bus stop

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A stop , also outdated maintenance station is a location on a line of public transport (PT) carried by trams , trolley buses , buses is operated as scheduled or at least regularly or other public transportation to passengers, to enable the inlet and exit. If a stop is directly on the street, special traffic regulations apply to all vehicles, especially when driving past and parking. If the stop according to of the StVO (sign 224), this is a matter for the transport company and the ordering traffic authority at the expense of the carrier (§5b StVG).

At the “stops” of the Pedibus (“school bus on foot”), however, no vehicle stops; school children gather at set times to go to school together along a set route.

In the railroad , a stop is the combination of a stop with a junction or connection.

Situation in Germany


Tram and bus stop at Münchner Freiheit

In Germany, a stop is a facility in the road network marked with the traffic sign 224 of the Road Traffic Act (StVO), at which public transport stops according to the schedule (unsolicited or as an emergency stop ) or on request. Parking is prohibited 15 meters in front of and 15 meters behind the traffic sign . In terms of traffic, it is a connection point between public transport and pedestrian traffic .

Determination and arrangement

A stop is determined in accordance with Section 32 (1) sentence 1 of the Ordinance on the Operation of Motor Vehicle Companies in Passenger Transport (BOKraft). For this purpose, an application for the determination of stops must be submitted to the approval authority. In this, the location of the stop must be precisely defined and a reason given. The licensing authority listens to other bodies involved and holds an on-site appointment. Afterwards, the rejection or the confirmation takes place in a notification . For the actual establishment of the stop by setting up the stop sign (sign 224 according to StVO ) a traffic law order from the road traffic authority is also required.


Stop sign for a bus line of the Royal Saxon State Railways , before 1918
The stop sign for Kraftpost lines of the Reichspost, introduced in the Weimar Republic

Until 1939 there were no standardized stop signs in Germany. As a rule, rectangular signs with the inscription stop of the tram , vehicle stop or similar were placed at the stops . The basis of today's stop signs was the law on the transport of people by land of December 4, 1934 in the version of December 6, 1937 , published in the Reichsgesetzblatt. Another basis for the introduction of the stop signs was the one published on November 13, 1937 and published on November 1, 1937. April 1938 valid become regulation on the construction and operation of the trams (tram construction and operating regulations - BOStrab -) as well as the regulation on the operation of motor vehicles undertakings' passenger (BOKraft) of 13 February 1939 which on 1 April 1939 in force kicked. The new signs were proclaimed by the Reich Minister of Transport on July 28, 1939 in the German Reichsanzeiger and Prussian State Gazette No. 172; the publication was available in the Reichs Verkehrsblatt (RVkBl) B No. 33 of July 29, 1939. In the arrangement it says in the section shape, size and color :


  1. The stop sign for trams (Appendix 1) is a circular yellow disc with a green border and a green "H". The diameter of the disc can be 35 or 45 centimeters.
  2. The stop sign for motor vehicle lines (Appendix 2) is a yellow, green-rimmed sign in the form of a signal arm , the circular end of which contains an "H" and the arm the more detailed designation of the motor vehicle line - both in green letters. The circular end of the sign should be 25 or 35 centimeters in diameter. The arm is 50 centimeters long to the middle of the letter H.
  3. The bus stop signs under 5 and 6 can also be designed in the same shape and color as illuminated banners.
  4. As uniform additional symbols (Appendix 3), if there is a need for their use, the following are prescribed:
    • Directional arrow: a green arrow to be placed above the H of the stop sign and perpendicular to it,
    • Compulsory stop: a square yellow sign with a horizontal green horizontal line; it is to be affixed under the stop sign or under the additional sign "number limit", otherwise item 12 applies,
    • Number limit: a green sign with yellow letters "number limit" attached to the lower or upper edge of the stop sign.
  5. The shape and dimensions are optional for the line designation. Yellow letters and a green background are to be used as colors. "

According to this regulation, which in its last, revised form expired on September 20, 2006, all stops in the German Reich were to be provided with the new uniform symbols by April 1, 1941. Due to the Second World War , this was often no longer carried out and the bus stop sign was in fact only introduced throughout Germany after the end of the war.

The stop signs for trams and motor vehicle lines were not only different in their form, there were also regulations for the designation as a double stop, for the attachment to cantilever arms including the coloring for the sign posts. With the ordinance to amend the tram construction and operating regulations of August 14, 1953 , published in the Federal Law Gazette , the set of rules was subjected to an amendment for the first time, which adapted the text to the needs and changes in the Federal Republic of Germany, whereby nothing changed in the signs.

