from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Mongolid or Mongolid is an anthropological collective name that is no longer in use for a number of East , Central and Southeast Asian (sometimes also Arctic , American , Australian and Pacific ) populations.

Distribution of the supposed Mongolian race (yellow) from East Asia and North Asia to West Asia and North Europe, Meyers Konversationslexikon (1885-1892)
Various East Asian phenotypic variations, 1941.

According to outdated racial studies, Mongolids belong to the three fundamentally different great races alongside Europids and Negrids . The classification as a so-called "large breed" was more or less arbitrary on the basis of (obvious) common characteristics that were assumed to have a common origin or a genetic relationship. Molecular genetic data, however, show an inhomogeneity of the group summarized as Mongolids and contradict a division into "large races".

The supposedly homogeneous characteristics of the Mongolids in contrast to the other assumed "human races" are considered to be "clearly refuted" in terms of molecular biology and population genetics. Each gene has its own geographical focus of distribution. In order to prove the existence of a breed, the main distribution areas of a large number of genes of a certain population would have to be largely congruent and distinguishable from other populations. However, there is no uniform geographic overlap for all East Asians (or Chinese, Siberians, Indians, etc.). The external differences between the so-called “Mongolids” and other “races” represent only a very small part of the genetic make-up that goes back to the adaptation to different climates.

Mongolian breed

The large Mongolian race was divided into different races early on, with the Mongolian influence decreasing from the Mongolian core area to Southeast Asia.

  • Mongolids in the narrower sense (East Asian peoples)
  • Small breeds in Asia (Negritos)
  • Eskimids (Eskimos of North America)
  • Indianide (Indians of North and South America)

Eskimide and Indianide were not assigned uniformly to the actual Mongolids. Melanesians, Negritos and especially Australids (Australian peoples) were also assigned inconsistently. Originally they were counted among the Negrids, partly treated as a separate "race group" and assigned to the Mongolids in later theories.

Typical characteristics of the Mongolids (in the narrower sense) were pronounced cheekbones, low nasal roots , black and straight hair, yellowish-dark complexion , sparse body hair and in particular the so-called Mongolian fold. The Mongolian spot , a bluish birthmark usually on the back, buttocks or sacrum of a newborn, was also considered an additional characteristic .

Racial systematic breakdown

The Mongolids were subdivided into further different " small races" according to the race system - which was in use until the middle of the 20th century - whose delimitation is, of course, much more problematic than that of the three "large races". Despite the enormous amounts of data on various physical characteristics that were collected to determine race, the assessment always remained subjective, Eurocentric and so artificially constructed that the results corresponded to the previously formulated expectations.

The following classification was found in the 1978 guide to the anthropological exhibition at the Natural History Museum Vienna .

Mongolid in the strict sense

The division of the subgroups is different, for example

  • Tungide (Mongolian and Tungusian peoples) and North Sinide (northern Chinese peoples, Koreans and Japanese)
  • Middle Sinide (Middle Chinese and Tibetan Peoples)
  • South Sinide (South Chinese and Indochinese peoples)
  • Paleomongolids (Malay or Southeast Asian peoples)

In a narrower sense, however, it meant Asian peoples.


Distribution: Central Asia.

Characteristics: medium-sized, strong, stocky; very short, very broad, low head; low, broad, very flat face; strongly protruding cheekbones; low, receding forehead; narrow, slit eyelids; strong Mongolian fold (overhanging upper eyelid); straight to concave, medium-high nose with a broad nasal bridge; moderately thick to thick lips; round, strongly pushed forward chin; yellowish to brown skin; dark brown eyes; straight black hair; very weak facial and body hair.


Distribution: Siberian tundra areas.

Characteristics: short, stocky; medium-long, medium-broad head; medium-high to high, broad, flat face; protruding cheekbones; medium high, broad, moderately receding forehead; wide eye distance; large, narrow eyelid cleft; Mongolian fold (overhanging upper eyelid) laterally pronounced; medium high, convex to concave nose, nasal bridge flat; thin lips; high, clearly profiled chin; slightly brownish skin; blue to brown eyes; dark blonde to brownish black hair.


Distribution: loess areas of China.

