|Province :||West Azerbaijan|
|Residents :||736,224 (2016)|
|Area code :||441|
|Time zone :||UTC +3: 30|
Urmia ( Persian ارومیه Orūmīyeh ; Azerbaijani Urmu, Urumiyə ; Turkish Urmiye ; Kurdish ورمێ Wurmê, Urmê ; Syrian ܐܘܪܡܝܐ), meanwhile also Rezaieh (رضائیه Rezaiyeh ) is a city in northwestern Iran. The capital of the province of West Azerbaijan is located on the west bank of Lake Urmia, around 800 kilometers northwest of the state capital Tehran .
At the 1996 census, Urmia had 435,200 inhabitants. In 2006 the number of inhabitants was estimated at 623,143 and in 2016 it was 736,224. The majority of the population consider themselves Azerbaijanis . There are also Kurds , Persians and Christian Armenians as well as Chaldo-Assyrians (also called Aramaeans), who belong to various Syrian churches , especially the Chaldean Catholic Church and the Assyrian Church of the East .
The name Urmia is derived from the Syriac Aramaic words ur 'city' and mia 'water' and means 'city by the water'.
Urmia is a university location of the Azad Islamic University , whose Institute of Agriculture is internationally known. The city is located in a fertile area where fruits such as apples and tobacco are grown. Urmia Airport is 15 kilometers north .
For many centuries, Urmia belonged to the various Iranian dynasties until the Oghuz conquered the area in the 11th century. In 1184 the Seljuks conquered the city. The Ottomans also controlled the city several times.
Urmia has been the seat of Christian (arch) bishops of the “Church of the East” since the 12th century at the latest .
Later a 'Urmia Khanate' was established. In 1759 the Urmia Khanate attacked the Karabakh Khanate under Khan Fatali . With his 30,000-strong army he was able to subjugate the Armenian princes of Jraberd and Talysh . After a six-month siege of Panahabad, Fatali withdrew again.
The city was attacked by Kurdish leader Sheikh Ubeydallah in 1880 .
The Christians of various confessions made in 1900 more than 40% of the urban population. The East Syrian non-Catholics had three bishops in the district in 1913: Eliya of Tergawar (in communion with the Russian Orthodox Church), Dinkha of Tis and Ephrem of Urmia.
During the First World War, troops from the Ottoman Empire, with Kurdish and Iranian support, committed massacres of the Christian civilian population - the genocide of the Assyrians and Arameans . Bishop Mar Dinkha von Tis, who worked for the "Church of the East" in Urmia, which was independent of Rome, lost his life on February 23, 1915. In July 1918, the Catholic Chaldean Archbishop of Urmia, Thomas Audo , became the papal delegate Jacques-Emile Sontag and many more killed, kidnapped or forced to flee. Only a few returned or joined them, so that Christians today form a religious minority.
The Archdiocese of Urmia-Salamas of the Chaldean Catholic Church exists to the present day (approx. 4500 believers). The Urmia bishopric of the Assyrians united with the Russian Orthodox Church has perished.
Average monthly temperatures and rainfall for Urmia
sons and daughters of the town
- Abdul Rahman Ghassemlou (1930–1989), chairman of the Kurdistan-Iran Democratic Party from 1973 to 1989
- Saeid Marouf (* 1985), Iranian national volleyball player
- Jean Maurice Fiey: Pour un Oriens Christianus Novus. Repertoire des diocèses syriaques orientaux et occidentaux . Steiner, Stuttgart 1993, ISBN 3-515-05718-8 , pp. 141 f . (French).
- HL Murre-van den Berg: From a Spoken to a Written Language. The Introduction and Development of Literary Urmia Aramaic in the Nineteenth Century (= Publication of the "De Goeje Fund" . Volume 28 ). NINO, Leiden 1999 (English).
- Wilhelm Baum , Dietmar W. Winkler : The Apostolic Church of the East. History of the so-called "Nestorians" . Klagenfurt 2000 (English: The Church of the East. A concice history . London / New York 2000.).
- James Farwell Coakley: Manuscripts for sale: Urmia, 1890-2 . In: Journal of Assyrian Academic Studies . tape 20 , no. 2 , 2006, p. 3-17 (English).
- Martin Tamcke : A letter from Lazarus Jaure from the spring of 1916 about the events in Urmia . In: Martin Tamcke, Andreas Heinz (Hrsg.): The Suroye and their environment . Lit-Verlag, Münster 2005, p. 59-72 .
- Population the major cities of Iran (2010) ( Memento of the original from October 2, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. ( MS Excel ; 125 kB) Table on the website of the South Khorassan Provincial Administration (Persian)
- Iran: Larger Cities - Population Statistics in Maps and Tables. Retrieved January 22, 2018 .
- Orumiyeh . In: LookLex Encyclopaedia (English)
- Iran Semitic Language Groups