German shepherd dog

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German shepherd dog
German shepherd dog
FCI Standard No. 166
Origin :

GermanyGermany Germany

Withers height:

Male: 60–65 cm.
Bitch: 55–60 cm


Males: 30–40 kg,
bitches: 22–32 kg

Varieties :
  • Stick hair
  • Long stick hair
List of domestic dogs

The German Shepherd Dog is a German dog breed that was created at the end of the 19th century and recognized by the FCI ( FCI Group 1, Section 1, Standard No. 166 ).

Origin and history

Max Emil Friedrich von Stephanitz , the founder of the German Shepherd breed and first president of the Association for German Shepherds with Horand von Grafrath

The ancestors of the German Shepherd Dog go back to the short-haired and stick-haired strokes of herding dogs from Germany, as they also occurred in many areas of Europe at the end of the 19th century and developed into their own breeds there too. All of them were not pure herding dogs; although they had the task of driving the flocks, they were also supposed to guard and protect the shepherds' belongings . The German Shepherd Dog goes back to the southern German lofts from Thuringia and Württemberg . Other blows from the German area have been preserved as old German herding dogs .

The founder of this breed is Max von Stephanitz , who was enthusiastic about this type of dog. On January 15, 1898, he bought the three-year-old "Hektor Linksrhein" from a breeder in Frankfurt, which he renamed "Horand von Grafrath", the first German Shepherd Dog registered in the stud book of the Association for German Shepherds (SV). This and his brother "Luchs Sparwasser" are the progenitors of the breed from which most of the German Shepherds descend. The bitch "Mari von Grafrath" is considered to be the ancestral mother.

In 1891 a first breed standard for the German Shepherd was created. Stephanitz divided the breed into three classes: rough-haired, smooth-haired and long-haired dogs . Pointed erect ears, a stretched muzzle and a bushy tail carried downwards were required. The average size was given as 50–55 centimeters, the fur could be black, white, gray or red-yellow - both monochrome and with numerous markings.

The breed first attracted public attention in 1894 when five specimens appeared at an exhibition in Dortmund . On April 22, 1899, the Association for German Shepherds (SV) was founded in Karlsruhe , whose first president was Max von Stephanitz. Von Stephanitz and his friend Arthur Meyer searched for and created a working dog with the German Shepherd Dog . The first breed standard was set up in the first general meeting of the SV on September 20, 1899 in Frankfurt am Main according to their proposals. Stephanitz also wrote the cynological work The German Shepherd Dog in words and pictures , which lasted over a thousand pages .

In the course of the First World War , anti-German resentments meant that the attribute German was frowned upon in the name of the German Shepherd . This led to the official renaming of the breed name by the British Kennel Club to Alsatian Wolf Dog (Alsatian Wolfdog) after the Alsace-Lorraine region . The renaming was taken over by the other dog breeder clubs ( Kennel Clubs ) throughout the English-speaking area. Over time, the Alsatian Wolfhound became a simple Alsatian Dog in order not to make it appear too wild. The British Kennel Club did not officially reverse the name until 1977. However, it was left to the local dog breeding clubs whether they wanted to rename themselves or not, which is why some British German Shepherd dog breed clubs still call themselves Alsatian Shepherd Dogs Kennel Clubs .

Fear of a mix of German Shepherds and Australian dingoes led to the Commonwealth government banning the import of German Shepherds to Australia in 1929. It was feared that the dogs (partly because of the old name "Alsatian Wolfhound") would be a danger to sheep, that they would get too close to the dingoes and that they could intermingle. This law (originally set for five years) was only relaxed in 1972 and repealed in 1974.

