Assyrians (present)

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Assyrian woman in Tell Tamer on the Chabur River spins wool. (1939)
Assyrian family in Mavana produce butter in the traditional way.

Assyrians are a Syriac-Aramaic speaking ethnic minority in the Middle East . They are Semites and mainly belong to Syrian Christianity . Their original settlement areas are in northern Mesopotamia , which today corresponds to northern Iraq , northeastern Syria , southeastern Turkey and northwestern Iran . A considerable part of the Assyrian people live in the western diaspora through emigration and flight . According to the designation as " Syrians " ( Syriacs, Suroye and Suraye ) they are by the Arabs Suriani or Aschuri'in and by the Persians Asuri and the Turks Süryaniler called. The term “Syriac” does not refer to today's Syrian Republic, but to the Syrian tradition of Christianity.


The Syriac Orthodox Mother of God Monastery in Hah is located in historic Tur-Abdin . The church was built in late antiquity.

The Assyrians are an indigenous people of Mesopotamia , who were one of the first to adopt Christianity . Over time, these followers of Syrian Christianity founded various ancient oriental churches that belong to Eastern Christianity . The Assyrian Church of the East , which under Catholicos Patriarch Mar Dinkha IV. Was the only church of the Catholic type in the world (besides Protestant groups) to include "Assyrian" in its name (not usually used in the metropolitan area of ​​India), becomes the East Syrian rite counted. In a broader sense, Assyrians are all Christians of the Syrian tradition, i.e. H. including the Assyrian old calendars (= Old Church of the East under Catholicos-Patriarch Addai II ), members of the Chaldean Catholic Church (excluding the Indian " Thomas Christians "), also the Syrian Orthodox Church and the Syrian Catholic Church as well as Protestant or Russian Orthodox evangelized group of Assyrian Christians. In sum, the Syrian Christians are also called " Aramaeans ", "Assyro-Chaldeans" and " Chaldo-Assyrians ". In the broadest sense, Assyrians are those Christians whose traditional language of worship is Aramaic , regardless of their denomination, state or other affiliation (and sometimes against the declared will of individual groups and church leaderships).


The Lord's Prayer in Aramaic

The language of the Assyrians is linguistically classified as New East Aramaic and belongs to the Semitic languages . The Assyrians use the following two New East Aramaic forms: on the one hand the West Syrian Surayt (also known as Turoyo) on the other hand the East Syrian Suret (also known as Swadaya). According to Geoffrey Khan and other linguists, there are many traces of Akkadian in both forms . The Assyrians refer to themselves in West Syrian as Suroye or Suryoye and in East Syrian as Suraye . According to the Orientalist and Semitist Shabo Talay , around 250,000 Assyrians still speak the West Syrian Surayt today. The Platform Ethnologue puts the speakers of the East Syrian Suret at around 830,000 worldwide.

Eastern Aramaic
New Eastern Aramaic
West Syriac East Syriac
Surayt / Turoyo Suret / Swadaya


The designation of a current ethnic group of Eastern Christians as Assyrians is said to have been documented for the period since at least 1612. In the chronicle of the Carmelite mission in Persia (Chronicle of the Carmelites in Persia) Pope Paul V shall, in a letter to the Persian Shah Abbas I (1571-1629) of 3 November 1612 Syrian Orthodox Jacobites as Assyrians.

"Those in particular who are called Assyrians or Jacobites and inhabit Isfahan will be compelled to sell their very children in order to pay the heavy tax you have imposed on them, unless You take pity on their misfortune"

"Especially those who are called Assyrians or Jacobites and live in Isfahan will be forced to sell their own children in order to meet the tax burden you have imposed if you do not have mercy on them."

- Pope Paul V: letter of November 3, 1612.

In its broadest sense, the term Assyrian is usually synonymous with the term Aramean and no less controversial than this term. The existing competition of names leads to disputes because it is also politically and denominationally colored. The division of Syrian Christianity into rival denominations and church organizations is experienced by some of its members as a division of the one Mesopotamian Christian people. The efforts to unify and consolidate it show a broad, not always tension-free spectrum from religious-ecclesiastical to political-secular initiatives at home and in the diaspora. The naming of Christians as Assyrians can go hand in hand with general or cultural policy goals and be linked to different hypotheses about the ethnic origin of this group of people, such as the derivation from the Assyrians of antiquity.

