Battery life

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The old Orient
The city gate of Nimrud
Timeline based on calibrated C 14 data
Epipalaeolithic 12000-9500 BC Chr.
Pre-ceramic Neolithic 9500-6400 BC Chr.
PPNA 9500-8800 BC Chr.
PPNB 8800-7000 BC Chr.
PPNC 7000-6400 BC Chr.
Ceramic Neolithic 6400-5800 BC Chr.
Umm Dabaghiyah culture 6000-5800 BC Chr.
Hassuna culture 5800-5260 BC Chr.
Samarra culture 5500-5000 BC Chr.
Transition to the Chalcolithic 5800-4500 BC Chr.
Halaf culture 5500-5000 BC Chr.
Chalcolithic 4500-3600 BC Chr.
Obed time 5000-4000 BC Chr.
Uruk time 4000-3100 / 3000 BC Chr.
Early Bronze Age 3000-2000 BC Chr.
Jemdet Nasr time 3000-2800 BC Chr.
Early dynasty 2900 / 2800-2340 BC Chr.
Battery life 2340-2200 BC Chr.
New Sumerian / Ur-III period 2340-2000 BC Chr.
Middle Bronze Age 2000-1550 BC Chr.
Isin Larsa Period / Ancient Assyrian Period 2000–1800 BC Chr.
Old Babylonian time 1800–1595 BC Chr.
Late Bronze Age 1550-1150 BC Chr.
Checkout time 1580-1200 BC Chr.
Central Assyrian Period 1400-1000 BC Chr.
Iron age 1150-600 BC Chr.
Isin II time 1160-1026 BC Chr.
Neo-Assyrian time 1000-600 BC Chr.
Neo-Babylonian Period 1025-627 BC Chr.
Late Babylonian Period 626-539 BC Chr.
Achaemenid period 539-330 BC Chr.
Years according to the middle chronology (rounded)

The Akkad period is an epoch in the history of the ancient Orient . According to the middle chronology, it lasted from 2340 to 2200 BC. And is named after the kingdom of Akkad that dominates this section .


The Akkadian period began when the last king of Kiš was overthrown by his cupbearer . From then on , he called himself Sargon , which means “true king”, and founded a new capital on the central Tigris . This city ​​called Akkad , located in the Diyala estuary, near Baghdad or Samarra , could not be found until today. During this time, Lugalzagesi von Uruk created a conglomerate of Sumerian cities through several successful campaigns , which then came into conflict with Sargon. From these he emerged victorious, with which he created an imperial unit. Culturally, however, the contrast between the Sumerian south and the Semitic north remained. Sargon had 6 successors until the fall of his empire: Rimuš , Maništušu , Narām-Sîn , Šar-kali-šarri , Dudu and Šudurul .

The Akkade area operated a pronounced expansion policy, which was directed successively towards southern Mesopotamia, northern Mesopotamia and Elam . Sargon is said to have made advances as far as Cilicia . Northern Mesopotamia and Syria, however, were only fully conquered by his successors, and for the first time a really large, unified political entity emerged for human history. The rulers of this empire called themselves šar kiššatim (king of all). Nevertheless, the empire was politically unstable, which led to numerous uprisings, especially under Narām-Sîn. He was first deified as a ruler after he had fought several successful battles.

Around 2,100 BC The Akkadian empire went under and was replaced after a short period by the empire of the 3rd Dynasty of Ur .


Overall, very little is known about the art of battery life. However, depictions from the later Akkad period differ from earlier depictions in that depictions that appear more anatomically natural. The motifs also change, which in depictions of war can probably be associated with changed tactics and new weapons. For the first time, circular images take on monumental features. Corresponding finds come mainly from Susa , where they were later abducted. A statuary find, however, also comes from Aššur . The most famous find of this time, however, is the Narām-Sîn stele from Susa with the depiction of the deified ruler.


The characteristic genres of the Akkad period include cylinder seals that show powerful battle scenes and mythological scenes or depict the world of gods.


  • M. van de Mieroop: A history of the Ancient Near East. 2nd ed., 2007, pp. 63-84.
  • W. Orthmann: The old Orient. Berlin, 1985, pp. 35-40.

Individual evidence

  1. in the Levant
  2. a b c d in southern Mesopotamia
  3. a b c in northern Mesopotamia