“Von Stephanitz and his disciples in the German dog breeding movement not only delivered the desired 'dogs of German descent with pronounced fighting instincts', but also became the intellectual trailblazers of a National Socialist ethos that ended in catastrophe twice,” said pet expert Erik Zimen . In both World War I and World War II , the top German army commanders ( Hindenburg and Ludendorff and Hitler and Himmler ) kept German shepherds. In the Third Reich, the German Shepherd became a nationalist symbol of allegedly typical German virtues, such as courage and loyalty. The Nazi propaganda staged Adolf Hitler with his dog Blondi in numerous photos. The Nazis' instrumentalization of the race goes far beyond propaganda, as their use in concentration camps shows , for example . In the Second World War, 30,000 German Shepherds were drafted for military service, of which very few survived.

But the German shepherd was not only popular with the Germans in the war, the Entente and the Allies also resorted to it. (See also: Use of dogs in the military )

The color white was deleted from the standard by the German breed club in 1933, as a result of which white German shepherds were no longer regarded as conforming to the standard within the FCI. In 1968 the "Shepherd Dog Club of America" ​​also deleted white from the standard, and the American Kennel Club then refused to include white puppies in the stud book . An exception was the Canadian Kennel Club , which continued to recognize the white color as permissible for the German Shepherd. Breeders of the white variant in the USA subsequently formed different breeding clubs. At the request of the Swiss Cynological Society , the FCI provisionally recognized the White Shepherd as a separate breed in 2003 and finally in 2011 and has been running it since then under the name Berger Blanc Suisse (White Swiss Shepherd).


The German Shepherd Dog is medium-sized, strong and well-muscled, but should never appear clumsy. It is longer rather than high, with the withers at the highest point of the back. In the adult male, the shoulder height should be between 60 and 65 centimeters, bitches should be between 55 and 60 centimeters high.

The physique should be dry , so without fat or loose connective tissue, with clearly defined muscles. The chest is deep and well arched. The angling of the limbs offers the greatest possible stride. The hindquarters reach over the middle of the body and thus give the greatest possible thrust from behind. The German Shepherd Dog is a persistent trotter.

The head shape is wedge-shaped, the head size is in good proportion to the rest of the body. The forehead is only slightly arched, the bridge of the nose straight. Only a black nose is permitted. The lips are firm, dry, dark in color and close well. The German Shepherd dog has a scissor bite , an over , over or undershot bite is not permitted; the puppy has 28 teeth and the adult dog 42 teeth.

The German Shepherd Dog has erect ears, the size of which should be in proportion to the head. They are carried upright and facing forward. The eyes are always dark and slightly sloping. The impression of attentiveness should always be created.

The tail is sickle-shaped and carried hanging down. The paws are rounded and short, and the claws are short and strong. Both the nails and the pads are dark in color.

Fur variants

German shepherds. Left in the picture a gray, wild-colored ("wolf-sable"), in the middle a black and yellow dog (saddle drawing)

The coat of the German Shepherd is primarily functional. It is easy to care for and weatherproof against snow, rain, cold and heat. There is a dense undercoat under the adjacent outer hair . He has a tendency to hair.

The breed standard prescribes the stick hair type with a dense undercoat and straight, tightly fitting top coat. The outer hair is a little longer on the neck (collar), tail and hind legs (trousers).

The FCI breed standard says about the colors:

“Black with red-brown, brown, yellow to light gray markings. Solid black, gray with darker clouds, black saddle and mask. Inconspicuous, small white chest markings as well as light insides are permitted, but not desired. The tip of the nose must be black for all colors. "

At the Federal Assembly of the Association of German Shepherds, which is responsible for the breed standard within the FCI, it was decided in 2008 that long-stick hair should also be included in the standard again. The standard specifies:

“Long stick hair: The top hair should be long, soft and not tightly fitting, with flags on ears and legs , bushy trousers and a bushy tail with flag formation downwards. Short on the head including the inside of the ears, on the front of the legs, on the paws and toes, longer and more hairy on the neck, almost forming a mane. At the back of the legs the hair extends to the pastern or the hock and forms at the back of the legs clear pants. "

After white was eliminated as a color from the breed standard of the German Shepherd, there has now been a separate breed of German Shepherd dogs, which are characterized by white fur, in addition to the German Shepherd Dog: the White Swiss Shepherd Dogs . They are their own breed recognized by the FCI. The French name is Berger Blanc Suisse .


