Bavarian State Office for Monument Preservation
Bavarian State Office for Monument Preservation
|State level||State Office ( Bavaria )|
|position||Historic monuments authority|
|Supervisory authority||Bavarian State Ministry for Science and Art|
|Authority management||Conservator General Mathias Pfeil (since March 2014)|
The Bavarian State Office for the Preservation of Monuments ( BLfD ) is the central state authority for the preservation of monuments in Bavaria . It is responsible for both the preservation of historical monuments and the preservation of monuments and archeology .
History of the Bavarian State Office for Monument Preservation
The Constitution of the Free State of Bavaria obliges the state, municipalities and corporations under public law to protect and care for art and historical monuments. In line with this constitutional mandate, the Bavarian State Parliament passed the Bavarian Monument Protection Act in 1973 . However, the history of the Bavarian State Office for Monument Preservation, which bases its work on this law today, goes back much longer.
The development of the Bavarian monument preservation as an institution began under King Ludwig I. In 1835 he founded the "General Inspection of the Plastic Monuments of the Empire". In 1868 King Maximilian II appointed a general conservator for the preservation of monuments, who carried out his office in personal union with the management of the Bavarian National Museum, founded in 1855 . The tasks of the general inspection were the protection of the monuments, the scientific research and the establishment of a collection of models for the preservation of monuments.
20th and 21st centuries
On September 6, 1908, while hunting in the Vorderriß near Lenggries in Upper Bavaria , Prince Regent Luitpold signed a very high ordinance, with which the General Conservatory of Art Monuments and Antiquities of Bavaria was separated from the Bavarian National Museum and directly subordinated to the State Ministry of the Interior . The first general curator of the office was the art historian Georg Hager from November 1, 1908 to 1929. He had already been involved in the registration of monuments ( inventory ) for many years , which was the main focus of the authority's work at the time. The results of the monument registration are available in the large work of art monuments of Bavaria . During Hager's tenure in 1917, the Royal Conservatory General was renamed the Bavarian State Office for Monument Preservation (BLfD).
The conditions during the Third Reich , the Second World War and the early post-war period posed particular challenges to the preservation of monuments. The salvage and securing of monuments and works of art were the most important tasks of the BLfD at this time. The inventory of the monuments, his original task, came to a standstill almost entirely.
At the end of the Second World War, the BLfD was in a desperate state. The few remaining forces helped to secure the rubble and the reconstruction and thus made their contribution to visibly carrying the historical continuity and identity of Bavaria into the future by rebuilding the monumental buildings. The continuity was also expressed in the person of the director Georg Lill , who headed the state office from 1929 to 1950. Like Lill, his successor from 1950 to 1957, Joseph Maria Ritz , was an art historian. During his term of office, the maintenance of the ground monuments fell into a department with two branches in Regensburg and Würzburg . Ritz succeeded in ensuring that the board of directors could call themselves general curators again from 1957 after the title had been temporarily abolished in 1929.
The time of the economic miracle brought new dangers to the heritage. The reconstruction, the car-friendly redevelopment of the cities , the pursuit of a house in the country , the rapid industrialization, the structural change of the agrarian world: All these changes were a threat to the monuments in the cities and villages. Heinrich Kreisel (1957–1963) tightened the organization of the office and brought about a radical departure from the aesthetic preservation of monuments and the end of the artist-conservator type, in close collaboration with the art historian and restorer Johannes Taubert. With their reference to the importance of the scientific findings in the restoration and the emphasis on the material inventory, Taubert and Kreisel have shown the BLfD the way into the future. In the area of monument registration, Kreisel recognized the problems of the overloaded, slow-moving and therefore unsuitable classical inventory and launched the series of short inventories.
