
|LOCODE :||DE PEI|
City administration address :
|Mayor :||Klaus Saemann ( SPD )|
|Location of the town of Peine in the Peine district|
Peine ( Low German Paane ; early New High German Peina ; Latin Poynum, Castrum Bognum, Boyanum Castrum ) is a town and an independent municipality in northern Germany in Lower Saxony . The city, founded around 1220, has 49,990 inhabitants (as of December 31, 2019). It is the county seat of the eponymous district . The city is best known for its steel industry . Even today, Peiner or Peiner Träger is a synonym for wide-flanged steel girders in the construction industry .
Peine is located in the Geest landscape between Hanover and Braunschweig, the so-called Burgdorf-Peiner Geest , to which the Braunschweig-Hildesheimer Lößbörde connects to the south of the city . The foot flows through it . Today, Peine is also between the two largest regional centers in Lower Saxony, the state capital Hanover , 40 kilometers to the west, and Braunschweig, 25 kilometers to the east . Other larger cities in the vicinity are Hildesheim , Salzgitter , Gifhorn , Wolfsburg and Celle .
Its central location between Hanover, Braunschweig and Hildesheim made Peine popular with the surrounding rulers since it was founded, which is why the city was involved in numerous disputes. The city has an area of 119.51 km² and thus a population density of 417 inhabitants per km². Its height above sea level is around 70 meters above sea level .
The town of Peine has 14 districts : Berkum, Dungelbeck, Duttenstedt, Eixe, Essinghausen, Handorf, Röhrse, Rosenthal, Schmedenstedt, Schwicheldt, Stederdorf, Vöhrum / Landwehr, Wendesse and Woltorf. Around 24,600 inhabitants live in these districts.
Around 26,000 people live in the city center itself. It consists of nine statistical districts :
|251||Vöhrum / Landwehr||6881|
|City of Peine||50,661|
|181||Northern floodplain / Herzberg||6th|
A document from 1130 mentions Berthold von Pagin for the first time, who was a ministerial of the Roman-German King Lothar III. (1075-1137) was. Presumably he had Peine Castle built during this time. The exact year the castle was founded can no longer be determined due to the lack of documents, so that it could have been built earlier.
It remains unclear whether the name Peines was derived from this Pagin or, conversely, the personal name derives from the city name. The Indo-European research has partly moved the place name to a much older epoch and language class. The Middle High German form Pagin (1154; next to it also early Pain , 1143) has been assessed as evidence of the “ north-west block” hypothesis, which Hans Kuhn first put forward in 1959. In view of the p-initials, which is unusual for Germanic, the name is dated to pre-Germanic times and is linked to primitive Germanic fakin- "fish weir " and the underlying Urindo-European * pag- or * peh₂ǵ- "fasten". The name would then be related to Latin pango "to fasten", pagus "Gau, Gauburg" and pagina "with other papyrus strips bound together, book page" as well as Greek πάγος ( págos ) "summit, rock hill, frost, hoarfrost" and πάχνη ( páchnē ) "hoarfrost ".
For the year 1202 the Chronicon Hildesheimense reports on a feud between the bishop Hartbert von Hildesheim and the brothers Ekbert and Gunzelin von Wolfenbüttel (* around 1170 - † February 2, 1255), the last a servant and general of Emperor Otto IV. (* Around 1175–19 May 1218). Gunzelin emerged victorious from this feud and was enfeoffed with the castle and county of Peine by Bishop Hartbert.
On a headland south of this castle he founded the actual city of Peine around 1220, probably as early as 1218. Peine has had city rights since 1223 . Among other things, the Peiner coat of arms goes back to that of Gunzelins . In 1256 Duke Albrecht von Braunschweig-Lüneburg conquered the city. After the death of their father, Gunzelin's sons lost the Peine fief as early as 1260 to the Hildesheim Monastery ; Otto I of Braunschweig-Lüneburg , Bishop of Hildesheim , gave the castle, town and county of Peine to Count Wedekind of Poppenburg as a fief. As a result, Peine finally belonged to the sphere of influence of the Diocese of Hildesheim and at the same time became a market place .
From 1260 Peine had the right to mint and was, with interruptions, a mint in Hildesheim until 1428 . 1954 and 1956 were in Peine (in Stederdorfer street and on Horstweg) two of the largest medieval silver treasures in Germany found. There are 95 flat, round and partly halved silver bars, some of which are the size of a palm. The total weight of the two finds is 7.5 kilograms. The silver pieces were probably minted in the 14th century. Some show the coats of arms of Hildesheim and Hanover, the Brunswick lion and other coins that have not yet been assigned. The find is an indication that the city was doing well economically at the time and that the merchants of Peine had a lot of influence.
Hildesheim collegiate feud
In 1518 the Hildesheim collegiate feud began , which was to last until 1523 and which suffered particularly from the torment. For several years there had been disputes between the city and the Hildesheim bishop over additional taxes and rights pledged to the nobility. In January 1518, Bishop Johannes IV of Hildesheim allied himself with Duke Heinrich I of Lüneburg-Celle against Bishop Franz von Minden and Duke Erich I of Calenberg . The open battle began in 1519. In June of the same year there was finally the first siege of Peine. After the first attack, the southern part of the city burned down, later the whole city was in flames, but the castle was held. In total, the Peiner Burg was besieged three times for a few months each time. The second siege took place in the autumn of 1521, the third in the summer of 1522. Although Peine Castle could be defended every time - the so-called “Owl's Nest” was described as impregnable - it did not survive the attacks unscathed. “By God's grace and help alone, the house held torment”.
In July 1967, while work on laying a district heating line on the market square, people came across human skulls and bones, and fallen and buried Braunschweig mercenaries who had stormed the castle in vain in the collegiate feud in 1521.
The conclusion of peace through the “Quedlinburg Recess ” in May 1523 meant that the Hildesheim bishop only had the “small pen”, to which Peine also belonged. Since Bishop Johann had to pay for the war costs , Peine became the property of the city of Hildesheim in 1526 . After the death of Hans Wildefüer , Hildesheim's mayor and leader of the Catholic party, the city council of Hildesheim decided on August 27, 1542 to follow Lutheran teachings. Since the city of Hildesheim was still Peine's lien holder, the Reformation was also carried out in Peine . In 1553 Peine was returned to the Hildesheim Bishopric .
On March 18, 1510 there was a fire in the city, in which a large part of the city was destroyed. It was said: “de stat, de kerke unde de vörborch to Peine al ut in ver hours”: The town, the church and the outer bailey were destroyed by flames in four hours.
On May 15, 1557 there was another devastating fire in the town, in which the town hall and the parish church of St. Jacobi on the market square were destroyed. All of the city's documents were destroyed. The history of Peine before 1600 can therefore be reconstructed almost exclusively from documents from Hildesheim and Braunschweig.