Historic headline in the Washington Times on March 26, 1915 regarding the Assyrian genocide.

In the shadow of the First World War , the Armenian genocide occurred in 1915 . This genocide was directed not only against the Armenians, but also against the Syrian Christians and Assyrians. The data on the number of Syrians of different Christian denominations killed who fell victim to the systematic persecution in Mesopotamia vary from 100,000 to 250,000. This crime against humanity has been classified as genocide by various parliaments in the form of resolutions. The parliaments of the following states explicitly mentioned the Assyrians in writing as victims of the genocide of 1915: Sweden, the Netherlands, Armenia, Austria, Germany and the United States of America.

After Shimun XXI. , Catholicos-Patriarch of the Assyrian Church of the East , had concluded a war alliance with Russia during the First World War in order to achieve the independence of the Assyrian tribes from the crumbling Ottoman Empire, he first had to enter the area with numerous Assyrians from the Hakkari area in southeastern Anatolia to Urmia (in the northwest of today's Iran) and, after the withdrawal of the Russian troops from there and the fall of Urmia, with the survivors to Iraq in 1918. In the fighting and refugee treks, thousands lost their lives (see also chapter: Present). The Chaldean Catholic Church with Abraham Shimonaya , which pursues a different policy, was affected by the events, but was able to maintain its traditional settlement areas for a long time.


After the war, Great Britain resettled Assyrian refugees in the Iraqi cities of Mosul and Kirkuk and near Baghdad. What is more, auxiliary troops formed from displaced Assyrians, the Levi Rifles , helped the British Army and the Royal Air Force in the war in the hope of re-establishing an autonomous Assyrian state in or near the old settlement areas. As the most important appendage of British mandate power, the Assyrians were increasingly exposed to persecution by the Muslim peoples of Iraq after Iraq's formal independence in 1932 and the dismantling of the British troop presence. Many Assyrian families fled to Syria, but were sent back by the French mandate there. The returning refugee train was attacked by the Iraqi army in Kirkuk in 1933, killing hundreds of Assyrians (including women and children). This led to riot-like unrest in Mosul and Kirkuk, the Assyrians took up arms and in turn attacked the Iraqi troops. The Iraqi army under its commander-in-chief Bakr Sidqī suppressed the uprising in a nationalist campaign in the summer of 1933, Great Britain did not intervene. The urban Arab population welcomed this settlement. Iraq expert Sluglett noted, however, that "most of the (Assyrians) killed in the 1933 anti-army operations were subordinates of the Levies, not the Levies themselves." The greatest success of the army was basically a massacre of unarmed villagers who had sought protection in the police station of Semile ( Dahuk province ). Since then there has been an Assyrian martyr church in Semile (Sumail), which commemorates the Semile massacre .

Catholicos Patriarch Shimun XXIII. The Assyrian Church of the East and some of the Assyrian leaders demanded, among other things before the League of Nations in Geneva, a closed settlement area for their people with far-reaching autonomy, but did not get through with their demand. The patriarch had to leave Iraq with his family, settled in the USA and finally concentrated on his church duties.


The articles Christianity in Iraq and Assyrians (present) #The present overlap thematically. Help me to better differentiate or merge the articles (→  instructions ) . To do this, take part in the relevant redundancy discussion . Please remove this module only after the redundancy has been completely processed and do not forget to include the relevant entry on the redundancy discussion page{{ Done | 1 = ~~~~}}to mark. House1630 ( discussion ) 11:05 am , Dec 30, 2015 (CEST)

The majority of Assyrian Christians today live in their ancestral homeland Mesopotamia, in the western diaspora (especially Europe, the USA and Australia) due to oppression and displacement . In 1990, the former Soviet Union still had around 26,000 ethnic Assyrians (Assirijcy in Russian), who lived mainly in the Caucasian republics, as well as in Moscow and Leningrad (Saint Petersburg). These Nestorian and Jacobite Assyrians come from the area around Lake Urmia in Iran, from where they emigrated to the Russian Empire due to persecution in the 19th century and to the Soviet republics after World War II.

The Tur Abdin is considered a historical settlement area of ​​the Assyrians.

