St. Moritz (Augsburg)
The St. Moritz Church in Augsburg is a Catholic parish church and former collegiate church of the St. Moritz Collegiate Foundation, which was dissolved during the secularization period . Originally built as a burial place in memory of Bishop Bruno , the brother of Emperor Henry II the Holy , and expanded and redesigned several times over the centuries, it was rebuilt in a simplified form from 1946 to 1950 after being destroyed in the Second World War. It is protected as an architectural monument.
In 1019, the Augsburg bishop Bruno (1006-1029), a Bavarian duke's son, founded a collegiate foundation on Maximilianstrasse in honor of the knight's patron St. Moritz . It was the fourth spiritual community in Augsburg after the cathedral , the basilica St. Ulrich and Afra and St. Stephan . The St. Moritz Church was built as a burial place and in memory of Bishop Bruno. At that time it was still outside the city, halfway between the cathedral and Ortisei and Afra.
After a fire in 1084 and a partial collapse in 1299, the church was rebuilt somewhat larger in 1314. The walls of this structure still form the outer walls of the current church. In 1440 the nave was raised and the church expanded in a Gothic style. In 1442, the town council donated the new east choir, which was consecrated a year later. In 1494 the free-standing bell tower was raised by Burkhart Engelberg . The first new storey received tracery made of shaped bricks. In 1533/1534 the two-storey octagonal tower with the dome was added to the square tower. At the same time, the square end of the wall was provided with a balustrade made of terracotta elements. The tower and balustrade are among the oldest architectural evidence of the Renaissance in Augsburg.
In 1510 Jakob Fugger the Rich acquired the right of presentation, d. H. Pope Julius II approved that one of the canons' offices could be converted into a predicature foundation. This preaching position was then filled and financed by Jakob Fugger and his descendants. This right still exists today. Since then, the Fugger family has repeatedly exercised special patronage over the monastery and the church.
During the Reformation , the canons stayed in Landsberg am Lech for a few years . During this time, the church's west choir, which protruded into today's Moritzplatz , was probably torn down. It can be assumed that the donor's grave of Bishop Bruno was also located in this choir. During the Counter Reformation , the church was restored with the help of Duke Albrecht V. The duke probably also donated a new epitaph for his ancestor, which found a place in the front part of the east choir. This only evidence of the founder's burial site has been lost since the end of the Second World War .
In 1714/1715 the canons had the entire church redesigned in the Baroque style by the famous Füssen master builder Johann Jakob Herkomer . Outwardly, this redesign could be noticed above all in a full dome with a lantern above the first yoke of the choir. Inside, the greatest baroque building in Augsburg was built. The collegiate foundation, which in the course of its history was headed by famous provosts from European aristocratic houses and the Augsburg patriciate, was abolished in the secularization of 1803. From then on, St. Moritz was only a parish church.
Destruction and rebuilding
A large part of the baroque interior was destroyed in the night of bombing from February 24 to 25, 1944 . The tower remained intact.
It was soon decided to rebuild and commissioned the architect Dominikus Böhm from Cologne . After the baroque stucco work on the wall surfaces, which had largely been preserved even after the war damage, the three-aisled basilica building , which was reminiscent of the Romanesque , remained in its clear architectural structure. The church was rebuilt in a simpler form between 1946 and 1950.
Böhm's room concept was changed significantly in the decades that followed. Examples of this are above all the elevation of the floor level by around 1.50 meters, the masonry of the originally octagonal pillars, the carpentry work in the two choir galleries and the platforms of the apostles in the nave, which originally stood in wall niches and thus had a dividing function for the wall.
Refurbishment and redesign
In order to give the church interior of the Moritzkirche a uniform concept and to shape it for the needs of the future, the Moritzkirche was renovated and redesigned between 2010 and 2013. The design comes from the London architect and designer John Pawson , who wanted to create a “church space of the future” here. The aim was to express “clarity” and “minimalism” and to install lighting that was appropriate for the new room concept. On April 21, 2013 the reopening of the newly designed church took place. The new inner courtyard, also designed according to Pawson's plans, was blessed at the Moritzfest on September 23, 2018. It was also the opening of the festival year “1000 Years of Moritz Church”. In the anniversary year 2019, among others, the video artist Bill Viola exhibited .
Today the Moritzkirche is not only the parish church, but also the seat of the “CitySeelsorge des Diocese Augsburg ”. The "CitySeelsorge" is part of a Germany-wide network of church projects in large cities that show low-threshold church presence, bring religious impulses into city life and offer information, conversation and pastoral care. This includes the “moritzpunkt”, a café in the east choir of the church with an entrance on Maximilianstrasse, which also serves as a discussion room and contact point for people entering the church.
The three-aisled basilica with reconstructed buttress works ends in the east with a polygonal choir. The nine-storey late Romanesque bell tower leaning against the aisle to the south and is structured by arched friezes has a Gothic tracery with an octagonal top. To the north of the aisle, next to the original sacristy, there is a polygonal stair tower and a neo-baroque entrance portal. A modern pillar hall leans against the entire length of the north aisle, which corresponds to the previous building only in the broadest sense.