According to the FCI breed standard, the German Shepherd "[...] has to be balanced, nerve-proof, self-confident, absolutely impartial and (outside of a stimulus situation) completely benign, attentive and easy to handle. He must have instinctual behavior, resilience and self-confidence in order to be suitable as a companion, guard, service and herding dog. ”Nervous or anxious animals do not correspond to the nature of the German Shepherd and suggest poor breeding and insufficient socialization.

"If a German Shepherd grows up specifically with others of his breed (who are accordingly well socialized), he belongs to those breeds that quickly build up a social hierarchy with one another and show relatively little aggression (serious and ritualized) and get along well with each other. "

- Dorit Urd Feddersen-Petersen.

List dog

The German Shepherd Dog is in the Swiss canton of Ticino as a potentially dangerous race on the race list out. A cantonal permit is required to keep it there, for which a character test for dogs is required, among other things . The potential holder must also present an extract from the criminal record . In the canton of Glarus , his attitude is also subject to approval.

In Austria, a study on the analysis of dog bites on children came to the conclusion that the German Shepherd poses a risk of attack that is about 5 times higher than that of Labrador Retrievers or mixed breeds . The number of incidents of biting was set in relation to the number of dogs. The majority (82%) of the bitten children were known to the dog, and small children were particularly often the victims of attacks. In Switzerland, too, German shepherds cause significantly more bite injuries than would be expected based on their share of the dog population. A study by the Free University of Berlin comes to the same conclusion for the German federal states of Berlin and Brandenburg.


Breeding in the VDH

"Horand von Grafrath", the progenitor of all German Shepherds
Gray German Shepherd Dog from performance line

Within the VDH, the German Shepherd Dog is bred in the Association for German Shepherd Dogs (SV) and since March 2009 in the VDH in the Schäferhundverein RSV2000. Since Horand von Grafrath with stud book number one, the SV studbook has included more than two million registered shepherds.

The guiding principle, the following after presentation of the SV time was bred already Stephanitz ', still stands today at the forefront: "German Shepherd breeding is working dog breeding ". One of the goals of the SV is, among other things, "[...] to breed a working dog that enjoys high national and international recognition and acceptance as a helper and friend of humans".

To be approved for breeding, the German Shepherd Dog must be at least two years old in the year of the licensing and must have passed the IPO test ( protection service test level 1 ) or the RH2 test (rescue dog team test level B) and an endurance test. In addition, German shepherds that have passed an HGH test (herd use dog test) can get a breeding license. The result of the x-ray examination for hip dysplasia (HD) must have shown an a. This means that the assessment of the x-rays showed the findings normal , almost normal or still approved . The same applies to the examination of the elbows for elbow dysplasia (ED). Dogs with a medium or severe form of HD or ED are blocked from breeding, which means that these dogs may not be used for breeding within the association. Any offspring of these dogs will not be included in the stud book. Only after these prerequisites have been met can a licensing take place, during which the anatomy, character and working dog characteristics are assessed. The first licensing ("new licensing") is valid for two years in the SV. After this period the dog has to be licensed again in order to keep his breeding license. This "re-certification" is valid for life. Until 2012 the dogs were divided into 2 different classes.

A distinction is generally made between typical high breeding and performance lines.

In 2017, the VDH 9766 puppies were thrown . The number of puppies has dropped significantly in recent years. In 1998 there were still 27,834 puppies.

Breeding in the GDR

With the division of Germany , dog breeding was also divided. Separate and independent breeding lines developed.