In the old settlement areas in Hakkari and Tur Abdin in today's south-east Turkey, there are only about 4,000 Assyrians left, almost exclusively of the Syrian Orthodox Church , due to heavy emigration and emigration . Tur Abdin is the Aramaic term for "mountain of servants [of God]", the limestone mountains in northern Mesopotamia are one of the most important centers of early Christianity. The Assyrians have professed Christianity in this region since the fourth century. Monasteries like Mor Gabriel , built in 397, are living cultural heritage of this impressive region.

However, Assyrian communities still exist in northern Iraq, in the Mosul plains and in the Baghdad region, as well as in north-east, central Syria and three villages around Damascus , including Maalula .

Recently, the Assyrians in their homeland in northern Iraq have come into conflict with the Kurds again. Kurdish leader Barzani had accused them in 1971 of supporting the settlement of Arabs forced by the Iraqi regime in Kirkuk in order to undermine the Kurds there. Since the victories of the US allies and Kurdish volunteers over the Iraqi regime in 1991 and 2003, Assyrians in Kirkuk have been complaining about an expulsion policy by the Kurds who want to make Kirkuk the capital of their autonomous region . According to Assyrian political and social organizations as well as Christian churches, Chaldo-Assyrian Christians also suffer from similar reprisals in the Nineveh Plain (where they represent the majority of the population) and in the city of Mosul in the province of Ninawa .

According to Chaldean Catholic bishops, the current war in Iraq is making the situation of Christians there ever more threatening. The Auxiliary Bishop Andreos Abouna estimates that of the previous 1.4 million Christians, only 600,000 remain in their Iraqi homeland. Archbishop Louis Sako von Kirkuk announced that the situation was only bearable in the Kurdish region. “There are cities there. in which the number of Christians has doubled in three years ”. According to estimates by the CIA World Fact Book, the proportion of Christians in Iraq was only 0.8% in mid-2015. The ethnic share of the Turkmens, Assyrians and other minorities in the total population is given as 5%.

Assyrian flag

The Assyrian flag (designed in 1968; adopted in 1971)

The Assyrian flag has its origin in the representation of the ancient Assyrian sun god Shamash , on which the sun disk stands on an altar. The golden circle in the middle represents the sun, which generates heat and light with its flames in order to sustain the living beings of the earth. The star that surrounds the sun symbolizes the land, the light blue color symbolizes serenity. The undulating stripes represent the three main rivers of the Assyrian homeland: the Tigris , the Euphrates and the great Zab . The dark blue stripes represent the Euphrates. The Assyrian name for the Euphrates is "Frot" or "Prat". The red stripes stand for courage, glory and pride, they represent the Tigris. The white lines between these two great rivers represent the great Zab, the white color symbolizes peace. Some interpret the red white and blue stripes as the paths that will lead the scattered Assyrians back to their ancestral homeland.

Above the Assyrian flag, the god of the Assyrians, Ashur, from pre-Christian times can be seen.

The Assyrian eagle

The Assyrians also introduced the Assyrian eagle earlier, which however shows the head of the Assyrian god Assyrian instead of the sun. Very often a star is shown in the background, which is often interpreted as a “spiritual cross” and represents the name of Jesus.


Syrian Orthodox Cathedral of St. Jacob of Nisibis in the Swedish province of Stockholm County

Due to persecution, repression and oppression in their ancient homeland of Mesopotamia , most of the Assyrians now live in the western diaspora .

Europe: According to the Assyrian Confederation of Europe , 500,000 Assyrians live in Western Europe. 135,000 Assyrians live in Germany. Around 100,000 Assyrians have found a new home in Sweden. Other states with an Assyrian community are: Belgium, France, Switzerland, Netherlands, United Kingdom, Denmark, Spain and Austria. The majority of Europeans with Assyrian roots belong to the Syriac Orthodox Church of Antioch .

North America: The first groups of Assyrian emigrants reached the US state of New Jersey in the 1910s. They came mainly from Diyarbakır . This is how the first Syrian Orthodox Church in the United States came into being in West Hoboken (now North Bergen ) in New Jersey. There are over 120,000 Assyrians living in the United States of America today, many of whom have settled in the metropolitan area of ​​Detroit . The first Assyrians emigrated to North Battleford in Canada in 1902 . Today Canada is home to around 25,000 Assyrians, most of whom live in Toronto , Hamilton, and Ottawa .