In 1592 another 66 houses burned down.
The Thirty-Year War
The Thirty Years' War first spread to what is now Lower Saxony in 1623, which led to preparations for combat operations in Peine by stationing a Hildesheim company. The ramparts and the moat were repaired. From 1625 the first fighting took place in the Hildesheimer Stiftsgebiet , in August 1626 Peine was occupied for a short time by the Danish troops of King Christian IV . Count von Tilly besieged Peine and took it in August 1626 before Tilly struck Christian at Lutter am Barenberge . Tilly moved his headquarters to Peine by the summer of 1627, which meant additional protection for the city. He also left Peine's Protestant denomination.
In 1629 the imperial edict of restitution was issued, which was supposed to enforce the Counter Reformation . In that year Friedrich Spee von Langenfeld also came on the imperial commission; he stayed until he was murdered. The citizens of Peine had the choice of accepting the Catholic faith or of leaving the city within three months. Numerous citizens left Peine. They had previously had to sell their property.
In 1632 there were alternating occupations by Swedish and Catholic troops in Peine, whereupon Duke Friedrich Ulrich of Braunschweig and Lüneburg was asked for help and was recognized as a liege lord. In the summer of 1633 Peine was besieged again and finally conquered by Wolfenbüttel troops with reinforcements from Goslar and Hildesheim on July 28, 1633. A few days later, Peine was handed over to Duke Friedrich Ulrich. The Counter-Reformation ended with the capture by Protestant troops, and most of the religious refugees of 1628 returned. In 1637 August the Younger, Duke of Braunschweig-Lüneburg , had fortifications built again. Until 1642, the Great Hildesheim Monastery was under Brunswick control. In 1642 peace was made with the " Goslar Accord ", the Guelphs returned the city of Peine to the bishopric. Apart from further billeting in Peine and payments demanded by Hildesheim, the war for the now bankrupt Peine was over.
In 1756 the Seven Years War broke out between France and Great Britain in the colonies . Peine was drawn into the conflict through the alliances on both sides. In 1757 and 1758 it was occupied by the French. Until 1763, Peine had to support the warring parties - both the French and Braunschweig - with money and labor (including building a fortress). At the end of the war, Hildesheim Abbey was heavily in debt.
After the French Revolution in 1789, Prussia and Austria allied against France in 1792 . Thereupon Prussian troops marched through Peine in 1792 and 1793. In 1802 the Hildesheim monastery area was occupied by the Prussians, and a year later Peine became a Prussian city. The ecclesiastical principalities lost their power due to the secularization in the course of the Reichsdeputationshauptschluss .
The formerly contested castle Peine became dilapidated due to the deterioration of the building structure. Dismantling began in 1803, and the last building was finally demolished in 1816. In addition, since further repairs to the town hall were no longer worthwhile, this building was also sold for demolition in 1827 for 240 Reichstaler and a new town hall was built in the same place on the market square - partly with the old stones.
As a result of the defeat of Prussia at Jena and Auerstedt in 1806, Peine fell to the Kingdom of Westphalia under Jérôme Bonaparte . Therefore the administration was redesigned according to the French model. After the Battle of the Nations near Leipzig in 1813, however, this kingdom dissolved again. On May 1, 1815, Peine, which at that time was a small agricultural town with 2,300 inhabitants, became part of the Kingdom of Hanover . After the German War of 1866 , Hanover was annexed by Prussia. Peine was now part of a Prussian province.
Rise of the economy
From the middle of the 19th century , the town of Peine, which until then had been predominantly agricultural , began to transform into an industrial location. The Hanover – Peine – Braunschweig railway line was completed as early as 1844 , because the railway connection was hoped for an economic upswing. After an iron ore deposit was discovered in Groß Bülten near Ilsede in 1855 , the Ilseder Hütte was founded in 1858, an ironworks . This pig iron supplier was an important prerequisite for the further development of Peine. In 1872 the Peiner Walzwerk public limited company was founded in close cooperation . The newly built rolling mill started operations in 1873, but suffered for the first few years from the beginning economic crisis .
In order to secure the future of the iron industry , Gerhard Lucas Meyer operated the merger of the ironworks and rolling mill in 1880. The aim was to build a Thomas steelworks to refine the phosphorus-rich Ilseder iron. Ilseder iron refined by the Thomas process became everywhere competitive as Peiner Stahl. As a result, Peine grew rapidly, and by 1891 two more rolling mills were opened. Due to the economic growth and the associated influx of people, the city grew and prospered.
20th and 21st centuries
The economic boom of the previous century was interrupted by the First World War. Peine was not directly affected by combat operations, but the German inflation from 1914 to 1923 and the Great Depression made the city's economy harder. Nevertheless, a further expansion of the infrastructure could take place. So the power supply was established from 1919 to 1922, and from 1921 to 1929 the construction of the Mittelland Canal for the coal transport of the economy took place. In 1935 and 1936, the current Federal Motorway 2 was built. During the “ Reichspogromnacht ” on November 10, 1938, the 1907 synagogue in Bodenstedtstrasse was set on fire and destroyed. Hans Marburger, son of a Jewish merchant, was gunned down and burned in the building. In his honor, part of the street was later renamed Hans-Marburger-Straße. The central memorial is located on the site of the former synagogue, where wreaths are laid every year on the anniversary of the “Reichspogromnacht”.
During the Second World War , the rolling mill used for armaments production and the neighboring mineral oil works were bombed several times, with a total of around 50 deaths. Reconstruction lasted until 1951. On April 9, 1945, Pein's city center was attacked with light bombs, which resulted in deaths and damage to buildings. The following day, the city was surrendered to American troops without a fight. This made it possible to avoid major sacrifices and destruction.
Shortly after the Allies marched into Peine, a loaded ammunition train exploded on the Fuhsebrücke in mid-May 1945. Windows in the city broke and roof tiles were pushed off the roofs. The Allies arrested the railroad worker on suspicion of sabotage. But he was soon released.
In 1945 the Allied occupation authorities had the collection point for messages about drivers of motor vehicles , a predecessor of the Federal Motor Transport Authority , founded in Berlin in 1934 , relocated to Peine, only to have it relocated to Bielefeld the following year . Later, the Bielefeld collection point for news about motor vehicles and motor vehicle drivers moved under the new name of the Federal Motor Transport Authority to Flensburg - Mürwik , where the authority is still located today.
