Center national de la recherche scientifique
The Center national de la recherche scientifique ( CNRS ; French; German "National Center for Scientific Research") is a French national research organization subordinate to the Ministry of Research and is dedicated to basic research . It is comparable to the German Max Planck Society , but much larger and less focused. With a budget of 3.4 billion euros and 32,000 employees (2013), the CNRS is the second largest research organization in Europe after the Helmholtz Association of German Research Centers .
It was founded on October 19, 1939; Predecessor companies were the Caisse nationale de la recherche scientifique and the Office national des recherches scientifiques et des inventions , which were merged in 1938.
The administration is based in Paris , and the research facilities are spread across France. The research organization has offices abroad in Brussels (European Union), Pretoria , Moscow , Beijing , Rio de Janeiro , Tokyo , Malta , Washington, DC , Singapore and Delhi .
In 2004 there were 26,000 employees, including 11,600 scientists with a budget of 2.2 billion euros. These research at the two national institutes for nuclear and particle physics and for oceanography and astronomy or at one of the eight scientific departments ( départements scientifiques ) .
The research areas of the eight scientific departments:
- Nuclear and Particle Physics
- earth sciences
- Humanities and Social Sciences
- Life sciences
- Physical and Mathematical Sciences
- Communication, information sciences and technology
The CNRS was also involved in the development of the CeCILL free software license .
- Institut de chimie (INC)
- Institut de physique (INP)
- Institute des sciences biologiques (INSB)
- Institute des sciences humaines et sociales (INSHS)
- Institut des sciences informatiques et de leurs interactions (INS2I)
- Institute des sciences de l'ingénierie et des systèmes (INSIS)
- Institute of Ecology and Environment (INEE)
- Jacques Monod Institute (IJM)
- Institut national de physique nucléaire et de physique des particules (IN2P3)
- Institut national des sciences mathématiques et de leurs interactions (INSMI)
- Institute national des sciences de l'univers (INSU)
- Analysis et traitement informatique de la langue française (ATILF)
The CNRS has been headed by Alain Fuchs since January 20, 2010 . Antoine Petit was appointed as his successor as President on January 24, 2018 . Petit, mathematician and professor of computer science, previously headed the National Research Institute for Computer Science and Automation (INRIA).
Excellent CNRS research
Nobel Price for physics
- 1966: Alfred Kastler , École normal supérieure (Research Director at the CNRS from 1968 to 1972): New spectroscopic methods
- 1991: Pierre-Gilles de Gennes , Collège de France , ESPCI : Liquid Crystals
- 1992: Georges Charpak , ESPCI and CERN (researchers at the CNRS from 1948 to 1959): Invention and development of particle detectors, especially the multi-wire proportional chamber
- 1997: Claude Cohen-Tannoudji , Collège de France et École normal supérieure (1960 to 1962 at the CNRS): cooling and trapping atoms with laser light
- 2007: Albert Fert , Since 1995 joint researcher of CNRS and Thales . Prize together with Peter Grünberg : GMR effect
- 2012: Serge Haroche , from 1967 to 1975 at the CNRS. Prize with David Wineland .
Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
- 2008: Luc Montagnier , Professeur émérite à l'Institut Pasteur, Unité d'Oncologie Virale, directeur de recherches honoraire au CNRS et membre des Académies des Sciences et de Médecine. Together with Françoise Barré-Sinoussi and Harald zur Hausen : HI virus
- 2011: Jules Hoffmann , Director of the Institute for Molecular and Cellular Biology in Strasbourg (working group leader at CNRS since 1978). Together with Bruce Beutler and Ralph M. Steinman : Activation of innate immunity
- Nobel Prize in Chemistry
- 1950: Laurent Schwartz , University of Nancy (at the CNRS from 1940 to 1944)
- 1954: Jean-Pierre Serre , Collège de France (at the CNRS from 1948 to 1954)
- 1958: René Thom , University of Strasbourg . (CNRS researchers from 1946 to 1953 ??)
- 1966: Alexander Grothendieck , University of Paris . (Researcher at CNRS from 1984)
- 1982: Alain Connes , Institut des Hautes Études Scientifiques (intern at CNRS from 1970 to 1974 and director from 1981 to 1984)
- 1994: Pierre-Louis Lions , Université Paris-Dauphine (at the CNRS from 1979 to 1981)
- 2002: Laurent Lafforgue , Institut des Hautes Études Scientifiques (employed by the University of Paris-South for the CNRS from 1990 to 2000)
- 2006: Wendelin Werner , University of Paris-South (employed by the University of Pierre and Marie Curie for the CNRS from 1991 to 1997)
- 2010: Ngô Bảo Châu , University of Paris-South (employed by the University of Paris-North for the CNRS from 1998 to 2004)
- Figures on the CNRS website ( Memento of the original from December 28, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. , accessed September 30, 2014
- Declan Butler: France's research agency splits up . In: Nature . 453, No. 7195, May 2008, p. 573, doi: 10.1038 / 453573a , PMID 18509403 .
- Helmholtz Association , accessed on July 12, 2016
- Map of the missions abroad on the CNRS website , accessed on January 20, 2015
- Institut Jacques Monod