Caucasus : From 1915 there was also an Assyrian community in Azerbaijan . Most of the Assyrians in Azerbaijan were forcibly relocated to Tomsk Oblast, Russia , in 1949 . Around 3,000 Assyrians live in Armenia today, the majority of Assyrians live in the following villages: Arzni, Verin Dvin, Dimitrov and Nor Artagers. They are the descendants of refugees from various waves of persecution, for example during the Russo-Persian War from 1826 to 1828 or during the genocide of the Assyrians in 1915.

Australia / Oceania : Australia has had an Assyrian community since the 1960s. A significant proportion of the roughly 40,000 Australians with Assyrian roots live in a western suburb of Sydney called Fairfield. New Zealand is now home to around 6,000 Assyrians, almost two thirds of whom are in the Wellington region .

New year celebration

The Assyrian New Year celebrations in Fairfield, Australia (western suburb of Sydney).

Due to the Assyrian calendar , the Assyrians celebrate the new Assyrian year every April 1st . This festival is known as Akitu or "Ha b'Nison" and is celebrated worldwide in the form of a family festival . Akitu stands symbolically for a new beginning, the sowing as well as for the spirit and life to draw new strength and hope.


The TV channels aimed at Assyrians that can be received via the Internet or satellite include: Assyria TV (Södertälje, Sweden), Suroyo TV (Södertälje, Sweden), Suryoyo Sat (Södertälje, Sweden), ANB Sat (San Jose, USA) ), KBSV-TV 23, AssyriaVision (Ceres, USA) and Ishtar TV (Ankawa, Iraq).


By far the most popular and widespread sport among the Assyrians is football. This applies to both the Mesopotamian homeland of the Assyrians and the Assyrian diaspora. In Sweden, for example, two teams have now made it into the top football league. Both the football club Assyriska FF and the competing club Syrianska FC were able to compete as emigrant teams in the highest Swedish league.

List of personalities of Assyrian ethnicity

Actors and filmmakers



  • Erol Dora , Turkish politician, MP and lawyer, elected in Mardin Province
  • Anna Eshoo , US Senator, member of the US Congress

In the near East

Religious personalities

  • Syriac Orthodox Church of Antioch
    Mor Philoxenos Yahanon Dolabani
    • Mor Michael the Syrian (also known as Michael Syrus or Michael the Great), Patriarch (* 1126 in Melitene, today Battalgazi ; † November 7, 1199 )
    • Mor Ignatius Ephrem I Barsum , Patriarch ( June 15, 1887 in Mosul ; † June 23, 1957 in Homs )
    • Mor Philoxenos Yuhanon Dolabani , Metropolitan of Mardin and learned author (1885 - † 1969)
    • Mor Philoxenos Saliba Özmen, Archbishop of Mardin / Diyarbakir and Abbot of the Deyrulzafaran Monastery . The monastery dates back to the fifth century.
    • Mor Theophilus George Saliba, Metropolitan of the Diocese of Lebanon and Tripoli / Beirut. Since 1973 Vicar of the Patriarch for Lebanon.
    • Mor Julius Abdulahad Gallo Shabo, Archbishop of Sweden and Scandinavia since 1987 (born March 8, 1951)
    • Abuna Bitris Ögünc, in 1971 Bitris Ögünc became the first pastor for the diaspora in Central Europe (* 1937 in Midyat; † January 26, 2014 in Augsburg)
    • Abuna Shamun Bagandi, priest of the Mor Malke congregation in Delbrück, known for his sermons among the diaspora all over Europe
    • Abuna Dr. Emanuel Aydin, Chorepiskopos of St. Ephrem Church in Vienna, winner of the 'Golden Merit of the Republic of Austria', (* May 16, 1947 in Midyat)


Assyrian patriots and nationalists

  • Agha Petros , Assyrian military leader in World War I
  • Freydun Atturaya , founder of the first Assyrian party, 1917
  • Naum Faiq (1868–1930), journalist, teacher and poet
  • Ashur Yousif
  • Farid Nazha
  • Jacques Gorek from Kerboran
  • Gabriel Afram, author, journalist and publicist
  • Ninos Aho, Assyrian poet and activist (born April 24, 1945 in Gerkeh-Shamo, Syria, † July 15, 2013 in San Pedro , Los Angeles)
  • Israel Makko, one of the founding fathers of the Assyrian Mesopotamia Association in Augsburg in 1978, (* 1937 in Enhil; † September 30, 2018 in Augsburg)



