|The old Orient|
|Timeline based on calibrated C 14 data|
|Epipalaeolithic||12000-9500 BC Chr.|
|Pre-ceramic Neolithic||9500-6400 BC Chr.|
|PPNA||9500-8800 BC Chr.|
|PPNB||8800-7000 BC Chr.|
|PPNC||7000-6400 BC Chr.|
|Ceramic Neolithic||6400-5800 BC Chr.|
|Umm Dabaghiyah culture||6000-5800 BC Chr.|
|Hassuna culture||5800-5260 BC Chr.|
|Samarra culture||5500-5000 BC Chr.|
|Transition to the Chalcolithic||5800-4500 BC Chr.|
|Halaf culture||5500-5000 BC Chr.|
|Chalcolithic||4500-3600 BC Chr.|
|Obed time||5000-4000 BC Chr.|
|Uruk time||4000-3100 / 3000 BC Chr.|
|Early Bronze Age||3000-2000 BC Chr.|
|Jemdet Nasr time||3000-2800 BC Chr.|
|Early dynasty||2900 / 2800-2340 BC Chr.|
|Battery life||2340-2200 BC Chr.|
|New Sumerian / Ur-III period||2340-2000 BC Chr.|
|Middle Bronze Age||2000-1550 BC Chr.|
|Isin Larsa Period / Ancient Assyrian Period||2000–1800 BC Chr.|
|Old Babylonian time||1800–1595 BC Chr.|
|Late Bronze Age||1550-1150 BC Chr.|
|Checkout time||1580-1200 BC Chr.|
|Central Assyrian Period||1400-1000 BC Chr.|
|Iron age||1150-600 BC Chr.|
|Isin II time||1160-1026 BC Chr.|
|Neo-Assyrian time||1000-600 BC Chr.|
|Neo-Babylonian Period||1025-627 BC Chr.|
|Late Babylonian Period||626-539 BC Chr.|
|Achaemenid period||539-330 BC Chr.|
|Years according to the middle chronology (rounded)|
The Natufien , also outdated Natufium , was a culture of the Epipalaeolithic (or Proto-Neolithic ) in the Levant . The Natufien was named after sites in the Wadi an-Natuf in the West Bank in Palestine , which were discovered in 1928 by Dorothy Garrod . The Shuqba Cave , which was discovered in 1925, played a major role . Garrod first suggested the cultural term natufien in 1929.
|Bölling-Allerød||13,000 - 11,000||warm and humid|
|Younger dryas||11,000-10,200||dry and cold|
|early holocene||10,200 -6,000||warm and humid|
(after Bar-Yosef 1996).
The Natufien is between 12000 and 9500 or 9000 BC. Dated. It followed the epipaläolithische culture of Kebaran (14,500 to 13,000) and has been approved by Qermezian ( Sinjar ), the Khiamien (Jordan Valley) and the PPNA replaced.
|step||Date BP||BC cal|
|Early Natufien||12,300 - 11,000||10350-9050|
|PPNB||9,200 - 8,000||7250-6050|
Way of settlement
In the course of the Protoneolithic there was a concentration of settlements on the central Euphrates, in the Jordan Depression and on the heights of the then still forested Negev. Since the excavation of Eynan by Jean Perrot (Perrot 1966), the population of the Natufien has been seen as sedentary hunters and gatherers. Ofer Bar-Yosef (1970) postulates a division of the settlements into base camps ( Ain Mallaha , Jericho , Hayonim Cave and Wadi Hammeh 27 ) and peripheral, more short-term used settlement areas. Other researchers assume that the base camps were only used in winter and that longer or shorter hunting trips took place in summer (Hardy-Smith / Edwards 2004, 258). In the Carmel Mountains, winter camps could be identified on the basis of the animal bones (Davis 1983), but the associated summer camps are still missing.
The houses consisted of semicircular stone structures with structures made of rammed earth . In Ain Mallaha, in the oldest phase of settlement, there were sunken, semicircular houses made of limestone dry stone walls, rarely walls that were built with the help of a reddish limestone mortar. The floors are flat or slightly concave (house 131) and consist of compacted soil. The houses have central hearths. The roofs were supported by posts.
The collection of wild grain can be seen as a preliminary stage to domestication (cf. Neolithic Revolution ) and leads to the cultivation of grain. A team of researchers led by the biologist Gordon Hillman studied food residues from Abu Hureyra for 27 years and found in 2001 that there was already 11,000 BC. Grain was planted but not yet domesticated. The wild grain (barley) was harvested with Silex sickles.
With an age of 14,400 years, the oldest bread leftovers to date were found in the Natufien settlement Shubayqa 1 in northeast Jordan. This proved that the bread was developed before grain cultivation and proven agriculture . Remains of fermented grain from the 13th millennium BP were also found in the Rakefet Cave and represent the oldest known evidence of the production of beer .