Features: tall, slender, long-limbed; long, narrow head; high, narrow, flat face; slightly protruding cheekbones; high, receding forehead; moderately narrow eyelid gap; weak Mongolian fold (overhanging eyelid); medium high, narrow nose with flat nasal bridge; thin lips; rounded, often receding chin; yellowish to brownish-yellow skin; dark brown eyes; straight black hair.


Distribution: mountain forests of southern China, rear India, Indonesia to the border of New Guinea, island chains of East Asia to northern Japan. Palemongolids come in numerous regional varieties. They form the basis of the Japanese and Malay populations.

Features: short, graceful, often stocky; moderately short, relatively round head; low, flat, moderately round face; stressed cheekbones; steep forehead; slit eyelid; little pronounced Mongolian fold (overhanging eyelid); medium-long, broad, straight nose with flared nostrils, tip of the nose often raised; wide lips; small moderately receding chin; yellowish to brown skin; dark brown eyes; straight black hair.


Distribution: Hokkaido Island (Northern Japan), Southern Sakhalin, Kuril Islands.

Characteristics: short, stocky; long, narrow head; broad, diamond-shaped face rich in relief; medium high, broad forehead; medium-sized, narrow eyelids; slightly curved nose (hooked nose); light skin; dark brown eyes; brown-black hair; In the case of men, particular abundance of hair on the head, chest and thighs should be mentioned. Before the abandonment of racial theories and modern genetic methods, some anthropologists saw the Ainu as an old Europid type.


Distribution: Arctic coasts and island landscapes including Greenland and the part of the Chukchi Peninsula that lies on the Bering Strait.

Characteristics: medium-sized, stocky, strong; long, narrow, high head; high, wide, flat, diamond-shaped face; strongly protruding cheekbones; very narrow, moderately high, receding forehead; large, narrow, oblique eyelid cleft; moderately heavy Mongolian fold (overhanging upper eyelid); high, straight nose; narrow to moderately broad lips; massive lower jaw; tan skin; dark brown eyes; straight black hair.



Distribution: Canadian forest areas, high plains.

Characteristics: tall, strong; medium-long, medium-broad, low head; very high, medium-wide, flat, diamond-shaped face with protruding cheekbones; low, broad forehead; small, narrow, occasionally slit eyelid fissures; very high, narrow, often convex nose (eagle nose); narrow to medium-wide lips; distinctively profiled, strong chin; reddish-brown skin; dark brown eyes; straight black hair.


Distribution: California, north coast of the Gulf of Mexico, Florida, northern Central America.

Characteristics: short to moderately large; long, narrow head; low, broad face; low, moderately receding forehead; small, wide eyelid cleft; low, broad nose with flared nostrils, nasal bridge flat; moderately wide to medium wide lips; moderately profiled, often receding chin; dark brown skin; dark brown eyes; straight black hair.


Distribution: Western Canadian mountain and coastal forests.

Characteristics: medium-sized, strong, stocky; short, very broad head; medium-high, very broad face; slightly protruding cheekbones; high, broad forehead; large, narrow, slanting eyelids; high, medium-wide, straight nose with a stepped, round nose tip; thin lips; strong, little profiled chin; light brown skin; light brown eyes; brown-black hair.


Distribution: South of the USA, Mexico, North of Central America.

Features: medium-sized, stocky, graceful; very short, broad head; strongly spreading occiput; medium-high, medium-wide face; moderately protruding cheekbones; medium high, medium broad forehead; large, wide, almond-shaped eyelid cleft; medium high, broad, straight to convex nose with flared nostrils, pointed, detached nasal tip; medium wide lips; moderately strong, receding chin; reddish-brown skin; dark brown eyes; straight black hair.


Distribution: primeval forest area of ​​the Amazon.

Characteristics: moderately large, strong, rounded; head of medium length, moderately broad; medium-length, medium-wide, oval face; slightly protruding cheekbones; moderately high, broad forehead; medium-sized, narrow eyelids; medium-long, medium-wide nose; high root of the nose; medium wide lips; rounded, slightly receding chin; reddish-brown skin; dark brown eyes; straight black hair.