See also


  • Kenan Araz: persecution, escape, asylum. Refugee talks, refugee interviews with Assyrians. Ars Una, Neuried 2001. ISBN 3-89391-110-3 .
  • Burchard Brentjes : The Armenians, Assyrians and Kurds: Three Nations, one fate? . Richi Press, Campbell 1997, ISBN 0-9659623-1-8 .
  • Michel Chevalier: Les montagnards chrétiens du Hakkâri et du Kurdistan septentrional . Dépt. de Géographie de l'Univ. de Paris-Sorbonne, Paris 1985, ISBN 2-901165-13-3 .
  • H. Chick: A Chronicle of the Carmelites in Persia. 2 volumes, London 1939.
  • James Farwell Coakley: The Church of the East and the Church of England. Clarendon Press, Oxford 1992. ISBN 0-19-826744-4 .
  • Wolfgang Gockel : Iraq. Sumerian temples, Babylon's palaces and holy places of Islam in Mesopotamia. Dumont art travel guide. Du Mont, Cologne 2001. ISBN 3-7701-4949-1 .
  • Augin Kurt Haninke: The Heirs of Patriarch Shaker. Nineveh Press, 2018, ISBN 978-91-984100-7-5 .
  • Svante Lundgren: The Assyrians: From Ninive to Gütersloh Lit Verlag, Münster 2016, ISBN 9783643132567 .
  • Abdo Mirza, Franz-Rudolf Müller: “We came to the Chabour barefoot, we are forced to walk again barefoot.” Flight, expulsion and hostage of the Assyrian Christians from Tal Goran (Al-Hassake, Northern Syria). Personal report of Abdo Mirza and his family. Lit Verlag, Berlin / Münster 2019, ISBN 978-3-643-14320-4 .
  • Abrohom Mirza: Documentation on the assassinations and persecution of Assyrian Christians in Turkey 1976-2007. ADO , Frauenfeld 2007, ISBN 3-931358-12-7 .
  • P. & M. Sluglett: Iraq since 1958 - from revolution to dictatorship. Suhrkamp, ​​Frankfurt am Main 1991, ISBN 3-518-11661-4 .
  • Salâhi R. Sonyel: The Assyrians Of Turkey Victims Of Major Power Policy . Türk Tarih Kurumu, Ankara 2001, ISBN 975-16-1296-9 .
  • Gabriele Yonan: Assyrians today . Society for Threatened Peoples , Hamburg 1978, ISBN 3-922197-00-0 .
  • Gabriele Yonan: A Forgotten Holocaust, The Destruction of the Christian Assyrians in Turkey. Society for threatened peoples, Göttingen 1989. ISBN 3-922197-25-6 .