In the German Democratic Republic , great importance was attached to suppressing HD when breeding German Shepherds. While in 1968 dogs with medium HD were bred, from 1972 only dogs with, in the worst case, mild HD were used for breeding. From 1979 onwards only HD-free animals were bred. These breeding restrictions led to a significant decrease in HD. GDR breeding statistics show 94.4 percent HD-free animals for 1985, the year with the lowest HD in GDR breeding history.

After the reunification of Germany , the breeding lines were united, so that today there are hardly any pure GDR lines left.

Wolf crossbreeds

At the beginning of pure breeding , when the stick-haired type gradually began to prevail, some breeders are said to have tried to achieve this goal more quickly by pairing real wolves with sheepdogs, writes Hans Räber in his encyclopedia of pedigree dogs . Von Stephanitz is said to have stated that the great-grandmother of the stud dog "Hector von Wohlen", the bitch "Mores Plieningen", was born from a cross between a wolf and a sheepdog. He is said to have corrected this statement later to the effect that this crossbreeding with the male Hector was already six generations ago.

Räber reports that Albert Heim was firmly convinced that wolves were crossed with shepherds again and again in Germany between 1870 and 1900. Allegedly, the rumor that this protected against distemper was supposed to have been one of the reasons. Around 1920, Heim attributed what he believed to be a noticeable deterioration in the character of the shepherds to such crossbreeding and recommended breeders to keep all dogs with wolf characteristics away from breeding. Heim's statements are not considered to be completely reliable.

In Räber's opinion, many dogs were given a wolf share because such dogs were very popular with lovers. But there was never any question of hundreds of such hybrids. In addition, both professional shepherds (according to a statement by R. Wolfsburger, President of the SC from 1933 to 1936) and von Stephanitz (1902) themselves advised against crossbreeding, as they believed that dogs from such matings were not reliable.

It is considered unlikely that these experiments could have had an impact on today's German Shepherd. Since the offspring were considered unsuitable, it is most likely that there was no effect. Even in the case of an impact on breeding, it is assumed that this would not have gone beyond the approximation of the wolf in appearance.

The breed as a breeding basis for other dog breeds

The German Shepherd Dog forms the breeding basis for several other dog breeds that are also FCI approved. The Czechoslovakian Wolfdog and the Saarlooswolfhund emerged from matings with wolves . The aim of both breeds was to improve the German shepherd dog, which is generally regarded as a failure, since these dogs are only suitable for use as working dogs to a very limited extent. The German shepherd was also crossed into the newly emerging Hovawart .

The German Shepherd was also the breeding basis for the three other wolf hybrid breeds, the Lupo Italiano , the Kunming Wolfhund and the Timber Wolf-dog Shepherd. However, they are not yet recognized by the FCI.

The German Shepherd Dog was also crossed into breeds not recognized by the FCI, such as the Tamaskan .

Differentiation from the White Swiss Shepherd Dog

Occasionally, white animals appear in litters from German Shepherds. According to the breed standard, the hair color white is an exclusive wrong color for the German Shepherd Dog, such dogs can neither be awarded at VDH exhibitions nor used for VDH breeding. Dogs of the White Swiss Shepherd breed can hardly be distinguished from these animals phenotypically . Since these were recognized as a separate breed, dogs of these two breeds may not be paired with one another, nor may white German Shepherds be registered as White Swiss Shepherds.


German shepherd in agility

The original purpose of the German Shepherd was that of a herd working dog . He looked after and guarded the flock with the shepherd .

The German Shepherd Dog is rarely used in its original function. Instead, it is used as a service dog in the military, customs and police. The SV maintains its own rescue dog system , which is affiliated with the International Rescue Dog Organization (IRO). As an avalanche search dog, the shepherd dog is mainly active in the Bavarian Alps and ousted the Saint Bernard a long time ago thanks to its ease in rummaging through the masses of snow. It is also used successfully as a guide dog for the blind .

In the private sector, the German Shepherd can be used in any dog sport and is not limited to protection dog sport . It is equally suitable for obedience and agility . Due to his excellent smelling performance, he can be successfully guided in tracking or mantrailing . In addition to all these areas of application, it can of course also be used as a pure family dog . A task appropriate to the dog or a joint sporting activity are important.