In 1946 Lower Saxony was formed as part of the British zone of occupation . From then on, Peine belonged to the Hildesheim administrative district . Because of the large number of refugees, the city recorded a population increase of around 10,000 between 1939 and 1950. At the time of the economic miracle , many urban projects and road construction were carried out. As a result of the 1974 regional reform , 14 previously independent villages and communities were incorporated. Peine then belonged to the Braunschweig administrative district until the district was dissolved on December 31, 2004 as part of a state-wide administrative reform.
The steel crisis in 1975 resulted in the decline of a number of industrial companies in Peine. More than 10,000 of 23,000 jobs were lost. The Ilseder blast furnaces were shut down in 1983. The city of Peine threatened to lose its economic livelihood. Jobs were shed well into the 1980s, and there was a change in industry to future-oriented sectors (see Chapter 5.2 Economy). The steel industry was able to recover, even if not as many workers are employed in the steelworks today as in the heyday of Peiner Stahl. The Salzgitter AG built the Peiner work in November 1994 to one of the most modern electric steel plants in Europe at ( Peiner carrier GmbH ). The construction of a second electric furnace by Salzgitter AG in the course of 2008/2009 underlined this claim.
On September 1st, 2012 the Women's Council of Lower Saxony opened the FrauenORT Hertha Peters in Peine . Hertha Peters was 1964-1972 district administrator of the district of Peine, the first district administrator in Lower Saxony.
On March 1, 1974, in the course of the regional reform of Lower Saxony, the communities Berkum, Dungelbeck, Duttenstedt (previously in the Braunschweig district ), Eixe, Essinghausen (previously in the Braunschweig district), Landwehr (previously in the Burgdorf district ), Röhrse (previously in the Burgdorf district) , Rosenthal, Schmedenstedt, Schwicheldt, Stederdorf, Vöhrum, Wendesse and Woltorf incorporated. Handorf was incorporated on July 1, 1968.
Development of the population
25,088 people live in the core city of Peines, of whom 12,795 (51 percent) are female and 12,293 (49 percent) are male (as of July 31, 2015). 15.24 percent of them are foreigners. Most of the foreigners in Peine come from Turkey, then from Poland. The quota of employees subject to social security contributions is around 35.3 percent (data from 2007) and has remained relatively constant in recent years. The average age is around 44 years.
Around 47% of the residents are Evangelical Lutheran , 11.3% Roman Catholic . In addition to the two large churches, there is also a congregation of the Baptists , the Seventh-day Adventists , the Jehovah's Witnesses and the New Apostolic Church . People with a migration background now make up around 18% of the Peine population. People of the Muslim faith are at home in Peine and can be found in the mosques of DITIB and TAKVA, for example.
The rise of the economy in the second half of the 19th century led to rapid population growth from 3,823 inhabitants in 1852 to 15,421 inhabitants in 1900. Due to the influx of refugees after the Second World War, the city already had 28,918 inhabitants in 1954. The number of 49,893 after the territorial reform in 1974 has remained roughly the same to this day.
The following is an overview with the number of inhabitants according to the respective territorial status. Up to 1987 the results are mostly census results (¹), then official updates by the respective statistical offices or the city administration itself. From 1852 onwards, the information relates to the “local population”, from 1925 to the resident population and since 1987 to the “population at the location of the main residence ”.
1 census result
The "Owl's Nest"
Peine is often called Owl City or as Eulennest , mundartlich Ulennest referred. There are several legends and sagas surrounding the owl . However, the origin of this symbolism in connection with Peine as a city has not been clearly established. It is possible that Peine Castle was called "Ulennest" because of the impassable and dangerous moors in the area and that is where the legends originated.
The most common aetiological derivation of the name is as follows: “A long time ago an owl settled on the guard tower of the outer bailey and began to build a nest under the roof. The crew gazed at the animal with open mouths and feared the unknown and terrifying creature. One tries to drive away the uninvited guest, but in vain, he keeps coming back. Finally you put fire in the tower, but the owl flies over to the city. The tormentors are not afraid, however, they take the stranger in good spirits and worship the owl as a guardian spirit. (Of course, clever people claim that the citizens of Peine also wanted to drive the strange newcomer away by fire and thereby cremated the whole city.) "
Another version of the explanatory legend reads as follows: An owl had chosen a barn as a hiding place. The servant noticed the animal fetching straw and was very frightened. Something similar happened to the citizen. Soon the entire neighborhood was gathered, but even a particularly brave man in armor is said to have been scared. It was then decided to burn down the barn, which brought great mockery to the city.
In fact, the owl was known to many times and different peoples as a messenger of bad luck, or at least surrounded by the shower of numinous . The character of the owl legend was therefore ironic and mocking. So - according to a contemporary mockery - you had to be careful not to come to a tormentor with "beer and wine" with the well-known owl, otherwise you risked a beating:
"If someone is perky, he'll be tormented,
and there go to the beer and wine,
ask her what the owl has done to him,
why she burned them.
And drink the last one with him,
if he comes out unbeaten again,
will pay him what he forgives inside, Duppelt as it is right. "
When Peine withstood several attempts at conquest in the course of the Hildesheim collegiate feud , the previous bad luck bringer was now credited with saving the city. The owl has now become a symbol of the city and a symbol of its civic pride. The wedding bowl from 1534 also suggests a positive meaning of the owl. The now changed legend wanted the owl not to frighten the tormentors, but on the contrary to protect them in the afflictions of their history. A characteristic expression of this reinterpretation of the owl is the dialect two-line “Peine was maket so solid, / dat de Ule blev sitten in'n Neste!” ( High German for example “Peine made so tight that the owl stayed in the nest!”), The can also be found on a house wall near the pedestrian zone. It belongs to a legend from the time of the collegiate feud, according to which the attackers were already messing around with ladders at the fortress when an owl, which had its nest nearby, sounded the alarm with its call. Like the Capitoline geese according to Roman legend, it is said to have woken the guards with their noise and thus prevented an attack by the enemy troops. The defenders were able to take a stand in good time and fend off the nocturnal Braunschweig 'visitors' (from history lessons at the Gunzelin secondary school in Peine and the grammar school in Groß Ilsede, story by a teacher).
The owl is still a popular symbol in Peine today, be it at events, on houses, in the form of statues or the like. The houses around the market square in particular, but also the Jakobi Church are decorated with owl symbols.
Peine is the seat of an Evangelical Lutheran church district, it belongs to the Hildesheim-Göttingen district of the regional church of Hanover. The church district in the core town of Peine includes the St. Jakobi Church in the city center, built in its current form at the end of the 19th century, as well as the Friedenskirche in Gunzelinstrasse and the Martin Luther Church in the southern part of the city, both built in 1955. Furthermore, the St. John's Church from the post-war period on Telgte and the Horstkirche (St. Nicolai) in the Horst, a half-timbered chapel from the 18th century. Other Protestant churches and chapels are located in the districts of Berkum, Dungelbeck, Duttenstedt, Eixe, Essinghausen, Handorf, Röhrse, Rosenthal, Schmedenstedt, Schwicheldt, Stederdorf, Vöhrum and Woltorf.