Distribution: Eastern Brazilian mountains, southern Patagonia, Tierra del Fuego, small groups also in the Amazon region and Guiana.

Characteristics: medium-sized, strong, long trunk; long, moderately broad head; tall, very broad face; strongly protruding cheekbones; steep, broad forehead; strongly accentuated over-eyebrows; small, slit eyelid gap; moderately high, broad nose with flared nostrils; thick lips; low, strong, often receding chin; reddish-brown skin; dark brown eyes; straight black hair.


Distribution: Andes, highlands of Bolivia.

Characteristics: short, stocky, stocky; short, broad, very high head; medium-high, medium-wide face; strongly protruding cheekbones; broad, moderately receding forehead; small, medium-wide eyelid gap; high, narrow, strongly protruding, mostly convex nose; medium wide lips; medium-high, clearly profiled chin; reddish-brown skin; dark brown eyes; straight black hair.

Patagonide (also: Pampide)

Distribution: dry steppes and grassy plains of the Gran Chaco, the Pampas and Patagonia.

Characteristics: tall, strong, broad; medium-long, medium-broad head; high, broad, massive, flat face; strongly protruding cheekbones; low, broad forehead; strongly accentuated over-eyebrows; small, narrow, slit eyelid gap; moderately high, medium-wide, mostly straight nose; very broad lips; moderately profiled chin; reddish-brown skin; dark brown eyes; straight black hair.

Oceanid (excluding Melanesians)


Distribution: Micronesian archipelago, Mariana Islands, Palau Islands, Carolines, Marshall Islands, Nauru, Gilbert Islands.

Features: Mixture of Melanesides and Polynesides.


Distribution: Hawaii, Samoa, Tonga, New Zealand, Society Islands, Easter Island.

Characteristics: tall, strong; moderately long to medium-long, medium-broad head; medium-high, medium-wide, moderately diamond-shaped face; broad, high, moderately receding forehead; large, wide eyelid cleft; high, moderately broad nose with a straight bridge of the nose; moderately wide lips; prominently profiled chin; light brown skin; dark brown eyes; black, wavy hair.

Individual evidence

  1. a b H. Autrum, U. Wolf (Hrsg.): Humanbiologie: Results and tasks. Edition, Springer Berlin / Heidelberg / New York 1973, ISBN 978-3-540-06150-2 . Pp. 76-82.
  2. Lexikon der Biologie , Volume 9, Spektrum Akademischer Verlag, Heidelberg 2002, ISBN 3-8274-0334-0 , pp. 170–177 (article human races ), p. 319 (article Mongolide )
  3. ^ The Schlaining Declaration: Against Racism, Violence and Discrimination (PDF), 1995, Section II: "On the obsolete nature of the term 'race'".
  4. Gerhard Heberer , Gottfried Kurth , Ilse Schwidetzky-Roesing : The Fischer Lexikon Anthropologie , pages 254-257. Frankfurt am Main 1961
  5. a b Johann Szilvassy u. Georg Kentner: Anthropology. Development of man. Races of man. Natural History Museum, Vienna 1978, online version . 133-146.
  6. Ulrich Kattmann : Why and with what effect do scientists classify people? In: Heidrun Kaupen-Haas and Christian Saller (eds.): Scientific racism: Analyzes of continuity in the human and natural sciences. Campus, Frankfurt a. M. 1999, ISBN 3-593-36228-7 , pp. 65-83.
  7. Oliver Trey: The development of race theories in the 19th century: Gobineau and his essai " The inequality of the human races ". disserta, Hamburg 2014, ISBN 978-3-95425-684-6 . Pp. 13, 28-29, 43.
  8. Gerhard Heberer , Gottfried Kurth , Ilse Schwidetzky-Roesing : The Fischer Lexikon Anthropologie , pages 254-257. Frankfurt am Main 1961
  9. Travis, John "Jomon Genes: Using DNA, researchers probe the genetic origins of modern Japanese", Science News February 15, 1997, Vol. 151, no. 7, p. 106 Travis, John (February 15, 1997). Jomon genes: using DNA, researchers probe the genetic origins of modern Japanese - Cover Story | Science News | Find Articles at BNET. January 22, 2011, accessed August 20, 2018 .