A new era in Bavarian monument preservation began with Torsten Gebhard (1963–1974) who, alongside Ministerialrat Wolfgang Eberl and Member of Parliament Erich Schosser, played a key role in the preparation and technical development of the Bavarian Monument Protection Act of 1973. The appointment of the art historian and archaeologist Michael Petzet (1974–1999) as Conservator General on March 26, 1974 was a political issue; it was instrumentalized as part of the rivalry between the CSU chairman Franz Josef Strauss and the Bavarian Prime Minister Alfons Goppel . Under Petzet, the office was given a facelift in many ways. The Monument Protection Act brought a massive increase in staff and steadily increasing funding, which reached its peak in 1990 with 90 million DM . In 1979 the central laboratory was set up. The archaeological offices in Nuremberg and Thierhaupten were set up, as well as the local component archive. Since 1975, the office of the Bavarian State Office for Monument Preservation, which is primarily responsible for Lower and Upper Franconia , has been located in Seehof Castle near Bamberg, and the office moved into the representative office building of the Alte Münze in Munich . Large-scale archaeological excavations and prospecting with aerial photographs and magnetometers increased the reputation of the Bavarian archaeological monument preservation, and the publication system gained in importance. In 1989, the museum management, which had been assigned to the Bavarian National Museum in 1979, returned to the office as the state office for non-state museums at the Bavarian State Office for Monument Preservation. Restorations, especially of the large and important baroque churches, were intensively supervised by the state office. Elaborate reconstructions like the Hundinghütte of King Ludwig II and partial reconstructions like the Hirsvogelsaal in Nuremberg met the taste and aroused the interest of the public.
Even earlier than the humanities , the preservation of monuments came under increasing pressure to justify and justify. Since 1990 the operating funds of the State Office for Monument Preservation have decreased significantly. In 1990 the subsidy was 23 million euros, in 1995 it fell below 15 million, in 2000 it fell to below 10 million and in 2007 it landed at 3 million. It was not until 2008 that there was a noticeable increase, which continued in 2010. In addition, the state protection of monuments came under the pressure of the general deregulation of the building laws and the monument protection laws.
Michael Petzet's successor, General Curator Egon Johannes Greipl (in office from November 1, 1999 to November 30, 2013) was commissioned to undertake a comprehensive reform of the BLfD. The numerous units and departments have been combined into four specialist organizational units and four staff units: Practical monument preservation: architectural and art monuments (department A), practical monument preservation: ground monuments (department B), monument registration and monument research (department Z) and museum supervision / state office for the non-governmental Museums (LST). The central services in the staff units were now: Legal department (G 1), press and public relations , training and further education (G 2), information and communication technology (G 3), budget, personnel, internal services, funding (G 4) . In the new mission statement of the Bavarian State Office for Monument Preservation, which is determined by the concept of service, the focus is on collecting, processing and conveying information relevant to historical monuments. The reform completed in 2003 followed the new approach of integral monument preservation and refrained from a strict separation between architectural and ground monuments.
From 2003 onwards, the preservation of monuments in Bavaria turned into an advisory and mediating authority in all questions of monument management. The dwindling financial resources led to an increased enforcement of the inducement principle and the establishment of private excavation companies.
The registration of monuments in Bavaria has also followed the principle of integral monument preservation since 2001. All objects of the collection, research and documentation in the building and ground monument preservation are listed in the common Bavarian monument list. Since 2006, the knowledge of monuments has been updated as part of the post-qualification and revision of the Bavarian Monument List project and brought up to date through the use of geo-based, digital forms of representation and communication. On October 16, 2007, the BayernViewer monument, developed in close cooperation with the Bavarian State Office for Surveying and Geoinformation , went online. Since then, it has been possible to obtain constantly updated information about the monuments via the Internet. The revision and re-qualification of the Bavarian monument list provides the current status of the monument values (monument status). So the result is by no means static. As part of the revision and re-qualification, vacant monuments and monuments and monuments that are apparently endangered are specifically recorded. This is an essential contribution that monument protection and preservation can switch from a reactive role to an active role guided by strategic considerations and the formation of priorities.
In 2008 the State Office celebrated its centenary with a series of events (including lectures and exhibitions in Würzburg , Regensburg , Bamberg , Nuremberg , Munich , Passau and Augsburg ).
Mathias Pfeil has been General Curator of the Bavarian State Office for Monument Preservation since March 1, 2014 .
General Conservators and Directors
- 1908–1929: Georg Hager
- 1929–1950: Georg Lill
- 1950–1957: Joseph Maria Ritz
- 1957–1963: Heinrich Kreisel
- 1963–1974: Torsten Gebhard
- 1974–1999: Michael Petzet
- 1999-2013: Egon Johannes Greipl
- since 2014: Mathias Pfeil
The tasks of the Bavarian State Office for Monument Preservation (BLfD) are set out in the Bavarian Monument Protection Act (Art. 12):
- The BLfD is the state authority for all questions of monument protection and preservation, it is directly subordinate to the State Ministry for Science and Art .