The Catholic Church of the Holy Angels was built in 1867/68 at what is now Von-Ketteler-Platz and in 1923 the Sacred Heart Chapel in the southern part of the city, which has since been profaned, was added. Further churches were built after 1945 in today's districts of Dungelbeck , Stederdorf and Vöhrum , and in 1960 the St. Barbara Church in Telgter Friedhof on Vöhrumer Straße. There was an emergency chapel in Essinghausen. All Catholic churches in Peine today belong to the parish of the Holy Angels and to the deanery of Braunschweig.
The Christ Church on Rosenhagen belongs to the Evangelical Free Church Community of Peine ( Baptists ) . The community belongs to the Federation of Evangelical Free Churches in Germany. A New Apostolic Church is located in the Vöhrum district; their community belongs to the church district of Braunschweig. Another church was located at Spittastraße 5. The last service took place there on October 7, 2012, and in 2013/14 it was converted into a concert hall. The Advent community in Peine am Werderpark is part of the Seventh-day Adventist Church . A Kingdom Hall of Jehovah's Witnesses is in the nest.
In addition to the Christian religious communities, there are now also Islamic religious communities in Peine. The three mosques in Peine are all in the southern part of the city.
The City Council of Peine, the highest political decision-making body, makes decisions that affect the city's self-government. This includes the determination of public taxes , development plans or the naming of honorary citizens . This includes adopting regulations for the use and fees for public facilities such as libraries, street cleaning, garbage disposal, water supply, sewerage and district heating. The city council consists of 40 council women and councilors. This is the specified number for a city with a population between 40,001 and 50,000. The 40 council members are elected for five years each by local elections. The current term of office began on November 1, 2011 and ends on October 31, 2016.
The full-time mayor Klaus Saemann (SPD) is also entitled to vote in the city council.
The last local election on September 11, 2016 led to the following result (with the corresponding comparative figures for 2011 and 2006):
|Party / list||2016||2011||2006|
|SPD||18 seats||19 seats||21 seats|
|CDU||13 seats||11 seats||12 seats|
|GREEN||3 seats||4 seats||2 seats|
|Peiner Bürgergemeinschaft (PB)||2 seats||2 seats||2 seats|
|FDP||1 seat||1 seat||1 seat|
|Community of Independent Citizens (GuB)||-||1 seat||1 seat|
|The left||1 seat||1 seat||1 seat|
|Pirate party||1 seat||1 seat||-|
|Individual applicants||1 seat||-||-|
The main task of the administrative committee is to prepare the council resolutions with the help of recommendations from the specialist committees and local councils. It also makes its own decisions and takes care of residents' applications, suggestions and complaints from citizens. The administrative committee consists of the mayor, the councilors appointed by the council and the basic mandate holders.
The mayor , the third body of the city, is elected in local elections for a period of five years. He is responsible for the preparation and implementation of the resolutions of the city council and the administrative committee. He represents the city of Peine and represents the community in legal proceedings. In 2001 Udo Willenbücher was elected the first full-time mayor of the city of Peine with 50.8%. He was City Director from 1996 to 2001, succeeding Willi Boß. In 2006 he waived re-election for health reasons. In the local elections on September 11, 2006, Michael Kessler (SPD) was elected full-time mayor with 51.4% in the first ballot . In the mayoral election, which took place at the same time as the 2014 European elections, on May 25, 2014, Kessler ran again and prevailed against Karl-Heinrich Belte from the Peiner Bürgergemeinschaft (PB) with 73.9% of the vote. In advance, however, Kessler announced that if he won the election, he would only hold office for two years. In the mayoral election on September 11, 2016, no candidate received an absolute majority, so on September 25, 2016 there was a runoff between the SPD candidate Klaus Saemann (43.0%) and the CDU candidate Andreas Meier (34.9%) carried out in which Klaus Saemann received 52.2% of the votes.
Mayor of the city of Peine since 1945
Honorary mayor from 1945 to 2001
- 1945–1946: Alfred Hertel (independent)
- 1946–1947: Hermann Seidensticker (CDU)
- 1947–1948: Walter Braune ( NLP )
- 1948–1952: Hans Balbiani (SPD)
- 1952–1955: Richard Langeheine ( DP )
- 1955–1956: Arthur Enk (CDU)
- 1956–1961: Hans Gallinis (SPD)
- 1961–1964: Richard Langeheine ( GB / BHE , CDU)
- 1964–1968: Hans Balbiani (SPD)
- 1968–1970: Karl-Heinz Schülke (CDU)
- 1970–1972: Richard Langeheine (CDU)
- 1972–1991: Gerhard Heinze (SPD)
- 1991-2001: Ulrich Biel (SPD)
City directors from 1948 to 2001 :
Full-time mayor since 2001
coat of arms
The coat of arms goes back to the coat of arms of the Lords of Wolfenbüttel (later von der Asseburg ) and in particular the coat of arms of the Ministerial Gunzelin von Wolfenbüttel , who took over Peine Castle around 1202 and founded the city of Peine in 1220. Only small things have changed on the coat of arms since the 13th century. The floor was originally silver and the colors of the sheaves were changed several times. The shield has only been split since the 17th century. The colors gold and red used here indicate the long membership in the prince-bishopric of Hildesheim (from 1260 to 1802).
Another version of the city's coat of arms is known from the 19th century. The coat of arms of that time was split in red and green, with a black wolf jumping over two golden sheaves; above the shield was enthroned still a bluish piston tournament helmet along with yellow-red crest . In another variant, another black wolf with a three-leaf clover sits on the helmet between two other yellow sheaves.
Today's coat of arms shows the color green only in the lower part - as the reason for the golden sheaves placed on it. Only since 1924 has there been a permanent city coat of arms, which was designed by the graphic artist Emil-Werner Baule (1870–1953), as research in the city and district archives revealed. The city colors of Peine are green and red to this day.
Peine maintains a city partnership with the following cities :
Culture and sights
Theaters and museums
- With the ballrooms and the forum, Peine offers two well-equipped venues. With the participation of the city and the district of Peine, the Kulturring association was formed in 1947 as the private sponsor of the city's theater life . He creates offers such as readings, exhibitions, theater performances and concerts. There are also two cinemas in Peine , the largest of which has 300 seats.