Web links

Commons : Assyrians (present day)  - Collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. Shabo Talay: Šlomo Surayt: An introductory course in Surayt Aramaic (Turoyo). Shabo Talay, 2017, accessed November 1, 2019 .
  2. Shlemon Yonan, Annelore Hermes, Gernot Wiessner: Assyrer - Christian minority in the Middle East. Society for Threatened Peoples, April 22, 2005, accessed November 1, 2019 .
  3. Svante Lundgren: The Assyrians: from Nineveh to Gütersloh . Ed .: LIT, 2015. LIT Verlag, Berlin 2015, ISBN 978-3-643-13256-7 , pp. 176 .
  4. Foreign Office: Foreign Office - Armenia . In: Foreign Office DE . ( Online [accessed October 10, 2018]).
  5. Sharo Ibrahim Garip: Ethnic Conflicts in Comparison: Basque Country - Kurdistan . LIT Verlag Münster, 2013, ISBN 978-3-643-90325-9 ( [accessed October 10, 2018]).
  6. ^ Sabatino Moscati. German Transferred from E. Kümmerer: History and culture of the Semitic peoples. In: . Stuttgart: Kohlhammer, 1955, accessed on December 31, 2019 (German).
  7. Moscati, Sabatino, Sandkühler, Bruno: The old Semitic cultures. In: . Stuttgart: Kohlhammer, 1961, accessed on December 31, 2019 (German).
  8. Shlemon Yonan, Annelore Hermes, Gernot Wiessner: Assyrer - Christian minority in the Middle East. Society for Threatened Peoples, April 22, 2005
  9. Sargon Donabed: Reforging a Forgotten History: Iraq and the Assyrians in the Twentieth Century . Edinburgh University Press, 2015, ISBN 978-0-7486-8605-6 ( [accessed February 23, 2019]).
  10. Dietmar W. Winkler: "Islamic State": On the run again . In: The time . March 5, 2015, ISSN  0044-2070 ( [accessed January 12, 2020]).
  11. ^ Archdiocese of Vienna: Ecumenical major event from November 26th in Vienna. Retrieved on May 20, 2020 (German).
  12. Hans-Joachim Löwer: With fire and sword: How Christians are persecuted today in the Middle East . Styriabooks, 2016, ISBN 978-3-99040-422-5 ( [accessed October 11, 2018]).
  13. A Little Known Genocide | a3culture | Feuilleton for Augsburg. Retrieved May 13, 2020 .
  14. Assyrian Christians: Ancient Community in the IS-Visor. February 27, 2015, accessed May 13, 2020 .
  15. Shabo Talay: Šlomo Surayt: an introductory course in Surayt Aramaic (Turoyo) . Ed .: Shabo Talay. Bar Habraeus Verlag, Glane 2017, ISBN 978-90-5047-065-0 , pp. 2 ( Online [PDF; accessed February 10, 2019]).
  16. Nicholas Awde, Nineb Lamassu, Nicholas Al-Jeloo: Modern Aramaic (Assyrian / Syriac) . Ed .: HIPPOCRENE BOOKS, INC. HIPPOCRENE BOOKS, INC., New York 2007, ISBN 978-0-7818-1087-6 .
  17. Lundgren Svante: The Assyrians from Nineveh to Gütersloh. Lit Verlag, Berlin, ISBN 9783643132567
  18. Šlomo Surayt. Retrieved December 21, 2019 .
  19. ^ Assyrian Neo-Aramaic. Retrieved December 21, 2019 .
  20. Chaldean Neo-Aramaic. Retrieved December 21, 2019 .
  21. H. Chick: A Chronicle of the Carmelites in Persia. London 1939, p. 100.
  22. Susanne Güsten: Genocide: The year of the sword . In: The time . April 18, 2015, ISSN  0044-2070 ( online [accessed October 27, 2019]).
  23. Long struggle for remembrance. Retrieved October 27, 2019 .
  24. Martin Tamcke: The genocide of the Assyrians / Nestorians. In: Tessa Hofmann (ed.): Persecution, expulsion and annihilation of Christians in the Ottoman Empire. 1912-1922. Lit, Münster 2004, ISBN 3-8258-7823-6 . Pp. 103-118, here: pp. 110 f. ( PDF ).
  25. ^ Hannibal Travis: The Assyrian Genocide. A Talo of Oblivion and Denial. In: Rene Lemarchand (Ed.): Forgotten Genocides. Oblivion, Denial, and Memory. University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia 2011, ISBN 978-0-8122-0438-4 , pp. 123-136, here: p. 127.
  26. admintv: International Conference: Seyfo 1915 - Panel I - Part I. August 5, 2015, accessed on November 11, 2019 (sv-SE).
  27. Sweden angered Turkey. March 13, 2010, accessed November 11, 2019 .