Already since the instruction of July 19, 1939, the stop signs were considered traffic facilities in the sense of the road traffic regulations, but they were not part of the catalog of traffic signs. In the Federal Republic of Germany, the stop signs were first incorporated into the traffic sign catalog with the introduction of the road traffic regulations that came into force on March 1, 1971. The traffic sign 224 stop for trams and buses received its current provision with the 6th ordinance amending the road traffic regulations of July 21, 1983.

Flashing request

According to Section 16 (2), state law can order that a bus driver must switch on the hazard warning lights when approaching a stop and for as long as passengers get on or off. According to § 20 StVO, he may not be overtaken as long as he is approaching the stop with the hazard warning lights switched on; only when it has stopped may it be passed in both directions at walking speed . The speed limit does not apply to oncoming traffic only if there are two (structurally separate) lanes .

At some bus stops there are additional signs that instruct the bus driver to turn on the hazard warning lights while the bus is stopping. This so-called flashing request is shown using different characters.


Stops are the interfaces between public transport and foot traffic . Their easy accessibility is an essential prerequisite for attractive local public transport. The location and design of the stops should take this into account and enable safe, direct, convenient and fast access from all directions. This includes convenient crossing facilities, because public transport routes are often also busy main roads. If access to the stop is regulated by a traffic light , the green phases for pedestrians should be coordinated with the approaching tram or bus so as not to provoke dangerous crossings when red. Bus stops should be combined with a central island if the road cross-section allows it. It prevents the bus from overtaking during the passenger change and thus makes it easier for passengers to cross the lane.


Numbered stops on the Taoyuan Metro

In order to better distinguish between passengers on the one hand and the operator on the other hand, stops usually have an individual name, typically a prominent place, a public facility or the name of the nearest cross street. Often both the name of the street driven through and the name of the cross street are given.

In smaller towns, stops are often called the train station, bridge, fire brigade, outdoor swimming pool, cemetery, parish hall, wine press, church, center, town hall, police, post office, school, rifle house, savings bank, sports field, Volksbank or are named after a central inn. For example, "Church" is the most frequent stop name in the Aachener Verkehrsverbund (AVV) with 120 uses .

A method that is rarely found is to number the stops of a system or line. Examples of this are the Rimini – Riccione trolleybus , where the 54 stops on the single line are marked with red numbers on white boards, the 19 stops on the 106 bus line at Vienna's Central Cemetery, or the Taoyuan Metro stops .

Another variant is to give the stations names that are independent of the local environment. For example, the stations of the Pyongyang Metro are named after themes from the North Korean Revolution and have names such as “founding of the state”, “renewal” or “war victory”. The landing stages of the shipping line in Timișoara, Romania , are named after Romanian personalities.

Data storage: DELFI, zHV, DHID, Global ID and IFOPT

To enable systems for continuous timetable and connection information , the Federal Ministry of Transport initiated the concept or system " Continuous Electronic Passenger Information " (DELFI). One of the most important DELFI components is the “Central Stopping Place Directory” (zHV), a decentralized database. The zHV database key is the “Germany-wide uniform stop ID” (DHID), which is also known as the global ID . It was developed as an application and extension of the CEN standard "Identification of Fixed Objects in Public Transport" (IFOPT).

Construction methods

Modern stops are designed to be handicapped accessible: there is no step to climb when getting on and off. In addition to buses in " low-floor " or (laterally) lowerable construction, there are various options for surface transport:

Exit / boarding stop

At the end of the line, mostly before turning loops , there are often just exit stops. Entry is prohibited there, so that the vehicle can drive on the turning system without passengers and the staff is given a break. Similarly, the first stop after turning is often a mere boarding stop. So-called operating bans can also mean that you can only get on or off at a bus stop. For example, many regional bus companies within cities are only allowed to transport their passengers in onward or outward traffic. This prevents competition with urban bus companies.

Requirement stop

Required stops are only approached when requested - terminals with user interfaces also allow people without a telephone to register a trip. The terminals can be supplied with light current or photovoltaic . The user interface consists of vandal-resistant alphanumeric or graphic displays and one or more push buttons (buttons).

In some countries (such as the Netherlands ), on-demand stops are sometimes set up on motorways or motorway-like roads. In this case, the waiting passenger presses a switch in the stop area, which in turn triggers a signal a few hundred meters before the stop. This signal informs the bus driver that passengers want to get on at the next stop and that they have to reduce their speed and drive to the next stop (usually in a holding bay, similar to a motorway parking lot, off the motorway).