- The city theater Peiner Festsäle on Friedrich-Ebert-Platz with its 750 seats, built by Norbert Stiller, was inaugurated in 1922. There is an anecdote about the foundation that the wife of the chairman of the supervisory board of Ilseder Hütte Wilhelm Meyer , an actress, was able to convince her husband and brother-in-law of the construction. In the street “Winkel” are the Forum Peine , which was opened in 1988 for cultural and public events, and the Schmedenstedthaus , a three-column house from 1685, which now houses the city library. Next to it is the Töpfers Mühle at the historic location of the Ratsmühle from the 14th century, which was damaged in an explosion in 1945. The old symbol of Peine was regained when a mill of the same type was bought from the island of Bornholm . A youth leisure center has been located in the mill since 1985. Since the spring of 2011 the Dutch windmill has been connected to the " Lower Saxony Mühlenstrasse ".
- The district museum , which was inaugurated in 1988, is a historical museum that is dedicated both to the representation of Pein's everyday culture and the local steel industry. In addition to the exhibitions, lectures are also held here. The restored "Glück-auf-Haus" is integrated into the museum.
- The chocolate of the confectionery manufacturer Rausch in the north industrial area is a chocolate museum . It shows the history of cocoa and chocolate production and also offers direct insights into production today. It contains a "chocolate volcano", a café and a tropical garden with cocoa plants.
- The city archive documents the history of the place through documents, files, maps and old Peiner newspapers.
- The market square , the oldest square in Peine, was laid out by Gunzelin von Wolfenbüttel . The traditional markets were held here. In the Middle Ages it represented the center of the city. During the restoration in 1986, a fountain was created in the middle of the square . The foundations of the original St. Jakobi church were also visible. The square is surrounded by buildings from the 17th and 18th centuries.
- The old town hall from 1827 is also located on the market square and stands in the same place as several town halls before, including the one that burned down in 1557. Since the last renovation in 1985, it has had a carillon that can be heard on the hour on the afternoon.
- The Protestant St. Jakobi Church in downtown Peine offers impressive wall and ceiling paintings and 800 seats for services and concerts. After the original church on the market square burned down in 1557, it was rebuilt at its current location, a few hundred meters further south. In 1693 the church was rebuilt in baroque style, in 1726 supporting pillars were added and in 1893 it was demolished due to dilapidation. From 1896 to 1899 another new building took place, this time in the neo-Gothic style. In 1994 a thorough renovation took place, whereby the church was painted again in the original colors.
- The Echternplatz , which means something like "back space", is located diagonally behind the Jakobi Church. The town's craftsmen used to live here. On top of it is the Schicke-Schacke , a bronze statue that depicts a well-known servant and messenger of Peine from the 19th century.
- The Friedrich-Ebert-Platz south of the station is the largest square Peines. The Rossmarkt was held here around 1900. The Pein water tower, built in 1888, is also located here. Another water tower was built on the Peiner Herzberg in 1908.
- The Burgpark is a 6,000 square meter green area on which the restored remains of Peine Castle are located. The park was excavated from 1998 and completed in May 2000. Events are often held here in summer.
- In the immediate vicinity of the castle park is the Catholic parish church to the Holy Angels , which was built in 1867 according to plans by Conrad Wilhelm Hase in the style of the north German brick Gothic . Inside there is a triumphal cross from the 13th century.
- The streets of Damm and Kniepenburg are the oldest part of Peine. The dam, in which many Jews lived, was a separate community until 1852. The “Pelican House” from 1611, one of the oldest surviving residential buildings in Peine, can be found here. Sally (Salomon) Perel , a Jew from Peine, was born in house Damm 1 on April 21, 1925 . Perel, who now lives in Israel, survived the times of National Socialism under a false name . In his 1990 film ( I was Hitler Youth Salomon ) he described his life. A stumbling block has been laid in front of the house where he was born and it bears a plaque installed by the city of Peine.
- The Hagenmarkt (from the field name Hagen = " swamp area ") is a circular square with seven streets in a star shape. It was laid out at the end of the 19th century, based on the urban model of Place Charles-de-Gaulle (previously Place de l'Étoile ) in Paris. At the end of the 19th century, the piglet market took place here regularly. Even today, a weekly market is held on Wednesdays and Saturdays in the square, which is lined with cafés and bars .
- One of the most important architectural monuments of the city is the house Weißer Schwan in the Breiten Straße 58. The oldest half-timbered house in the core city, a former inn, was bought by the city in 2001 and saved from ruin. In the course of the restoration, a few remains of the original wall painting were uncovered inside the building. These are Renaissance paintings that are unique in Lower Saxony and date from the time the house was built around 1595.
- The Schlageter memorial stands on the Luhberg near Stederdorf , one of around a hundred memorials in Germany that has been commemorating Albert Leo Schlageter , who was sentenced to death by French occupation troops during the Ruhr occupation in 1923 , since the 1920s .
The city of Peine has a wide range of sports on offer. This includes numerous sports and gymnasiums, outdoor sports areas, fitness centers and shooting ranges . There are also riding halls and riding arenas, an indoor swimming pool, an outdoor swimming pool, a bowling alley and a glider airfield on the Glindbruchkippe not far from the town center of Pein . There are also two canoe associations in Peine : The folding boat department of "MTV Vater Jahn" and the Peine canoe community. In the entire district of Peine there are over 280 kilometers of paved cycle paths , and the Peiner Herzberg is also ideal for cycling or jogging. The biggest sporting event in Peine every year is the Peiner Triathlon, which attracts almost 1000 athletes to the Eixer See .
Torment free shooting
The biggest festival is the annual shooting festival , the "Peiner Freischießen", which takes place for five days around the first Sunday in July. The name originally comes from the fact that the tormentors were able to "shoot themselves free" from civil duties.
The origin of the festival is unknown because of the city fire of 1557 already mentioned. The festival is only mentioned in a document in the statutes of the city of Peine that were subsequently drawn up. Today it is assumed that shortly after the city was founded around 1220 a kind of “vigilante group” existed in the often contested city. In the course of time, the citizens of Peine used this will to self-defense to secure more and more rights from the landlords (e.g. exemption from taxes or a mayor elected by the citizens).
Since the end of the 19th century, the Peiner Freischießen is no longer an event of a single “local shooting club”, but seven “corporations” compete. Each corporation determines its own king. Among the seven corporations there are three so-called "citizen corporations", namely the New Citizen Corps (1927) , the Citizen Jäger Corps (1871) and the Schützengilde (1597) . These shoot out the citizen king among themselves. In the year of his reign, the citizen king occupies a special position in the social life of the city.
The corps of citizens' sons (1814) , in which the so-called bachelors celebrate the free shooting, has a long tradition . The corps of citizens' sons shoots out its own active "king". The so-called passive department, consisting of members who are no longer single, determines the passive “king” among themselves.