In both Ain Mallaha and Wadi Hammeh 27, the gazelle predominated among the animal bones. In Wadi Hammeh 27 , however, the stork ( Ciconia ciconia ) and ducks ( Anas sp. ) Were also hunted. From chamber III of El Wad lie the bones of wild cattle ( Bos primigenius ), wild goat ( Capra aegagrus ), red deer ( Cervus elaphus ), fallow deer ( Dama mesopotamica ), roe deer ( Capreolus capreolus ), Edmigazelle ( Gazella gazella ), wild boar ( Sus scrofa ), donkey ( Equus hemionus ) and wild horse ( Equus caballus ). Compared to the previous periods, more and more young animals were killed in the gazelles. Carnivores such as fox ( Vulpes vulpes ), reed cat ( Felis chaus ), badger ( Meles meles ), stone marten ( Martes foina ) and tiger tiger ( Vormela peregusna ) were hunted, certainly not because of the meat.
Compared to the previous epoch, the proportion of small animals such as turtles, rabbits and various species of birds, especially partridges , increased significantly and was over 50 percent at some sites. Falcons were mainly captured for their feathers.
Limestone was hollowed out, polished and used as vessels.
Devices made from the bones of beef, sheep and goat were found in the El Wad Cave in the Carmel Mountains .
Silex was made into hoes and sickles, among other things. Sickles were already around 10,000 BC. In use in Eynan / Ain Mallaha.
There are six graves from the Hayonim terrace, which contained single and multiple burials. One grave contained the bones of a human and a dog, as well as turtle shells and the horned cones of gazelles.
- Aammiq II , Bekaa Plain, Lebanon
- Abu Hureyra and Mureybet , Northern Syria
- Hayonim Cave in western Galilee, deposits from the Moustérien , Aurignacien , Kebarien , early and late Natufien
- Hayonim terrace in western Galilee, open-air station, early and late (Layer II) Natufien
- Wadi Hammeh 27 , Jordan Basin
- Hilazon Tachtit , western Galilee, cave
Middle and Late Natufien
- Ain Mallaha (Eynan), Upper Galilee on Lake Huleh
- el-Wad cave, Chamber III, Carmel
- Jericho ( Tell es-Sultan )
- Wadi Khawwan 1, Jordan Valley
- Ofer Bar-Yosef : The Natufian Culture in the Levant. Threshold to the Origins of Agriculture. (PDF file; 574 kB) in: Evolutionary Anthropology. New York 6/1999, , 159-177.
- Marion Benz: The Neolithization in the Middle East. Theories, archaeological data and an ethnological model . Studies in Early Near Eastern Production, Subsistence and Environment 7th 2nd edition. ex oriente, Berlin 2008, ISBN 3-9804241-6-2 .
- Tania Hardy-Smith, Phillip C. Edwards: The garbage crisis in prehistory: artefact discard patterns at the Early Natufian site of Wadi Hammeh 27 and the origins of household refuse disposal strategies. in: Journal of Anthropological Archeology. New York 23.2004, , 253-289.
- Gordon Hillman , Robert Hedges, Andrew Moore, Sue Colledge, Paul Pettitt : New evidence for Late Glacial cereal cultivation at Abu Hureyra on the Euphrates. in: The Holocene. London 11.2001, , 383-393. ( Abstract )
- Natalie D. Munro: Zooarchaeological Measures of Hunting Pressure and Occupation Intensity in the Natufian. Implications for Agricultural Origins. in: Current Anthropology Supplement. Chicago 45.2004, p. 5.
- Jean Perrot: Le gisement natoufien de Mallaha (Eynan), Israel. in: L'Anthropologie. Paris 70.1966, , 437-483.
- Steven Mithen : After the Ice. A Global Human History, 20,000-5000 BC. Weidenfeld & Nicolson, London 2003, ISBN 0-297-64318-5 , pp. 29-55.
- Danielle Stordeur : Jerf el Ahmar (Syrie) ou les prémices de l'agriculture. In: CNRS info . 2000, archived from the original on December 1, 2016 (French).
- Sven Stockrahm: The grave of the voodoo priestess. In: The time . December 18, 2008 .
- in the Levant
- in southern Mesopotamia
- in northern Mesopotamia
- Dorothy Garrod: Excavation of a Palaeolithic cave in western Judaea, Quarterly Statement of the Palestine Exploration Fund 60 , 1928, pp. 182-185.
- Alexis Mallon: Quelques stations prehistoriques de Palestine. Melanges de l'Universite de Saint-Joseph 19, 1925, pp. 191-192.
- Dorothy Garrod: Excavations in the Mugharet el-Wad, near Athlit, April-June 1929. Quarterly Statement of the Palestine Exploration Fund 61, pp. 220-22.
- Ofer Bar-Yosef: The Natufian culture in the Levant, threshold to the origins of agriculture ; Evolutionary Anthropology 6, 1998, pp. 159-177.
- Neil Roberts, Herbert Edgar Wright: Vegetational Lake-level and climatic history of Near East and Southwest Asia In: Herbert Edgar Wright et al. (Ed.): Global Climates since the Last Glacial Maximum . University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis 1993, pp. 194-219.
- GC Hillman: "New evidence from the site of Abu Hureyra suggests that systematic cultivation of cereals in fact started well before the end of the Pleistocene - by at least 13000 years ago, and that rye was among the first crops".
- Discovered the oldest bread in the world. In: scinexx . July 17, 2018, accessed July 17, 2018 .
- Eitan Tchernova, François F. Valla: Two New Dogs, and Other Natufian Dogs, from the Southern Levant. Journal of Archaeological Science 24/1, 1997, pp. 65-95 doi: 10.1006 / jasc.1995.0096