A bus stopping bay, also called a bus stop bay or bus bay for short, is a lane widening in which the bus does not stop on the lane, but in the side of the street. Getting on and off takes place without obstructing the flow of traffic, but it is approached in a diagonal direction, which can particularly endanger standing passengers. In addition, the diagonal approach often leaves a gap between the door and the curb, which makes it difficult for wheelchair users to get in and out. Getting the bus back into the flowing traffic is more difficult with bus stops than with conventional or cape stops. However, bus bays are ideal at those stops where you have to wait for connections on a regular basis and where you need a waiting room outside of the flowing traffic. The term bus bag is also used for this, but it has not become generally accepted.

Double stop

Double stops can be served by two vehicles at the same time. This avoids the second vehicle waiting in front of the stop. Each vehicle only stops once to change passengers. Up until 1992, a special sign for this was legally prescribed in Germany (see section Signs above ).

Island (conventional)

A conventional bus stop is normally located between the car traffic lanes . Pedestrians have to cross these to reach the island, which may require traffic lights and barriers on the back of the platform . Bus stop islands enable safe entry and exit. However, they take up a lot of space in the cross-section of the street. They are also often difficult to reach because at least one lane has to be crossed. In order to avoid detours, bus stops need access from all directions. Particularly long stop islands (e.g. double stops) may require a further entrance in the middle.


Cape stop for buses and trams in Kassel

In the case of a stop cap , the sidewalk is pulled up to the tracks (or roadway) or the tracks are swiveled on these. This is the safest form of stop, as passengers entering and exiting do not have to cross a lane. In addition, the waiting time on the sidewalk, in contrast to a bus stop island, can usually be spent more pleasantly and possibly combined with other activities (e.g. shopping, window shopping). There is also space for the necessary stop equipment (passenger shelters, ticket machines, etc.) on the cape, without obstructing foot traffic on the sidewalk.

The disadvantage is the high level of conversion work involved in setting up a stop cap at a later date. As a rule, the tracks must first be pulled apart in order to enable wide vehicles (trucks, buses) to meet in the stop area. The establishment of stop caps is therefore particularly useful in the context of track renewals when the tracks are being replaced anyway.

Passable cape stop

Traversable stop cap in Kassel

In the case of a traversable cape stop, also known as a traversable stop cap, the roadway between the track and the sidewalk is raised so that a level transition from the sidewalk to the rail vehicle is created. Often the road surface is changed in the bus stop or ramp area with a view to making the bus stop recognizable and reducing the speed. If a traffic light is used to secure the change of passengers against other road traffic, it is also referred to as a dynamic stop (time island) . There are also solutions in which motor vehicle traffic is guided on the tracks and only the cycle lane in the bus stop area is raised.

Direction stop

Stop at the museum route of an intercity tram ( Bergisches Tram Museum )

If a stop is only served in one direction of travel, one speaks of a direction stop. The reason for their establishment is usually the lead of a line through a one-way street or the location on a single-track railroad. A lack of space to set up a stop across the street or a lack of opportunities to cross a street can also make directional stops necessary.

Checkerboard pattern

Düsseldorf tram : platforms in a checkerboard pattern, 2011

From the beginning of the 1960s it was customary in West Germany for a while to mark the surface of certain stops of tram and bus routes with two-tone pavement tiles in a checkerboard pattern . This particularly affected platforms that were in the form of a traffic island in the middle of the public street. The planners expected this to provide a clear indication of the protection area for waiting and disembarking passengers. They stood out from other traffic areas and also made dark-clad passengers more recognizable.

Ticket stop

A dummy stop (also a pseudo stop or phantom stop) is an apparently normal stop, which is usually equipped with a stop sign and a timetable, but is not served by any means of transport.

Saw tooth (inclined pocket)

" Sawtooth stops " enable easier accessibility , as they are approached at an angle from the street and the buses can therefore drive closer to the edge of the bus platform from the outset. The bus platform lengths and thus the transfer routes are also reduced here; The design also enables individual buses to be driven in and out independently, but requires that the vehicles used must not be longer than the bus platforms. In addition, the construction depth on the entry side is greater than that of bus bays arranged parallel to the street area.

Covered stop

Elaborately covered bus stop in Erkelenz

Covered stops are also classified under the term waiting halls and the generic term street furniture . In larger cities there are ticket machines at many stops . A timetable and information boards for operations at the bus stop are also usually attached so that potential passengers can find out about the network, tariffs and the arrival and departure times of the means of transport that stop there. But vandalism is also particularly common at bus stops and often leads to considerable damage. Billboard advertising is often attached to bus shelters at bus stops .