  28. Mass murder of Armenians - Netherlands on course for confrontation with Turkey. February 23, 2018, accessed November 11, 2019 .
  29. adoption of declaration to certify did Armenia Recognizes Greek and Assyrian genocide: Eduard Sharmazanov. Retrieved November 11, 2019 .
  30. ^ Austrian Parliament Recognizes Armenian, Assyrian, Greek Genocide. Retrieved November 11, 2019 .
  31. ^ German Recognition of Armenian, Assyrian Genocide: History and Politics. Retrieved November 11, 2019 .
  32. ^ Deutsche Welle ( Erdogan outraged by US resolution on Armenia | DW | 10/30/2019. Retrieved November 11, 2019 .
  33. ^ US House of Representatives Passes Resolution Recognizing Armenian, Assyrian, Greek Genocide. Retrieved November 11, 2019 .
  34. ^ Adam B. Schiff: Text - H.Res. 296 - 116th Congress (2019-2020): Affirming the United States record on the Armenian Genocide. October 29, 2019, accessed November 11, 2019 .
  35. P. & M. Sluglett: Iraq since 1958 - from revolution to dictatorship. Suhrkamp, ​​Frankfurt 1991, p. 25 u. 295f, ISBN 3-518-11661-4
  36. Heinz-Gerhard Zimpel: Lexicon of the world population. Nikol Verlag, Hamburg 1997, p. 43, ISBN 3-933203-84-8
  37. ^ Rudolf A. Mark: The peoples of the Soviet Union. Westdeutscher Verlag, Opladen 1989, p. 41, ISBN 3-531-12075-1
  38. ^ Assyrian Christians fear for their future in Turkey. June 5, 2020, accessed June 20, 2020 .
  39. ^ A new beginning in Assyrian villages in south-east Turkey | NZZ . November 19, 2004, ISSN  0376-6829 ( online [accessed November 22, 2019]).
  40. ^ People are looking for a home - Arameans and Assyrians between Germany and Turkey. Retrieved November 22, 2019 .
  41. The sufferings of the servants of God. December 24, 2008, accessed November 23, 2019 .
  42. ^ Rainer Hermann, Mardin: Christians in Turkey: On the mountain of servants . ISSN  0174-4909 ( Online [accessed November 23, 2019]).
  43. Le Monde , May 25, 1971
  44. ^ Assyrian Confederation of Europe: ERASING ASSYRIANS: How the KRG Abuses Human Rights, Undermines Democracy, and Conquers Minority Homelands. Assyrian Confederation of Europe, September 25, 2017, accessed June 20, 2020 .
  45. Christ in der Gegenwart Freiburg 2006, Volume 58, p. 370. ISSN  0170-5148
  46. ^ Iraq in the CIA World Factbook , accessed December 30, 2015
  47. ^ Assyrian Universal Alliance. In: Assyrian Universal Alliance. Retrieved April 18, 2020 (American English).
  48. ^ Frank Nordhausen: For the first time since 1923, Aramaic Christians in Turkey receive a new church | NZZ . August 18, 2019, ISSN  0376-6829 ( online [accessed September 17, 2019]).
  49. Middle East: Genocide 1915 - "The religious cleansing has not stopped to this day". In: CSI Switzerland. Retrieved January 4, 2020 (Swiss Standard German).
  50. ABOUT. Retrieved September 17, 2019 .
  51. ^ Assyrian interest group founded - Association of a displaced people. Retrieved September 17, 2019 .
  52. Sweden: Great interest in Syrian Orthodox World Youth Meeting - Vatican News. August 13, 2019, accessed September 17, 2019 .
  53. A very special feast day in the Benediktbeuern basilica. August 14, 2019, accessed September 17, 2019 .
  54. Rescue from need: Sweden helps persecuted Christians from Syria. October 10, 2014, accessed September 17, 2019 .
  55. Sabine Berking: Karl-Markus Gauß: The happy goers of Roana: The woman as a dictionary. Frankfurter Allgemeine, March 28, 2009
  56. Memorial in Belgium commemorates the Assyrian victims of the genocide of 1915. August 5, 2013, accessed on September 17, 2019 .
  57. Assyrians found national association in France. February 10, 2018, accessed September 17, 2019 .
  58. ^ Meeting between Federal Councilor Alain Berset and the Syrian Orthodox Patriarch Ignatius Ephrem II Karim. Retrieved September 17, 2019 .
  59. Tobias Müller: integration debate in the Netherlands: Party Ali and Jan . In: The daily newspaper: taz . June 10, 2016, ISSN  0931-9085 ( online [accessed September 17, 2019]).
