East Syrian rite

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The East Syrian Rite , also known as Chaldean Rite and Persian Rite ( Frank Edward Brightman ), is the Christian worship service of the ancient Mesopotamian-Persian Catholic Seleukia-Ctesiphon and its successor churches , namely: (a) Assyrian Church of the East , (b) Chaldean Catholic Church Church and (c) Syro-Malabar Church .

In the early days, Christianity in this region was probably based on the model of the Edessa church . Formative centers of its own development in the history of liturgy were the cathedral of the Catholicos of Seleukia-Ctesiphon, called Kokhe, and the “Upper Monastery” near Mosul . The oldest surviving documents of the rite are the questions answered by Catholicos Ischo'jabh I (581-595) and the fragment of an otherwise unknown Eucharistic prayer in the Codex Brit. Libr. Add. 14669 (6th century). The East Syrian liturgy experienced its essential shaping under Catholicos Ischo'jabh III. (647-658). Self-names of the cathedral type of East Syrian worship are: "Custom of the church of Kokhe", "Custom of Māḥōzē", long version: "Custom of the church of Kokhe in Māḥōzayē, that is Seleukia-Ctesiphon of Bēh Ardāšir, royal city and seat of the Catholicos in the east ".

There is a rich literature by local theologians on liturgical topics: Narsai of Nisibis († 503); Gabriel of Qatar (early 7th century), pseudo-Georgios of Arbela, probably identical with Metropolitan ʿAbdīšōʿ bar Bahrīz of Mosul (1st half of the 9th century), Emmanuel bar Shahhare (10th century), Catholicos Mar Ischo'jabh IV. (1020-1025), Yohannan bar Zoʽbi († 1233?) And Catholicos Timotheos II. (1318-1328 / 32).

General literature

  • Heinzgerd Brakmann : East Syrian liturgy . In: Religion Past and Present . 4th ed., Vol. 6., 2003, Col. 747-749 (with further literature).
  • Pierre Yousif (Ed.): A Classified Bibliography on the East Syrian Liturgy. La bibliographie classifiée de la liturgie syrienne orientale . Mar Thoma Yogam, Rome 1990.
  • C. Moussess: Les livres liturgiques de l'Eglise chaldéenne. Impr. La Photo-Presse, Beyrouth 1955.

The liturgical books

Eucharistic celebration

As in all Christian churches, in the East Syrian rite the celebration of the Eucharist forms the center of church life. The celebration has the following structure:


I. Pre-fair ( Enarxis )

  1. Input formula
  2. Marmitha (two to four psalms )
  3. Antiphon of the barriers
  4. Singing Lakhu Mara

II. Word worship

  1. Trishagion
  2. Biblical Readings:
  3. Diaconal litany , bowing prayers and dismissal

III. Eucharist

  1. Peace kiss
  2. Diptychs
  3. Eucharistic prayer
  4. Fractio and Consignatio
  5. Our Father
  6. Elevatio (showing the gifts)
  7. Communion
  8. Tesbohta
  9. thanksgiving
  10. Discharge


Three Eucharistic Prayers have remained in use. The normal form is the " Anaphora of the Apostles Addai and Mari", who are venerated as the founders of the East Syrian "Church of the East". Occasionally in the liturgical year the other two Syrian anaphors are in use, which have Greek names but are not of Greek origin and are therefore pseudepigraphs .


  • Andreas Heinz: Light from the East. The Eucharistic celebration of the Thomas Christians, the Assyrians and the Chaldeans with the anaphora of Addai and Mari (Sophia 35). Paulinus, Trier 2008, ISBN 978-3-7902-1459-8
  • A. Gelston: The Eucharistic Prayer of Addai and Mari . Clarendon Press, Oxford 1992. ISBN 0-19-826737-1 . - Reconstruction of an early form by William Macomber (PDF file; 34 kB)
  • Jacob Vadakkel: The East Syrian Anaphora of Mar Theodore of Mopsuestia. Critical Edition, English Translation and Study . Oriental Institute of Religious Studies India, Vadavathoor, Kottayam 1989.
  • Jacob Naduthadam: L'Anaphore de Mar Nestorius. Édition critique et étude , Diss. (Mach.) Institut Catholique, Paris 1992 (unprinted).
  • Robert Matheus: The Order of the Third Sanctification . Department of Publ. Of Paurastya Vidyapitham, Vadavathoor, Kottayam 2000. ISBN 81-86063-77-3


ISBN 3-8258-7342-0

Other liturgical celebrations

Initiation liturgy (baptism)

Their order of worship is traditionally given to the Catholicos Ischo'jabh III. (647-658) attributed.