The Lapp Kabel stop of the Stuttgart Stadtbahn is named after the company in question

Some transport companies offer certain companies and institutions for a fee to name the nearest stop accordingly. Either the entire stop is renamed, or the company name is put in brackets or behind a slash. Thus, on the one hand, the company is advertised in all timetable media, and on the other hand, naming potential customers or passengers makes it easier to reach the respective location of the company. In this way, the transport companies generate additional income - in addition to classic transport advertising on vehicles and stationary advertising at the stations. However, the costs for signage, printing and assembly when renaming as well as the costs for renaming after the end of the sponsorship contract must be deducted. For financial reasons, the renaming is therefore usually carried out at a timetable change, i.e. when changes are pending anyway. The Stuttgart trams, for example, charge between 3000 and 30,000 euros annually for a renaming, depending on the frequency of use - with public institutions such as hospitals receiving a discount. But sponsoring also has disadvantages: If a stop name changes, this makes it difficult to remember and orientate yourself on the network, as the passengers first have to learn the new name again; and sponsorship tends to mean that stop names change more often, due to changes in the sponsors' names and the start and end of sponsorship or the change of sponsor. In addition, naming stops by company can lead to conflicts of interest if several companies are located in the vicinity of the stop.

See also

Web links

Commons : stop  - collection of images, videos and audio files
Wiktionary: stop  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations

Individual evidence

  1. Full text § 32 BOKraft - accessed on May 8, 2019
  2. Holger Zuck, Klaus-Albrecht Sellmann, Passenger Transport Law , 4th edition 2013
  3. Karl-Heinz Fielitz, Thomas Grätz, Comment on Passenger Transport Act , 2018
  4. Law to amend the law on the transport of people by land In: Reichsgesetzblatt , Part I, No. 133, 1937, pp. 1319–1324, here in particular Section 39.
  5. Ordinance on the construction and operation of trams (Tram Construction and Operating Regulations - BOStrab -). 13 November 1937 . In: Reichsgesetzblatt , Part I, No. 123, pp. 1247–1253, here in particular Section 9.
  6. ^ Ordinance on the operation of motor vehicle companies in passenger transport. From February 13, 1939. In: Reichsgesetzblatt , Part I, No. 29, pp. 231–250, here especially Section 65.
  7. ^ Order of the Reich Minister of Transport for the introduction of uniform stop signs for trams and motor vehicle lines . 19 July 1939.
  8. ^ First law on the adjustment of federal law in the area of ​​responsibility of the Federal Ministry for Transport, Building and Urban Development. From September 19, 2006. Article 27: Repeal of the regulation on the introduction of uniform stop signs for trams and motor vehicle lines. In: Bundesgesetzblatt I, No. 44, Bonn on September 30, 2006, pp. 2146–2153; here: p. 2148 and p. 2153.
  9. ^ Road Traffic Regulations - StVO - From November 16, 1970 . In: Federal Law Gazette Part I, date of issue: Bonn, November 16, 1970, p. 1565.
  10. Appendix 2 to the Road Traffic Regulations, Section 4
  11. Negotiations of the German Bundestag, printed matter Volume 527 , Bonn 1995, p. 31.
  12. The "flashing request" at bus stops
  13. blog.avv.de, accessed on September 13, 2018
  14. DELFI Service [Ed.]: About DELFI. DELFI service, accessed August 3, 2019 .
  15. zHV goes online | DELFI. Retrieved August 3, 2019 .
  16. DHID | DELFI. Retrieved August 3, 2019 .
  17. IFOPT - Transmodel. Retrieved August 3, 2019 (it-IT).
  18. Walter Linden (Ed.): Dr. Gabler's Verkehrs-Lexikon Springer 2013 p. 288
  19. HVSWB aktuell, number 3/2016, article Schwarz- Weiß im Quadrat , pages 2-4
  20. ^ Gelsenkirchen Goldbergstrasse. (No longer available online.) In: tramtracks.de. Archived from the original on March 21, 2009 ; accessed on January 21, 2018 .
  21. Barrier-free mobility - bus stops in sawtooth arrangement. Retrieved May 20, 2020 .
  22. Manuel Bosch: Sponsoring in public transport - the modern deficit compensation. In: stadtbus2.de. 2013, accessed January 21, 2018 .
  23. Chris Lederer: Next stop: corporate advertising. In: stuttgarter-zeitung.de. March 26, 2012, accessed January 21, 2018 .