According to statistics from the FCI from autumn 2012, which took into account 25 countries and recorded over 2 million dogs, the German Shepherd Dog leads the table with almost 130,000 newly registered dogs after the Labrador Retriever with a good 190,000 new entries. The registration numbers for the German Shepherd in one of these countries are missing.


A total of 77 genetic diseases are known in the German Shepherd Dog. The most well-known disease of the German Shepherd Dog, which is also repeatedly associated with it, is hip dysplasia (HD). This disease was first discovered in a German Shepherd. The OFA database lists (as of December 2017) 20.5 percent of all examined German Shepherds as dysplastic, whereas only 4.3 percent are rated excellent . In 2008, the University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover reported that, among other things, in cooperation with the SV, genetic markers were found that allow puppies that are only a few weeks old to be examined for hip dysplasia and that in future, hip dysplasia in sheepdogs can be examined using molecular genetics. The scientific publication of the results took place in December 2007.

To prevent hip dysplasia, which is genetically predisposed , the hip dysplasia breeding value was introduced in the SV . This breeding value of a dog provides information about the extent to which he inherits the tendency to hip dysplasia. The values ​​of the grandparents, parents, siblings and offspring of the breeding dog are included in this value. 100 is the average of the breed. The values ​​of the dogs that are mated together must not exceed 200. Usually lower values ​​are aimed for in order to lower the overall average of the breed. The method becomes unreliable, however, because the animals found are selected before the X-ray findings are evaluated.

Another joint disease that occurs in German Shepherds is elbow dysplasia (ED). Here the statistics show a better result with 80.6% ED-free dogs. In addition, congenital vestibular syndrome , a hereditary disease of the inner ear with balance disorders and possibly deafness, can occur, as well as pancreatic insufficiency , degenerative myelopathy , German shepherd pyoderma and German shepherd keratitis .

In addition to HD, degenerative lumbosacral stenosis (DLSS) is an important possible reason for symptoms of lameness in German Shepherds .

Overall, the German Shepherd Dog has a life expectancy that is below the average of all pedigree dogs . In a Swedish study of 350,000 dogs, 20 percent of all German Shepherds died before the age of five, 35 percent before the age of 8, and 51 percent did not live to be 10 years old. Comparative figures for the average of all pedigree dogs are 22% (up to 5 years), 23% (up to 8 years) and 35% (up to 10 years); 16%, 26% and 35% respectively were found for mixed breeds.

Criticism of the development of the breed's physique

Horand von Grafrath (original name: Hector Linksrhein), the first German Shepherd Dog entered into the stud book by Stephanitz in 1895 , differs from today's representatives of the breed. He was smaller, lighter, and less muscular.

The German Shepherd Dog was similar in its original form to today's Malinois . For years, the sloping back, which was preferred in breeding for reasons of a controversial ideal of beauty in the high-bred lines, has been the subject of constant discussion for years. In the late 1960s, breeders in the Federal Republic began with an unmistakable anatomical redesign of the German Shepherd. The angulation of the hind quarters became stronger, the bones of the lower leg ( tibia , fibula ) longer and the feet shifted backwards. The back sagged and eventually became round. The jumping power, endurance and maneuverability of the "modern" German Shepherd Dog decreased; it got bigger and bigger, which meant that it had to lose a good deal of its agility.