- The BLfD is responsible for the preservation of monuments and participation in the protection of monuments.
- It also participates in the implementation of the law and other relevant rules and regulations.
- The task of the BLfD is to issue guidelines for the care of the monuments.
- The BLfD ensures the creation and maintenance of the inventories and the list of monuments.
- The BLfD takes care of the conservation and restoration of monuments, unless this is done by other government agencies.
- The tasks of the BLfD also include professional advice and the preparation of expert opinions in all matters relating to monument protection and preservation.
- The BLfD monitors excavations and the recording of all archaeological monuments.
- The BLfD is also responsible for the care of local museums and similar collections that are not administered by the state.
- The State Ministry for Science, Research and the Arts can assign the BLfD other relevant tasks.
The State Monument Council is also appointed to the State Ministry for Science, Research and Art . Its members include representatives from political parties, municipalities, churches, private monument owners, architects, the Academy of Fine Arts , the State Association for Homeland Care and experts from the field of art history and prehistory.
The enforcement of the Monument Protection Act is also incumbent on the lower monument protection authorities at district offices, independent municipalities, large district towns and some municipalities belonging to the district that have been granted the right to set up their own lower monument protection authority.
The headquarters of the Bavarian State Office is located in Munich ( Alte Münze ), further offices are located in Memmelsdorf ( Seehof Castle ), Nuremberg , Regensburg and Thierhaupten :
The Castle Seehof in Memmelsdorf in Bamberg , built between 1687-96, was the former summer residence of Bamberg prince-bishops . In 1975 the Free State of Bavaria bought the property with its imposing gardens. The Bavarian State Office has been using part of the premises that are under the control of the Bavarian Palace Administration since 1976 . In the Seehof department, Section A IV, responsible for practical monument maintenance in Upper and Lower Franconia, the Stone Restoration Section (AV), Section B IV, entrusted with the practical preservation of monuments in Upper and Lower Franconia, and parts of the Archeology Restoration Section (BV ) and the parts of the sections ZI (list of monuments), Z II (documentation of settlements and cultural landscapes) and Z III and IV (documentation and publications) responsible for Upper and Lower Franconia.
The Nuremberg office has been located in the former Burgamtmanns building on the Nuremberg Imperial Castle since 1990 . The office building, built in 1428 on the demolished remains of the former Burggrafenburg, was one of the few buildings on Nuremberg Castle to be spared the bombs of World War II. After careful renovation and modernization in accordance with listed buildings, the office and storage rooms of the section of the Practical Monument Preservation Department (B III) responsible for Middle Franconia and Swabia are now located there.
The Regensburg office is located at the eastern corner of Regensburg's old town in the Royal Villa , which was built on the old city fortifications at the request of King Maximilian II in the years 1854–56. Since 2007, this monument has contained the premises for the Regensburg office. There you will find parts of Section B II, responsible for the practical preservation of monuments in Upper Palatinate and Lower Bavaria, parts of Section BV (restoration of archaeological finds, dendrochronological laboratory) and parts of Section ZI (Bavarian Monument List, Monument Topography Lower Bavaria and Upper Palatinate) and Z II (Documentation of settlements and cultural landscapes).
The 1803 secularised monastery Thierhaupten in Bavarian Swabia is the seat of another department of the BLfD with parts of the unit AV, responsible for the restoration of architectural and cultural monuments, the charge of Middle Franconia and Swabia Unit B III (practical Bodendenkmalpflege) of Unit BV ( Restoration archeology and dendrochronological laboratory) as well as parts of the department ZI responsible for the Bavarian monument list and the monument topographies. In addition, the BLfD's components archive and a training center for the handicrafts operated together with the Swabian district are set up in the former monastery buildings .