The establishment of seven corporations has its roots in the time of the industrial revolution, which had a great impact on Peine. The many new citizens wanted to actively participate in the free shooting, but they were barred from entering the rifle guild, which at that time consisted of long-established Peiner merchants and craftsmen. In addition to the corporations already mentioned, the MTV father Jahn Peine from 1862 Corporation , TSV Bildung from 1863 and the Peiner Walzwerker Verein from 1878 take part in the largest local festival.
Since 1966 the festival has been opened with a large firework display, today it takes place on the Schützenplatz, which was built in 1979. The official appointments and free shooting offices are still the domain of men.
Another major annual event is the Peiner Stadtfest, the Owl Market . Other events include since 1998 Highland Gathering , in which international pipe- and drum bands provide for the official open German championships a musical competition and then the Highland Games are held.
Economy and Infrastructure
Until the steel crisis in the 1970s, Peine was largely shaped by the steel industry (see also the rise of the economy ). After the collapse of the steel industry, as in other industrial centers, they were forced to replace the monostructure and the associated dependency.
In the middle center Peine a variety of promising enterprises was successfully settled. Among other things, the consumer electronics manufacturer Matsushita had a production and development facility in Peine. The site has since been the Berlin Chocolate -Produzenten noise assumed that since 1982 maintains a factory in the north of Peine. In 1973, the Pelikan AG company set up a plant in the Peiner district of Vöhrum. This factory is still the most important production site of the Pelikan Group worldwide.
The beer from the Härke private brewery , which can look back on a long tradition since the takeover of the Rauls'schen brewery in 1890, is popular with many people in Pein . In 2013 the company lost its independence. It was taken over by Einbecker Brauhaus AG and has been operating as Härke Braumanufaktur ever since .
The company Funkwerk Enterprise Communications GmbH (formerly Elmeg Communication Systems GmbH) is based in Peine. In 2011 the company NOWEDA (pharmaceutical wholesalers) opened a new location in Peine.
Many logistics companies have settled in the Peine-Ost industrial park in recent years. The logistics company Meyer & Meyer , based in Osnabrück, was able to settle here and opened a large warehouse in 2016 on behalf of Zalando . In 2017, DSV placed a logistics hub for North Germany there for the DM drugstore chain . In 2018, the non-food discounter Action Nederland opened a logistics center for Northeast Europe.
In addition to the industrial and commercial areas outside with convenient connections, the pedestrian zone built in 1971 in the Breite Straße with its retail trade could be maintained. The city is the headquarters of the Kreissparkasse Peine and the Volksbank Peine . The city of Peine is debt-free, which is a specialty in view of the excessive municipal debt.
In summary, plastics and metal processing, data and communication electronics, food and chocolate manufacturers, as well as public and private service companies are represented in Peine. The city of Peine itself has two company parks in which various companies with production and administration are located. Among other things, the auditorium of the grammar school at Silberkamp is located in company park II.
The first evidence of a school in Peine - probably a Latin school - dates back to 1423. The school director from Hildesheim at the time was mentioned in a document. In the 1960s, numerous schools were expanded and some more were built.
Peine today has several primary and secondary schools such as the Bodenstedt / Wilhelmschule (secondary school) and the Burgschule (reliable primary / secondary school), the Gunzelin secondary school and a vocational school . In addition, there are three grammar schools : the Ratsgymnasium , the grammar school am Silberkamp and the vocational grammar school (only upper level) . An integrated comprehensive school has been located in the district of Vöhrum since 2001, which has also been given an upper secondary school level and thus offers the fourth opportunity to obtain the technical and general college entrance qualification in the urban area.
The three schools of the orientation level were closed in the summer of 2004 and incorporated into the secondary schools . Although Peine does not have its own university , it benefits from the proximity to the research centers in Braunschweig and Hanover.
The Ratsgymnasium also has an observatory with an electrically operated, 360 ° rotatable Baader observatory dome. In the fall of 2014, Erich Mouth Stock Foundation (donated by road Mundstock ) a new Meade-12 - Telescope .
Roads and bridges
Peine is located directly on the federal autobahn 2 (A 2), which connects the Ruhr area with the German capital Berlin , and has a so-called double junction: in addition to the original autobahn exit “Peine”, an additional exit “Peine-Ost” was completed in 1997. Both carry the number 52. In addition, the federal highways B 65 , B 444 and B 494 run through the city. The two most important road structures are the north-south bridge (1978) and the steelworks bridge (2003). Both span the Hanover – Braunschweig railway line running through the city from west to east . The construction of the steelworks bridge took a total of two years: the groundbreaking ceremony took place on August 1, 2001; the opening took place on September 19, 2003, with great public participation. The bridge owes its name to the Peiner steelworks , over whose factory premises it runs.
Railroad and bus
Peine is on the Hanover – Braunschweig railway line . A special feature is that the station building is owned by the city after it was built in the mid-1990s at its expense. There is also a local transport terminal connected to the train station, which links the public transport bus and train. The Peiner Bahnhof has received several awards.
Peine station was the end of the line from Plockhorst, which opened in 1922 and was completely closed by 2003 . In addition, the former Peine – Ilseder railway of the Peine-Salzgitter transport company , which is only used for freight traffic, is linked to the network of Deutsche Bahn AG .
City traffic is mainly operated by Peiner Verkehrsgesellschaft mbH (PVG). The ONS company mainly operates regional transport.
The nearest airports are Hannover-Langenhagen Airport in Langenhagen and Braunschweig-Wolfsburg Airport in Braunschweig . The Peine-Glindbruchkippe airfield is located in the town of Peine near Vöhrum , and the currently closed Peine-Eddesse airfield is in the neighboring municipality of Edemissen .