More pictures

Sources and individual references

  1. Ursula Zabel: The German Shepherd Dog . 1st edition. Müller Rüschlikon, 2001, ISBN 3-275-01407-2 , p. 10-12 .
  2. a b c d Breed standard No. 166 of the FCI: German Shepherd Dog  (PDF)
  3. Max v. Stephanitz: The German Shepherd Dog in words and pictures . 6th edition. Publishing house of the "Association for German Shepherds (SV)", Jena 1921 ( ).
  4. George Horowitz: The Alsatian wolf-dog: its origin, history, and show points, working capabilities, etc. 1924. Retrieved January 26, 2017 (English).
  5. ^ Eva-Maria Krämer : The new cosmos dog handler. 4th edition. Kosmos, Stuttgart 2002, p. 216.
  6. ^ German Shepherd - The Ultimate Service Dog. German Culture, accessed on January 26, 2017 (English).
  7. ^ The History of the German Shepherd Dog in Australia. ( Memento from April 15, 2009 in the Internet Archive ) on the website of the German Shepherd Dog Club of Queensland.
  8. a b c Erik Zimen: The dog - descent, behavior, man and dog. Goldmann 1992 (paperback edition), ISBN 3-442-12397-6 , p. 197.
  9. "In the field of honor"
  10. Hans Räber : Encyclopedia of the pedigree dogs . tape 1 . Franckh-Kosmos Verlag, Stuttgart 2001, ISBN 3-440-06555-3 , White Shepherd, The dispute over the whites began, p. 221 (first edition: 1993, reprint).
  11. ^ SV newspaper. July 2009, pp. 437-438. The most important resolutions of the Federal Assembly from 6. – 7. June in Kassel.
  12. ^ Dorit Urd Feddersen-Petersen: Hundepsychologie. 4th edition. Franckh-Kosmos, Stuttgart 2004, ISBN 978-3-440-09780-9 .
  13. ↑ Breed list of the Canton of Ticino (PDF; 566 kB)
  14. Regulations for the granting of the holding permit on the website of the Canton of Ticino (Italian)
  15. Dog breeds requiring a permit on the website of the Canton of Glarus, accessed on April 18, 2014.
  16. ^
  17. Ursula Horisberger: Medically treated dog bite injuries in Switzerland: Victims - dogs - accident situations. Diss. University of Bern 2002 ( ( memento of the original from July 20, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link has been inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. PDF). @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  18. R. Struwe; F. Kuhne: Dogs that have become conspicuous in Berlin and Brandenburg - their representation in official statistics and in the dog population. ( bibliographical information).
  19. ^ Association for German Shepherd Dogs (SV): Pedigrees are not a family tree
  20. ^ Association for German Shepherd Dogs (SV): Shepherd dog breeding is working dog breeding . Presentation of the foundation of the association by the SV.
  21. ^ Association for German Shepherds (SV): King of the Decathletes
  22. ^ Association for German Shepherds (SV): Licensing 2017 - Information for the heads of the licensing offices (PDF; 1.46 MB)
  23. Zuchtordnung Version 2016 ( Memento of the original from February 27, 2017 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. (PDF; 929 KB) @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  24. ^ Association for German Shepherd Dogs (SV): licensing and scheduled breeding
  25. puppy statistics of the VDH
  26. Werner Dalm: The breeding of the German Shepherd Dog in the former GDR . Verlag Verein für Deutsche Schäferhunde, Augsburg 1998. Quoted from dog breeding in GDR times. In: Dog newspaper. 12/2004.
  27. ^ Dog breeding in GDR times. In: Dog newspaper. 12/2004.
  28. a b Hans Räber: Encyclopedia of Purebred Dogs, Volume 1. Franckh-Kosmos, Stuttgart 1993, ISBN 3-440-06555-3 .