  • G. Diettrich: The Nestorian baptismal liturgy translated into German using the latest manuscript finds, historically and critically researched . J. Ricker'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung, Giessen, 1903. ( online );
  • Clemens Leonhard: The initiation after the Expositio Officiorum Ecclesiae (the Pseudo-Georgios of Arbela). In: Martin Tamcke (Ed.): Syriaca (= Studies on Oriental Church History 1). Lit-Verlag, Münster 2002, 321–354.
  • Francis Pittappillil: Baptismal Memrāˀ of Anonymous Author of the Ninth Century [= Pseudo-George of Arbela]. In: Liturgia Sacra 24 (2018) 71-91.


  • F. Van de Paverd: Forme celebrative del matrimonio nelle Chiese orientali . In: La celebrazione del matrimonio cristiano. Atti della V settimana dei professori italiani di Liturgia. EDB, Bologna 1977, 11-116. Without ISBN.
  • Pierre Yousif: La célébration du mariage dans le rite chaldéen . In: G. Farnedi (ed.): La celebrazione cristiana del matrimonio (= Studia Anselmiana 93). Roma 1896, 217-259.


  • William Toma: The Mystery of the Church: Syriac Critical Edition and Translation of the Rite of the Consecration of the Altar with Oil and the Chapter “On the Consecration of the Church” from the Book of the Seven Causes of the Mysteries of the Church by Patriarch Timothy II . Excerpta ex Dissertatione ad Doctoratum (Rome: Pontificium Institutum Orientalium Studiorum, 2007).

Time of day liturgy

  • Breviarium Chaldaicum juxta Syrorum orientalium id est Chaldaeorum , ed. by Paul Bedjan , 3 vols. Leipzig, 1886-7; Reprints: Rome 1938 and 2002 (abridged) (in Syrian).
  • Ktaba da-Qdam wad-Batar wad-Hudra wad-Kashkol wad-Gazza w-Qala d-`Udrane `am Ktaba d-Mazmure , ed. by Thomas Darmo , 3 vols. Trichur 1960–1962. (in Syrian language).
  • Joseph Molitor: Chaldean Breviary. Ordinarium of the East Syrian Liturgy of the Hours. Translated and explained Düsseldorf 1961.
  • Juan Mateos: Lelya-Sapra: Les Offices chaldéens de la nuit et du matin (Orientalia Christiana Analecta 156). 2e éd. Pont. Inst. Orient. Stud., Roma 1972. Without ISBN
  • SH Jammo: L'Office du soir chaldéen au temps de Gabriel Qatraya . In: L'Orient Syrien 12 (1967) 187-210.
  • Sylvester Pudichery: Ramsa. An Analysis and Interpretation of the Chaldean Vespers . Dharmaram College, Bangalore 1972. Without ISBN
  • Joseph M. Schönfelder: Analecta Syriaca. Hymns, proclamations and songs of martyrs from the Nestorian Breviary . In: Theologische Viertelschrift 48 (1866) 170–200 (with an introduction to the Eastern Syrian liturgy of the hours as well as translation samples from Cod. Syr. 4 of the Bavarian State Library, an Eastern Syriac Psalter with additions from 1607).
  • J. Vellian: The East Syrian Monastic Divine Office . In: Journal of Eastern Christian Studies 56 (2004) 293-301.

Fasting and celebrations

  • Paul Krüger: The Syrian's Aphremic Requests for Rain, their tradition with special consideration of the Nestorian office of the Ninivite fasts and their significance in the history of religion . In: Oriens Christianus 30 (1933) 13-61. 144-151.
  • Peter Kuruthukulangara: The Feast of the Nativity of our Lord in the Chaldean and Malabar Liturgical Year. A study of the sources . Vadavathoor, Kottayam; ORISI Publ. 1989, XLV, 314 pp. (Orient. Inst. Of Rel. Stud. India 127).
  • Thomas Thankachan: The Feast of the Epiphany in the Church of the East (Assyrian, Chaldean and Syro-Malabar) , Diss. Rome: Pontificio Istituto Orientale 2004/05.
  • Antony George Kollamparampil: The Life-giving Paschal Lamb (Great Week Celebrations in the East Syrian Liturgy) . Changanassery, Kerala, India: HIRS Publications 1997. 280 pp. (Catholic Theological Studies of India 2; HIRS India Series 16).
  • Sebastian P. Brock: A Concordance to Bedjan's Breviarium Chaldaicum and Darmo's Hudra . In: The Harp 19 (2006) 117-136.