sons and daughters of the town
- Cordt Wolters , also Konrad Wolters († 1591), councilor of the Hanseatic City of Lübeck and sub-admiral of the Lübeck fleet in the three-crown war
- Johann Friedrich Meister (* before 1638; † 1697), composer and organist
- Johann Conrad Eichler (1680–1748), court painter in Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel
- Johann August Carl Sievers (1762–1795), botanist
- Philipp Itzig Blanck (1771–1841), entrepreneur and founder of the P. J. Blanck company
- Friedrich Konrad Griepenkerl (1782–1849), Germanist, educator, musicologist and conductor
- Julius Mühling (1793–1874), actor, director and theater manager
- Eduard von Borries (1807–1872), politician, member of the Frankfurt National Assembly
- Friedrich von Bodenstedt (1819–1892), writer and poet, since 1889 honorary citizen of the city
- Carl Leverkühn (1823–1906), Privy Councilor and educator
- Otto Spiegelberg (1830–1881), gynecologist
- Julius Spiegelberg (1833–1897), entrepreneur, founder of the first jute spinning mill on mainland Europe in Vechelde
- Wilhelm Krasnapolsky (1834–1912), founder of the Peiner Herzberg
- Karl Kaufmann , "Schicke-Schacke", (1838–1907), Peiner city original
- Christian von Krogh (1863–1924), officer and resident of the imperial residence Adamaua in Cameroon
- Rudolf Otto (1869–1937), Protestant theologian and religious scholar
- Emil-Werner Baule (1870–1953), architect, designer, graphic artist, illustrator, craftsman and painter
- Hermann Dießelhorst (1870–1961), physicist and full professor at the Technical University of Braunschweig
- Albert Sergel (1876–1946), writer
- Friedrich Rahlves (1887–1967), German civil engineer and city planning officer
- August Karsten (1888–1981), politician (SPD)
- Paul Oskar Schuster (1888–1971), politician (NSDAP, later CDU)
- Siegfried Remertz (1891–1945), local politician and victim of the Nazi regime
- Friedrich Klinge (1892–1974), pathologist and university professor
- Fritz Vielstich (1895–1965), NSDAP politician, SA leader, member of the Prussian state parliament and the Reichstag
- Frieda Mätz (1902–1975), politician (SPD)
- Axel Schaffeld (1904–1932), NS university group and SA storm leader
- Hertha Peters (1905–1987), local politician (SPD), first district administrator in Lower Saxony
- Friedrich Hartjenstein (1905–1954), SS-Obersturmbannführer and concentration camp commandant
- Karl Munzel (1906–1994), lawyer, local politician and district administrator for Peine
- Werner Schönfelder (1908–1982), theologian and politician (German party, CDU)
- Hans Schmidt (1910–1984), politician (SPD) and member of the Lower Saxony state parliament
- Fritz Köpcke (1914–1990), football referee
- Sigurd Falk (1921–2016), university professor at the TU Braunschweig
- Ludwig Almstadt (1922–2009), architect and construction clerk
- Sally Perel (* 1925), author of the autobiography "I was Hitler Youth Salomon", honorary ring holder of the city of Peine
- Adolf Stockleben (1933–2014), politician (SPD)
- Gerhard Heimann (1934–2017), politician (SPD)
- Marlies Hesse (* 1935), librarian, journalist and writer
- Erika Schmollinger (* 1941), national table tennis player for VfB Peine
- Hans-Otto Keunecke (* 1945), librarian
- Ulrich Biel (* 1947), politician (SPD), 1991–2001 mayor of the city of Peine and 2003–2008 vice-president of the Lower Saxony state parliament
- Hans-Hermann Hoppe (* 1949), economist at the Austrian School
- Klaus-Peter Brandes (* 1950), diplomat
- Klaus-Werner Jonas (* 1954), politician (SPD)
- Olaf Tschimpke (* 1955), geographer, President of NABU since 2003
- Ulrike Gerold (* 1956), writer
- Knut Hoffmeister (* 1956), media artist
- Gerhard Wegner (* 1956), economist
- Ulrich Cyganek (* 1958), Protestant church musician, regional church music director of the Evangelical Church in the Rhineland
- Christina Kalloch (* 1958), Roman Catholic theologian
- Lars-Christian Koch (* 1959), ethnomusicologist, musicologist and university professor
- Matthias Möhle (* 1959), Member of the Lower Saxony State Parliament (SPD) since 2008
- Ralf Liedtke (* 1960), philosopher and professor at the University of Bamberg
- Klaus Ness (1962–2015), politician (SPD) and member of the Brandenburg State Parliament
- Henning Ahrens (* 1964), translator and writer, lives in the village of Handorf
- Karin Dörre (* 1964), painter
- Stefan Treue (* 1964), neuroscientist and professor at the University of Göttingen
- Peter Unruh (* 1965), legal scholar, university professor and President of the Regional Church Office of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Northern Germany
- Edmund Weitz (* 1965), mathematician, computer scientist and university professor
- Caren Miosga (* 1969), journalist and presenter (including the daily topics )
- Axel Bernd Kunze (* 1972), educational scientist and Catholic social ethicist
- Lothar Veit (* 1973), journalist, author and songwriter
- Holger Speckhahn (* 1974), TV presenter, model, actor and golf pro
- Ramazan Yıldırım (* 1975), professional football player and coach
- Herma Auguste Wittstock (* 1977), performance artist
- Alex Tsitsigias (* 1979), musician
- Ricarda Riefling (* 1983), politician (NPD)
- Chris-Florian Treutler (* 1988), handball player
- Simon Al-Odeh (* 1988), composer and trumpeter
- Rosalia Stähr (* 1990), national table tennis player
Personalities who have worked or are working in Peine
- Friedrich Spee von Langenfeld (* 1591 in Kaiserswerth near Düsseldorf , † 1635 in Trier ), Jesuit , moral theologian , poet and spiritual writer, worked in Peine in 1628 and 1629.
- Paul Gottlieb Werlhof (born March 24, 1699 in Helmstedt ; † July 26, 1767 in Hanover ), poet and physician, practiced for four years in Peine
- Albert Lührs (* 1804 in Marschkamp near Elmlohe , † 1871 in Peine), theologian, superintendent and main editor of the Hanover catechism
- Carl Freundel (* 1861 in Celle ; † 1944 in Peine), politician (DVP), member of the state parliament, senator in Peine
- Anton van Norden (* 1879 in Loga , † 1955 in Peine), architect and city architect.
- Arthur Enk (* 1894 in Frankfurt am Main ; † 1976 in Peine), entrepreneur and politician (CDU).
- Richard Langeheine (* 1900 in Eixe bei Peine; † 1995 in Peine) was a politician of the German Party, the All-German Party and most recently the CDU as well as Lower Saxony Minister of Justice (1955–1956) and Minister of Education (1965–1970).
- Dietrich Wilde (* 1909 in Suderode ; † 1984 in Peine), city director in Peine, holder of the Federal Cross of Merit 1st Class, 1939–1945 defender at special courts, courts-martial and at the People's Court (including defender of defendants for the assassination attempt of July 20, 1944).
- Anna Margret Janovicz (* 1917 in Hanover; † 2017 in Peine), honorary ring holder of the city of Peine.
- Richard Vetter (* 1919; † 2000), entrepreneur and inventor of the condensing boiler.
- Burkhard Driest (* 1939 in Stettin; † 2020 in Berlin), German actor and screenwriter. He attended the Ratsgymnasium from 1957-1958, from which he was expelled for multiple violations of "discipline and order". Shortly before the end of his law studies, he raided a bank branch (1965), for which he was sentenced to a five-year prison term.