  60. ^ Katia Youssef: Assyrians in the UK. Retrieved November 7, 2019 .
  61. ^ Assyrians in Denmark - Assyrian Media in Denmark. Accessed November 7, 2019 (da-DK).
  62. admintv: Interview with Bishop of Spain Nicolaus Matti Abd Alahad. June 24, 2018, accessed December 31, 2019 (sv-SE).
  63. The Christian Assyrians in Vienna. March 31, 2012, accessed September 17, 2019 .
  64. Christianity - The Syrian Orthodox Church. Retrieved September 17, 2019 .
  65. Our Syriac History | Assyrian Orthodox Church of the Virgin Mary. Retrieved January 3, 2020 (American English).
  66. ^ Assyrians Commemorate Historic Leader. Retrieved January 3, 2020 .
  67. Our Syriac History | Assyrian Orthodox Church of the Virgin Mary. Retrieved January 3, 2020 (American English).
  68. Finance and Economy: Minorities. Retrieved October 26, 2019 .
  69. ^ The First Assyrian Settlers in Canada. Retrieved December 11, 2019 .
  70. Statistics Canada Government of Canada: Census Profile, 2016 Census - Timmins [Census agglomeration], Ontario and Ontario [Province]. February 8, 2017, accessed December 11, 2019 .
  71. Samir Hasanov: Assyrians in Muslim Azerbaijan., December 16, 2016
  72. JASMINE DUM-TRAGUT, LILIA GYOZALYAN: The "Assyrians" of Armenia. Retrieved May 23, 2020 .
  73. GlobalGaz: The Assyrians Of Armenia - GlobalGaz Assyrians in Armenia. In: GlobalGaz. June 15, 2019, accessed May 23, 2020 (American English).
  74. ^ First comprehensive book about Assyrians in Australia. Retrieved December 9, 2019 .
  75. 'Happy and proud': Hundreds ring in Assyrian New Year in Australia. Retrieved December 9, 2019 .
  76. ^ Assyrian priest urges NZ to take on refugees . October 7, 2014, ISSN  1170-0777 ( [accessed December 16, 2019]).
  77. Wilfred Alkhas: Assyrian Calendar. May 26, 2001, accessed December 31, 2019 .
  78. wishes you a happy Assyrian New Year. April 1, 2009, accessed December 27, 2019 (German).
  79. Arnold Schwarzenegger: Kha B'Nissan Assyrian New Year 6754th State Capitol - Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger, March 21, 2004. Retrieved on December 31, 2019 (English).
  80. Dr Christian Kahl: djo - German Youth in Europe - Landesverband NRW eV | Akitu in NRW: Young Assyrians wish "Happy Assyrian New Year 6769". Accessed December 27, 2019 (German).
  81. A merry, happy, and peaceful Akitu 6767 (2017). April 1, 2017, accessed December 27, 2019 (German).
  82. Cord Aschenbrenner: «You don't need to be sad that we are so few» | NZZ. Retrieved December 27, 2019 .
  83. Leyla Dere: Escape from Syria: Happy days in Sweden . In: The daily newspaper: taz . August 8, 2014, ISSN  0931-9085 ( [accessed December 27, 2019]).
  84. Sportsworld -Assyrian football in Sweden -24 Sep 07 - Part 1. Retrieved on December 27, 2019 (German).
  85. Turkey: “Christians Need More Help” - Vatican News. September 23, 2019, accessed May 21, 2020 .
  86. Bitris Ögünc: Pastor of ecumenism and unity. January 28, 2014, accessed on March 28, 2020 (German).
  87. ^ CV of Dr. Emanuel Aydin. Retrieved April 10, 2020 .
  88. "Music is one of the most important things that keep our people alive." November 25, 2011, accessed April 10, 2020 (German).
  89. admintv: Josef Cacan Live show - Ninib Ablahad Lahdo. January 27, 2019, accessed April 10, 2020 (sv-SE).
  90. Eva Maria Häfele: The beautiful Christian. Retrieved April 10, 2020 .
  91. admintv: Exclusive interview with composer Father George Chachan about modern Assyrian folk song history. May 22, 2019, accessed April 10, 2020 (sv-SE).
  92. Arsanis said on March 15, 2016 at 8:20 pm: "The History of the Assyrian Movement In Sweden". May 25, 2006, accessed on August 17, 2020 (German).
  93. Ninos Aho | The Great Assyrian Poet. Retrieved August 5, 2020 .
  94. On the death of Israel Makko. October 29, 2018, accessed on March 28, 2020 (German).