Naram-Sîn / Suen , later Dingir Naram-Sin / Suen , was from 2273 to 2219 BC. BC ( middle chronology ) or 2209 to 2155 BC. BC (short chronology) King of Akkad , who was deified during his reign (God's determinative Dingir ).
Name meaning: The loved one by Sin / Suen .
Course of government
The government of Naram-Sîn began with a revolt of Babylonian cities in which Mari , Magan , Elam , Warahše in the east, Mardaman and Simurru also took part. Much of his reign was taken by campaigns that took him even further than the famous Sargon, the founder of the dynasty. In the Zagros he waged war against the Lullubi under King Anubanini . In the north his rule seems to have extended as far as Urkeš in the area of the Hurrites .
In Tell Brak on the upper Chabur he had a fortified palace built, which contained large magazines, according to brick inscriptions. The garrison presumably controlled trade with the highlands. Remnants of grain were found in some rooms, gold, silver and precious stones in others.
Much of northern Syria was under Akkadian rule at the time. Naram-Sin conquered Subartu and reached the upper sea ( Mediterranean ), the Taurus Mountains and the Cedar Mountains of Amanos . Trade was conducted with Byblos . According to an inscription on a battle club, Naram-Sin conquered Armanum , where he tied King Riš-Adad to the posts of the entrance gate, as well as Ebla and Elam. Naram-Sin is said to have been the first king to visit Armanum and Ebla (although Sargon had already boasted of conquering Eblas). This victory is dated to 2275 BC. BC or 2250 BC BC. A conquest of Ebla has not yet been proven archaeologically. Some researchers therefore assume that the designation Eb / ibla in the cuneiform texts does not mean Tell Mardich . Naram-Sin boasts, " Magan " defeated and "Mani [to], captured the lord of Magan" to have. Mani [um] had previously revolted against the supremacy of Naram-Sin and carried out acts of war in Babylonia, which Naram-Sin put down.
Several of Naram-Sin's daughters held high positions in the cities of the empire. En-men-ana was Entu-priestess of Sin in Egipar in Ur (evidenced by a seal imprint from Girsu ), Tuta-napšum was Naditum-priestess in Ekur in Nippur and Sumšani was Entu-priestess of Šamaš in Sippar . As with Sargon's daughter En-hedu-anna , priestess of Nanna in Ur, one can assume that they all had political control over the respective cities in addition to their religious function, or at least helped to influence them. A seal of his daughter Tar'am-Agade was found in Urkeš on the Chabur . Since it shows an animal fight scene (a naked hero defeats a water buffalo ), Buccellati and Kelly-Buccellati assume that she was not a priestess but performed a political function. Perhaps she was the wife of the endan there .
The fact that Naram-Sin concluded a treaty with Elam (the Elamite version of which has been preserved) is interpreted as an indication that he was no longer able to overthrow this state like the war opponents before him - signs of incipient decline. As a result, Elam became completely independent under Kutik-inšušuinak .
Naram-Sins successor was his son Šar-kali-šarri , with whose 25-year reign the kingdom of Agade ended. According to ancient Babylonian traditions, Naram-Sin's downfall was due to a sacrilege against the god Enlil , because he had plundered his most important sanctuary, the Ekur of Nippur . After that Inanna left Akkad and with the "people who tolerate no reins" such disaster came over Akkad that the seafarer could no longer sail his boat, the royal messenger could not complete his way, the fields did not produce any grain, the fish ponds no fish , the city gates turned to dust and robbers lived in the streets . Eventually the gods decided that Akkad must be destroyed in order to save the other cities of Mesopotamia.
He carried the titles of "King of the Four Worlds", "God of Akkad" and "Spouse of the Ishtar Annunitum" and had his name written with the divine determinative , oaths were sworn in his name, among other things. Indeed, in the Ur-III period, he was given divine worship, as was his grandfather Sargon . On the Naram-Sin stele he wears a simple crown of horns , which otherwise only lower deities are entitled to.
- Sar-kali-šarri, successor as King of Akkad
- Lipitili, ensi (governor) of Marad
- Tar'am-Agade, Queen of Urkeš ?
- En-men-ana , Entu-priestess of Nanna in Ur
- Tuta-napšum, priestess in Nippur
- Sumšani, priestess in Sippar .
- The two meter high Naram Sin stele (now in the Louvre ) shows the king in a short apron, with a bare upper body and a crown of horns, as he faces the defeated Lullubi in the mountains . He carries a bow and club, in his right hand he holds an arrow. It is difficult to decide whether the enemy is killing himself with a spear or is struck by the Great King's arrow. As the inscription shows, the stele was originally set up in Sippar , but was found during excavations in Susa in 1898 (sections 7 and 7α). An inscription by Šutruk-Naḫḫunte (1185–1155) describes his conquests in Babylonia (1158) and reports how he destroyed Sippar and brought the stele to Susa to consecrate it to the god Inšušinak . The original inscription of the Naram-Sin is damaged, Bahrani (2003) believes that this was done by the Elamites. In addition to the stele, kudurri , stone slabs with inscriptions and probably the stele of Hammurabi were also brought to Susa.
- Another stele of Naram-Sin comes from Pir Hüseyin 26 km from Diyarbakır in Turkey. It is made of diorite and shows the ruler slaying an enemy.
- The rock relief of Darband-i Gaur in Iraqi Kurdistan , which is associated with Naram-Sin , could be attributed to an unknown ruler after detailed iconographic research. The illustration shows a barefoot king on a triumphant ascent into a mountainous country; slain enemies lie at his feet. The clothing differs in essential parts from that of the Naram-Sin, who is always shown with a long robe and loincloth and a double-knotted belt. In the drawing of the rock relief, the ruler also wears a skirt, although the proportions also differ.
- Cheim Bermant, M. Weitzman: Ebla. Umschau, Frankfurt am Main 1979. ISBN 3-524-69014-9
- Giorgio Buccellati, Marilyn Kelly-Buccellati: The Archaeological Project Tall Mozan / Urkeš. in: Communications from the German Orient Society in Berlin . Berlin 131 (1999), 7-16.
- Jean Bottéro : The first large Semitic empire. In: Elena Cassin , Jean Bottéro, Jean Vercoutter (eds.): Fischer Weltgeschichte. Vol 2. The ancient oriental empires. T 1. From the Paleolithic to the middle of the 2nd millennium. Frankfurt 1965, 91–129. ISBN 3-596-60002-2
- Dietz-Otto Edzard : History of Mesopotamia , CH Beck Verlag Munich 2004, ISBN 3-406-51664-5
- Gebhard J. Selz : Sumerer and Akkader , CH Beck Verlag Munich 2005, ISBN 3-406-50874-X
Notes and individual references
- Frauke Weiershäuser: The royal women of the III. Dynasty of Ur . Universitätsverlag Göttingen, Göttingen 2008, ( Göttingen Contributions to the Ancient Orient . Vol. 1), pp. 255–259.
- CL Crawford, Collecting, defacing, reinscribing. In: Norman Yoffee, Negotiating the past in the past: identity, memory, and landscape in archaeological research. Tucson, University of Arizona Press 2007
- See Hans Kippenberg, Representations of gods , Brill, Leiden 1983, ISBN 90-04-07114-8 , p. 99.
Great King of Akkad
2273–2219 BC Chr. / 2209–2155 BC Chr
|King of Akkad
|DATE OF BIRTH
|23rd century BC Chr.
|DATE OF DEATH
|after 2223 BC Chr.