- Otto Sander (* 1941 in Hanover; † 2013 in Berlin), grew up in Peine. He was an actor and played a. a. in Das Boot , Die Blechtrommel and Der Himmel über Berlin . He was also the stepfather of actors Ben Becker and Meret Becker .
- Udo Willenbücher (* 1944 in Nordhorn ), 1996–2001 city director and 2001–2006 first full-time mayor of the city of Peine.
- Michael Kessler (* 1949 in Frankfurt am Main), local politician, 2006–2016 mayor of the city of Peine.
- Hans-Joachim Selenz (* 1951 in Gudensberg ), German engineer, politician and writer
- Oliver Kalkofe (* 1965 in Hanover), comedian, columnist and actor, grew up in Peine, among others, and graduated from high school at Silberkamp. Kalkofe still likes to joke about the city today.
- Patrik Fichte (* 1965 in Düsseldorf), actor and voice actor, grew up in Peine. After the 11th grade, he dropped out of the Gymnasium am Silberkamp and became an actor. He played u. a. in Forbidden Love , Bianca - Ways to Happiness and Alarm for Cobra 11 with.
- Hubertus Heil (* 1972 in Hildesheim), politician, SPD General Secretary from November 2005 to November 2009 and from June to December 2017, most recently elected to the Bundestag as a direct candidate for the Gifhorn - Peine constituency in 2017, Federal Minister for Labor and Social Affairs since March 2018 .
- Felicitas Rauch (* 1996 in Hann. Münden ), national soccer player, grew up in Peine-Dungelbeck, started playing soccer there and played for VfB Peine from 2002-2010 .
Honorary citizen of the city of Peine
- Friedrich von Bodenstedt (1819-1892)
- Gerhard Lucas Meyer (1830-1916)
- Carl Voges (1830–1921), senator and church leader
- Heinrich Meyeringh (1889–1979)
- Anton Görgner (1897–1988), local politician
- Hermann Giere (1898–1987), local politician
- Richard Langeheine (1900–1995)
- Gerhard Heinze (1916–1997), honorary mayor of the city of Peine since 1991
- Willy Boß (1931–2015), City Director of the City of Peine 1972–1996
- EFJ Koch: History of the dynasty, the office, the city, castle and fortress Peina in Lower Saxony . Hermann Heuer, Peina 1850. (digitized version )
- Dietrich Wilde , Werner Raddatz: Peine, the creative city . Mimos Verlag, Hameln 1960.
- Theodor Müller, Artur Zechel: The history of the city of Peine . Volume 1: From the beginning to the end of the 30 Years War . Madsack, Hanover 1972.
- Theodor Müller, Artur Zechel: The history of the city of Peine . Volume 2: From the middle of the 17th century to the end of the Hildesheim Monastery . Madsack, Hanover 1975.
- Theodor Müller, Artur Zechel: The history of the city of Peine . Volume 3: From the beginning of the 19th century to the present . Madsack, Hanover 1982.
- Annette von Boetticher : Historical directory of the district of Peine . (= Publications of the Historical Commission for Lower Saxony and Bremen . Volume 30; = Historical Directory of Lower Saxony . Volume 6). Hahn, Hannover 1996, ISBN 3-7752-5833-7 .
- Dieter Löhr: Peine . Sutton, Erfurt 2000, ISBN 3-89702-247-8 .
- Lower Saxony Ministry of the Interior and Sport (Ed.): Niedersachsenbuch 2000 Peine . Hanover 2000,
- Michael Utecht: The Peiner Owl. From a nickname to a landmark . In: News Letter . 16, 2004, (PDF, 626 kB) , pp. 31-36.
- Jürgen Dieckhoff: The history of the city of Peine . Volume 4: On the way to the new millennium . 1st edition. Peine 2009.
- City of Peine
- The history of the city (and office) of Peine until 1800
- Link catalog on the subject of Peine at curlie.org (formerly DMOZ )
- Information about the castle
- Lower Saxony Mühlenstrasse
- Peine and the surrounding area in World War II
- Tower on the Herzberge (1918), rolling mill (1911) and the parking garage with the Zecherfelsen , three historical postcards from Peine on Zeno.org
- State Office for Statistics Lower Saxony, LSN-Online regional database, Table 12411: Update of the population, as of December 31, 2019 ( help ).
- The town of Peina Statuta Your police matters concerning the council, four men, office and guilds sampt of the whole citizenry approved and accepted in Anno Dni 1597 . Peine 1597.
- JS Versch , JG Gruber : General Encyclopedia of Sciences and Arts . 3. Section O – Z, Part 15, Brockhaus, Leipzig 1841, p. 1
- City of Peine: Population status (December 31, 2017)
- Hans Kuhn: First and early Germanic place names in Northern Germany and the Netherlands. In: Westfälische Forschungen , Volume 12 (1959), pp. 5-44, here pp. 6 ff .; Wolfgang Meid: Hans Kuhn's “Northwest Block” hypothesis. On the problem of the "peoples between Celts and Teutons". In: Heinrich Beck (Hrsg.): Germanic problems in today's view. Second edition, expanded to include a foreword, Walter de Gruyter, Berlin and New York 1999, pp. 183–212, here p. 191. See also Reinhold Möller: Nasal suffixes in Lower Saxony settlement names and field names in testimonies before 1200. Universitätsverlag C . Winter, Heidelberg 1998, p. 119 ff.
- See the entry * peh₂ǵ- in the English Wiktionary.
- Helga Brand: History of the city (and office) Peine on the website of the District Home Federation.
- Thorsten Pifan: "Historian confirms city foundation in 1218" , Peiner Allgemeine Zeitung , September 22, 2009.
- Medieval silver finds in Peine: "The chemistry of wealth" , Peiner Allgemeine Zeitung
- Stern : 50 Years of Punishments, Points and Files , from: July 17, 2001; Retrieved on: July 25, 2017
- Kraftfahrt-Bundesamt time table ( memento of the original from August 8, 2017 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. , Retrieved on: July 25, 2017
- woman places Lower Saxony , accessed on 18 March 2016th
- First district administrator in Lower Saxony , accessed on March 18, 2016.
- European Festival Peine 2015
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- Friedrich W. Harseim, C. Schluter (ed.): Statistical Manual for the Kingdom of Hanover . Schlueter, 1848, p. 6.
- Michael Utecht: The Peiner Owl. From mock names to symbols (PDF; 641 kB), in: Kauzbrief 16 (2004), pp. 31–36.
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- Friendship contract with Asselheim - Germany , city of Peine online
- pelikan.com ( Memento of the original from February 17, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Regional road traffic concept for the special purpose association Greater Braunschweig (PDF; 217 kB)
- City of Peine online
- Peine station , town of Peine
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- Carl Voge's tombstone
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