The BLfD is a sought-after partner in the international cooperation of monument preservationists. It all began in the 1970s. The Bavarian State Office for Monument Preservation took part in a conference in Verona with an exhibition on the restoration of historic interiors, organized an expert conference on stone conservation and plastering in Augsburg and took part in a conference on grave monuments in Trento. In the course of the gradual opening of the People's Republic of China , there was cooperation in the area of restoration of the terracotta army in Lintong and the cave temple of the Great Buddha in Dafosi Monastery. Help for self-help was the conservation project of the grave facades of the Jordanian city of Petra and the old town of Sana'a in Yemen . The cooperation with Japan dealt with the material-specific analyzes of Japanese and European paintwork. In 2001 and 2002, geophysicists from the Bavarian State Office for Monument Preservation traveled to Iraq to explore the area of the historic city of Uruk . At the end of 1992, the Bavarian State Office for the Preservation of Monuments contributed to the salvage of items of equipment from destroyed churches in war-torn Croatia and to the establishment of the restoration center in Ludbreg Castle . As part of the Bavarian-Ukrainian cultural agreement, the restoration of Katschanivka Castle began. From 2001 to 2007 there was a cooperation with the Polytechnic University of Lemberg (Lviv) , in which Ukrainian students and scientists were trained in the theory and practice of monument preservation by the Bavarian State Office for Monument Preservation. Annual museum conferences have been held in the Czech Republic since 1991, and in Krumau the preservation of a stock of approx. 200,000 glass plate negatives that is extremely interesting for Bohemian-Bavarian history has been advanced. The Bavarian State Office for the Preservation of Monuments has been involved in the EU-ARTECH project, which is dedicated to conservation technology, since 2004.
Die Kunstdenkmäler von Bayern , originally Die Kunstdenkmäler des Kingdom Bayern , are a series of art topographical books founded in 1887 for the inventory of the most important art and cultural monuments in Bavaria and the Bavarian Palatinate. For a long time it was the most important publication of the monument office and covers large parts of Bavaria, but is now only continued selectively in Bamberg. In addition, individual monuments, so far the cathedrals in Augsburg and Regensburg (since 2010) and the Georgensgmünd Jewish cemetery are presented in detail.
The state office publishes the art topographical book series Monuments in Bavaria . It is an edition of the list of monuments prepared in book form and provided with pictures. After an edition in seven volumes for the seven administrative districts (Volume 1 (Upper Bavaria) in two sub-volumes, one of which for the state capital Munich) was published in 1985–1991 and only contains brief explanations for the individual monuments, an edition in 96 Volumes (for the 71 rural districts and 25 independent cities) worked with a short description and an illustration of each monument.
In addition, the office publishes the archaeological journal, Report of the Bavarian Monument Preservation, and, since 1981, in cooperation with the Society for Archeology in Bavaria, The Archaeological Year in Bavaria . The historical preservation information magazine is also published.
- Egon Johannes Greipl (Ed.): 100 years of the Bavarian State Office for Monument Preservation. 1908-2008. 4 volumes. Friedrich Pustet, Regensburg 2008, ISBN 978-3-7917-2119-4 ;
- Volume 1: Balance. Contributions to the colloquium "Balance after 100 years" of the Bavarian State Office for Monument Preservation with the historical seminar of the Ludwig Maximilians University in Munich from October 12 to 14, 2006 in the Pinakothek der Moderne, Munich.
- Volume 2: Perspectives. Contributions to the colloquium "Perspectives for the New Century" of the Bavarian State Office for Monument Preservation and the Institute for Bavarian History of the Ludwig Maximilians University in Munich from September 16 to 18, 2007 in the Kulturforum Fürth.
- Volume 3: Catalog. Content, practice, focus. Catalog of the anniversary exhibitions in Regensburg, Passau, Nuremberg, Würzburg, Bamberg, Augsburg and Munich.
- Volume 4: Bibliography.
- Bavarian State Office for Monument Preservation (BlfD)
- Bavarian Monument Atlas
- Bavarian Monument Protection Act of 1973 (PDF, 13 S., 140 kB)
- www.behoerdenwegweiser.bayern.de Description of the BLfD's tasks
- ^ A b Organization of monument protection and preservation . In: km.bayern.de . Retrieved November 17, 2017.
- ↑ outside line , blfd.bayern.de, accessed on 21 June 2020
- ↑ Bavarian State Office for Monument Preservation: Mathias Pfeil will be the new director from March 2014 . In: km.bayern.de . Retrieved November 17, 2017.
- ^ The Bavarian State Office for Monument Preservation . In: blfd.bayern.de . Retrieved November 17, 2017.
Coordinates: 48 ° 8 ′ 20.9 ″ N , 11 ° 34 ′ 42.6 ″ E