The Konrad-Adenauer-Allee (formerly Kaiser Street ) is a street in Augsburg . It belongs to the city district of Augsburg-Innenstadt, St. Ulrich-Dom and forms the south-western border of this district.
The Konrad-Adenauer-Allee runs roughly in a north-south direction. Königsplatz forms its northern end and Theodor-Heuss-Platz (formerly Kaiserplatz ) forms its southern end . Schießgrabenstrasse runs parallel to Konrad-Adenauer-Allee, just a few meters further west. The two parallel streets are separated by an undeveloped, tree-planted slope, a relic of the earlier ramparts. As a result, Konrad-Adenauer-Allee has the character of a wide and shady inner-city avenue with only one-sided development. To the west of Schießgrabenstrasse is the Augsburg-Beethovenviertel district .
The difference in floor level between Schießgrabenstrasse and Konrad-Adenauer-Allee extends into Königsplatz, where it gradually flattens out towards the north. This is why this place is not horizontal, but rather looks like a sloping ramp.
Situation before 1860
Augsburg was a fortified city until the second half of the 19th century. It was enclosed by a city wall, which was surrounded by dug trenches. Where hydrotechnically possible, the trenches were filled with water and otherwise dry. Along the city wall, raised and protruding bastions were built at important corner points and at the city gates , which bore the name ending "-wall". Today's Konrad-Adenauer-Allee lies on the longest straight section of the former Augsburg city fortifications , which spanned the edge of the Upper City between two bastions: the Eserwall and the Göggingerwall (with the Gögginger Tor ). The city wall of this section is said to have had traces of Roman origin.
The trench in this section was called "Hirschgraben". It was not filled with water and is said to have been at least 15 cubits deep. He bore his name, therefore, that in 1410 here since big game was held. Beyond the Hirschgraben, outside the city in today's Beethoven district, there were garden plots and the “Schießgraben”, a practice area with catering that had existed since 1545 and was operated by a traditional shooting society (crossbow and archers).
Along the inside of the city wall between the Red Gate and the Old Inlet, several hundred one-story soldiers' dwellings were built in the 16th century, the "Zwinger houses" or "Zwinger apartments" in which the city soldiers lived. They later fell into disrepair or were demolished. The last remaining kennel houses were inhabited by poor people. The kennel was divided into three sections: Upper Zwinger, Middle Zwinger and Lower Zwinger. The section of the city wall between the Eserwall and the Gögginger Tor was the Middle Zwinger. Other names for it were “Hirschmauer” or “Behind the Wall”.
In 1808 , King Maximilian I had a toll hall built in the former cloister garden of St. Katharina 's women's monastery, which was dissolved in 1802 . To transport goods to and from the toll hall, a side gate was broken into the city wall at the height of today's Hallstraße, the Hall gate, and this was equipped with a bridge over the moat.
Leveling and construction of the road
The Gögginger Tor was demolished in 1860, the Göggingerwall and the moat were leveled and the Königsplatz was created at this point. This formed the prelude to further razing of the Augsburg city fortifications in order to open up the city. The city wall south of the Gögginger Tor including the remaining kennel houses was demolished and the Hirschgraben filled in. A wide street was created there, which was named after Kaiser Wilhelm I. Kaiserstraße in 1879 . The parallel Schießgrabenstrasse runs on an embankment that has not been removed.
In 1881, after the city court building was demolished, a breakthrough road up to Maximilianstrasse was laid out at the point where the Hall gate was previously , the Hallstrasse. In 1896 Kaiserplatz was laid out at the southern end of Kaiserstraße at the site of the leveled Eserwall bastion.
The Kaiserstraße was designed by the city planning officer Ludwig Leybold as part of a ring road around Augsburg, which should span the entire old town. However, this ring road was not completed. To the north of Kaiserstraße, beyond Königsplatz, Fuggerstraße continues in the same line of alignment until the Stadttheater (now the Great House of the State Theater ) built in 1877 .
On the side of Kaiserstraße facing the old town, where the city wall and the Zwinger houses had previously been, magnificent residential buildings were built from 1880, mostly in the neo-Renaissance style. At Kaiserstrasse 13, at the corner of Kaiserstrasse and Katharinengasse, there was a branch of the Reichsbank built by Ludwig Leybold . In addition, in 1899 a brewery was built by Hasen-Bräu on the site of the former Capuchin monastery of St. Franziskus and Blessed Gualfardus , with access from Kaiserstraße . It was in operation until 2011. Then the brewery buildings were demolished and the area was rebuilt with residential houses. Today only the street name Kapuzinergasse reminds of the monastery and only the archway of the brewery.
With the expansion of the Augsburg tram network , a line was also laid on Kaiserstraße.
In the Third Reich
In the Third Reich , Königsplatz was named Adolf-Hitler-Platz from 1933. Hitler planned to convert Fuggerstrasse and Kaiserstrasse into a parade avenue. In order to do justice to the requirements of monumentality, the streets should be straightened along their entire length to form a 48 m wide and 1.2 km long axis. The dictator of the Nazi state commissioned the architect Hermann Giesler with the implementation . A new theater was to be built on Kaiserplatz as a counterpart to the city theater. Hitler also planned to build a gigantic Gauforum in the triangle between the main train station, the Stadttheater and Kaiserplatz, with a hall for around 20,000 people and a space in front of it for around 80,000 people.
However, these plans did not materialize. The city of Augsburg suffered severe damage in the Second World War . After the end of the war in 1945, the Königsplatz got its old name back.
After the Second World War
After the Kaiserplatz was renamed Theodor-Heuss-Platz in 1964 after the post-war politician Theodor Heuss , in 1967 the Kaiserstraße was renamed Konrad-Adenauer-Allee after Konrad Adenauer . In 1975 it was redesigned. At times, Konrad-Adenauer-Allee, like Schießgrabenstrasse, was made into a one-way street , so that the flow of traffic on each of the two parallel streets was restricted to one direction and could therefore be made into two lanes.
Traffic calming measures
With the development plan no. 500, “Königsplatz and Augsburg-Boulevard (between Klinkertor- and Theodor-Heuss-Platz)” drawn up in 2009, Königsplatz was rebuilt from 2011 to 2013 and the traffic routing in this area was changed significantly. In the process, Konrad-Adenauer-Allee was completely freed from through traffic and converted into an access road for the adjacent quarters. Since then, Konrad-Adenauer-Allee has had no connection with Fuggerstrasse, Schaezlerstrasse, Hermanstrasse or Halderstrasse. It is shortened for car traffic and ends at Katharinengasse when coming from the south. Since then, Schießgrabenstrasse has taken on through traffic in both directions.
After measurements of bicycle traffic from 2016 and an application from the Greens, the city's building committee decided in 2019 to convert Konrad-Adenauer-Allee between Theodor-Heuss-Platz and Katharinengasse into a bicycle street.
The following house numbers on Konrad-Adenauer-Allee are under monument protection : Konrad-Adenauer-Allee 15, 17, 17 a, 19, 21, 23, 25, 27, 31, 33, 43 43 1/2, 45, 51, 53 , 55, 63, 65. Among these three to five-story buildings, no. 17 a is a special architectural case: it is a smaller, somewhat hidden, recessed building in neo-Romanesque forms from 1902. It bears in large, artistic shaped Art Nouveau letters the inscription "ERDM.SPALKE.PHOTOGR.KUNST-ANSTALT."
At Konrad-Adenauer-Allee 39 there is a museum, the Heimatstube Reichenberg .
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