Web links

Individual evidence

  1. Dietmar W. Winkler: East Syrian Christianity. Lit, 2003, ISBN 978-3-8258-6796-6 , p. 214. Restricted preview in Google Book Search
  2. ^ William Macomber: A Theory of the Origins of the Syrian, Maroite and Chaldean Rites . In: Orientalia Christiana Periodica 39 (1973) 235-242.
  3. ^ WF Macomber: The Chaldean Lectionary System of the Cathedral Church of Kokhe . In: Orientalia Christiana Periodica 33 (1967) 483-516; see. Marica Cassis: Kokhe, Cradle of the Church of the East: An Archaeological and Comparative Study . In: Journal of the Canadian Society for Syriac Studies 2 (2002) 62-78.
  4. Adolf Rücker: The "Upper Monastery" near Mosul and its significance for the history of the Eastern Syrian liturgy . In: Oriens Christianus 29 (1932) 180-187.
  5. Prasanna Vazheeparampil: The Anaphoral Celebration in the Letter of Catholicos Isoʿ Yahb I. (581-595) In: Ostkirchliche Studien 44 (1995) 309-338.
  6. ^ RH Connolly: Sixth-Century Fragments of an East-Syrian Anaphora . In: Oriens Christianus NS 12-14 (1926) 99-128.
  7. JM Fiey, Iso'yaw le Grand. Vie du catholicos nestorien Iso'yaw III d'Adiabene (580-659) . In: Orientalia Christiana Periodica 35 (1969) 305-333; 36 (1970) 5-46.
  8. ^ RH Connolly: The Liturgical Homilies of Narsai, Cambridge 1909; see. Luise Abramowski: The liturgical homily of Ps.Narses with the confession of the Mass and a quote from Theodor . In: Bulletin of the John Rylands University Library of Manchester 78, 3 (1996) 87-100.
  9. ^ Sebastian P. Brock: Gabriel of Qatar's Commentary on the Liturgy , In: Hugoye. Journal of Syriac Studies (e-Zeitschrift) 6, 2. 2003, 58 p. (Without p. Count), also in: Sebastian Brock: Fire from Heaven. Studies in Syriac Theology and Liturgy . Ashgate, Aldershot 2006. No. XVII. ISBN 0-7546-5908-9 .
  10. ^ A Commentary on the Mass (which has been attributed to, but is not really) by the Nestorian George, Bishop of Mosul and Arbel (10th Century) . Transl. from the Syriac by RH Connolly (1909). Ed. by Ms. Robert Matheus. Vadavathoor, Kottayam: OIRSI 2000, VI. 150 pp. (OIRSI Publ. 243). ISBN 81-86063-80-3 ; see. Idris Emlek: Mystery Celebration of the East Syrian Church in the 9th century. The interpretation of the divine liturgy according to the 4th treatise of an anonymous liturgy declaration . Münster: Lit 2004. 254 pp. (Aesthetics - Theology - Liturgy 30). ISBN 3-8258-7342-0 ; Francis Pittappillil: The celebration of the holy mysteries: a critical study of the eucharistic treatise in the exposition of the Church services of Pseudo-George of Arbel of the 9th century (OIRSI 347). Kottayam Oriental Institute of Religious Studies-India 2011. xviii, 369 pages. ISBN 978-81-88456-72-7 .
  11. Vincent van Vossel: Quelques remarques en marge du Memra sur le baptême d'Emmanuel bar Shahharé . In: Questions liturgiques / Studies in Liturgy 82,2 (2001) 128-147
  12. WC van Unnik: Nestorian Questions on the administration of the Eucharist by Isho 'Yahb IV . Haarlem 1937; Antony George Kollamparampil: Catholicos Mar Išoʿ Yahb IV on the Eucharist. An eleventh-century witness to the ordering of the Holy Qurbānâ of the Church of the East . In: Euntes Docete 48 (1995) 427-449.
  13. John Bar Zoʽbi, Explanation of the Divine Mysteries . Transl. by Thomas Mannooramparampil. Kottayam: OIRSI 1992. 86 pp. (OIRSI Publ. 157).
  14. ^ W. de Vries: Timothy II. (1318-32), On the seven reasons of the ecclesiastical secrets . In. Orientalia Christiana Periodica 8 (1942) 40-94; Paul B. Kadicheeni: The Mystery of Baptism. The Text and Translation of the Chapter "On Holy Baptism" from "The Causes of the Seven Mysteries of the Church" by Timothy II Nestorian Patriarch (1318-1333) . Charmaram, Bangalore 1980; William Toma: The Mystery of the Church: Syriac Critical Edition and Translation of the Rite of the Consecration of the Altar with Oil and the Chapter “On the Consecration of the Church” from the Book of the Seven Causes of the Mysteries of the Church by Patriarch Timothy II . Excerpta ex Dissertatione ad Doctoratum (Rome: Pontificium Institutum Orientalium Studiorum, 2007).
  15. For various modern supplementary attempts cf. Predag ​​Bukovec: The many installation reports from Addai and Mari . In: Orientalia Christiana Periodica 85 (2019) 5–22.
  16. Summary: https://www.orientecristiano.it/risorse/studi/74-thankachan-thomas-the-feast-of-the-epiphany-in-the-church-of-the-east.html .