  29. ^ Eva-Maria Krämer, Werner Lenz: The book of the German shepherd dog. Franckh-Kosmos, Stuttgart 1988, ISBN 3-440-05890-5 . (Kosmos dog library)
  30. FCI circular 77/2007 of June 21, 2007 (PDF; 42 kB) ( ,
    Renewed notice by the FCI in Circular 32/2013 of June 21, 2013 (PDF; 80 kB) (
  31. ^ Association for German Shepherd Dogs (SV): Old tradition: Shepherd, herd and the dogs
  32. ^ Association for German Shepherd Dogs (SV): Protection and Security: Dogs in Police Service
  33. ^ Association for German Shepherds (SV): Rescuers in need
  34. ^ Association for German Shepherd Dogs (SV): Shepherd dogs as a way of life
  35. Real all-rounder: Shepherds have many strengths
  36. Worldwide registration numbers - from the top 30 to endangered breeds. In: FCI (Ed.): Newsletter 3/2013. , June 26, 2013
  37. ^ I. Sommerfeld-Stur: Purebred dog breeding. Müller Rüschlikon, Stuttgart 2016 ISBN 978-3-275-02061-4 , p. 273.
  38. ^ Hip Dysplasia Statistics. on the website of the Orthopedic Foundation for Animals.
  39. TiHo-Anzeiger Heft 3/2008, p. 2. (PDF; 2.8 MB)
  40. ^ Yvonne Marschall, Ottmar Distl: Mapping quantitative trait loci for canine hip dysplasia in German Shepherd dogs. In: Mammalian genome: official journal of the International Mammalian Genome Society. Volume 18, Number 12, December 2007, pp. 861-870, ISSN  0938-8990 . doi: 10.1007 / s00335-007-9071-z . PMID 18027024 .
  41. Reiner Beuing: The method of breeding value estimation using the example of hip dysplasia in the Association for German Shepherds. (PDF; 42 kB)
  42. Bernd Tellhelm, Ottmar Distl, Antje Wigger: Hip dysplasia (HD) - development, detection, control . In: Small Animal Practice . tape 53 , no. 4 , 2008, p. 246-260 . Abstract online (PDF; 81 kB)
  43. ^ Elbow Dysplasia Statistics. ( Memento of the original from September 3, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  44. Ursula Zabel: The German Shepherd Dog . 1st edition. Müller Rüschlikon, 2001, ISBN 3-275-01407-2 , p. 68-72 .
  45. ^ Johann Lang: Diagnostic Imaging in Lumbosacral Stenosis in Dogs . The 30th Congress of the World Small Animal Veterinary Association. May 2005 ( online )
  46. A. Egenvall, BN Bonnett, Å. Hedhammar, P. Olson: Mortality in over 350,000 insured Swedish dogs from 1995-2000: II. Breed-specific age and survival patterns and relative risk for causes of death. In: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica. Vol. 46, No. 3, 2005, ISSN  1751-0147 , pp. 121-136, PMID 16261925 , doi: 10.1186 / 1751-0147-46-121
  47. H. Raiser: The German Shepherd Dog: Everything okay? In: Woof. November 1996.
  48. H. Wachtel: Hundezucht 2000. Gollwitzer, Weiden 1997, ISBN 3-923555-10-5 , p. 116f.


  • Peter Brehm: The German Shepherd Dog. 7th edition. Parey, Hamburg 1993, ISBN 3-490-02619-5 .
  • Heiko Christian Grube: German Shepherd Dog. The great breed handbook. Müller Rüschlikon, Cham 2004, ISBN 3-275-01497-8 .
  • Eva-Maria Krämer: The new Kosmos dog handler. 4th edition. Franckh-Kosmos, Stuttgart 2002, ISBN 3-440-07772-1 , p. 216.
  • Hans Räber: Encyclopedia of pedigree dogs. Volume 1. 2nd edition. Franckh-Kosmos, Stuttgart 2001, ISBN 3-440-06555-3 , pp. 204-214.
  • Irene Sommerfeld-Stur: Purebred dog breeding. Müller Rüschlikon, Stuttgart 2016 ISBN 978-3-275-02061-4 .
  • Hellmuth Wachtel: Hundezucht 2000. Gollwitzer, Weiden 1997, ISBN 3-923555-10-5 .
  • Ursula Zabel: The German Shepherd Dog. Müller Rüschlikon, Cham 2001, ISBN 3-275-01407-2 .

Web links

Commons : German Shepherd Dog  - collection of images, videos and audio files