West facade of St. Moritz from Moritzplatz from
Tower and choir of St. Moritz from Maximilianstrasse from
View from the Perlach tower to St. Moritz in the center of the picture, in the background St. Ulrich and Afra
The sculptures by Georg Petel , who worked as a freelance sculptor in Augsburg at the time of the Thirty Years' War and was referred to as "Michelangelo of the early baroque" are among the most valuable works of art . He created the figures of Saint Sebastian and Saint Christopher around 1629/30 , which can be seen on the west walls of the aisles. The last figure was the Christ Salvator , on which the artist had been working since 1630, after Petel's early death in 1634 in the Moritzkirche. Today it has its place in the light-flooded apse. This sculpture shows the returning Christ, an extremely unusual representation for the time, which was marked by the horrors of the Thirty Years' War. Even today it impresses with its powerful charisma.
In the second half of the 17th century, Ehrgott Bernhard Bendel , who also worked for the St. Ulrich and Afra basilica , created a cycle of 14 sculptures for the Moritzkirche, Christ and Mary and the 12 apostles. Six of the figures fell victim to the 1944 bomb attack . Today Petrus , Andreas , Jakobus d. Ä. , James d. J. , Johannes , Philippus and Thomas present. The original figure of Christ was transformed into a Paul. These eight figures are on stone steles in the two side aisles of the church.
The Langenmantel chapel, the only Gothic room in the Moritzkirche and a foundation of the famous Augsburg patrician family Langenmantel , is the place of worship of Mary. In a newly designed shrine there is the Mother of God with the child , a silver statuette from 1490. She is represented in the type of the apocalyptic woman , as described in the Revelation of John . The artist is unknown. The figure was probably made in Augsburg or Ulm .
Epitaph for the patrician Sigismund Gossenbrot († 1500) and his wife Anna b. Rehlinger († 1530)
Epitaph for the patrician Claus Hofmair († 1427) and his wife Barbara († 1157)
Epitaph for the vicar general and auxiliary bishop of Augsburg Kaspar Zeiler († 1681)
Epitaph for the provost of St. Peter and dean of St. Moritz Joseph Anton Imhof
In the course of the centuries there were different organs in the Moritzkirche . The earliest organ mentioned in writing was donated by the Fuggers in 1542 ; as early as 1575, Duke Albrecht V financed a new organ that was probably on the rood screen. This organ can be seen on an engraving from 1601. In 1587 the Fuggers donated an additional organ that was located in the northern choir.
In the period from 1585 to 1600, Hans Leo Haßler , whom Count Octavian II von Fugger had brought to Augsburg, worked as an organist in St. Moritz.
In 1730, Count Fugger zu Weißenhorn donated a new organ to the Moritzkirche, which presumably came from the parish church in Weißenhorn . This instrument also had its place in the northern choir gallery.
In the years 1857 to 1859 an organ was first built on the west gallery of the church. This instrument, built by the Augsburg organ builder Joseph Anton Bohl , with 22 registers on two manuals and a pedal , was expanded by a few parts in 1873 by Bohl's workshop successor Johannes Offner.
The Oettinger organ building company Steinmeyer built an instrument with 30 registers on two manuals and a pedal to replace the Bohl organ in 1906. The Augsburg Baldauf'sche Kunstanstalt produced the new prospectus for this organ “in a noble late baroque ”. During the Second World War, the Steinmeyer organ was completely destroyed in the bombing raid on Augsburg in February 1944.
Mauritius organ (main organ)
The current main organ was built in 1973 by the Rieger Orgelbau company from Schwarzach (Austria) . It is located on the west gallery of the church. In 2013 the instrument was fundamentally restored and repaired for the first time by the Swiss organ builder Kuhn from Männedorf . The case of the organ made of oak was stained dark in the course of the redesign of the church interior according to the established color concept. The gaming table is housed in a play cabinet.
The instrument has 4,387 pipes . In 2014 , two registers were added , also by Orgelbau Kuhn , so that the instrument now has 53 sounding registers, which are distributed over four manuals and pedal.
- Coupling : I / II, III / II, IV / II, III / I, IV / I, IV / III, I / P, II / P, III / P, IV / P
- Playing aids : setter system
Katharinenorgel (choir organ)
The choir organ was built in 2013 by the Swiss organ builder Kuhn. It is located in a wall box in the northern choir room above the new choir stalls . The case of the instrument is made of oak and spruce wood. This organ does not have a prospectus, because the instrument is hidden behind a grid in favor of the clarity and simplicity aimed for in the redesign of the church interior. The free-standing oak game table is integrated into the choir stalls.
The slider chests -instrument has 18 registers and three transmissions on two manuals and pedal. Of the total of 1199 pipes, 62 are made of wood. The instrument is arranged in the style of choir organs of the French late Romanticism . The Spieltrakturen are mechanically, the Registertrakturen and the sub- and Superoktavkoppeln are electric.
- Pairing :
- Normal coupling: II / I, I / P, II / P
- Sub-octave coupling: II / I, II / II
- Super octave coupling: I / I, II / I, II / II
The late Romanesque tower has seven bells, including four historic ones. In autumn 2019, at the end of the anniversary year 1000 years Moritzkirche, a donation was made to add a seventh bell. This is one of the first bells from the Grassmayr bell foundry from Innsbruck , which were cast in a pure “major rib”. The draft for the artistic design comes from Hermann Eckerstorfer from Helfenberg .
|No.||designation||Audio||Casting year||Foundry and casting location||diameter||Dimensions||Nominal|
|1||Mauritius||1360||Hermann Kessler (II.) , Nuremberg||1360 mm||1690 kg||f 1|
|2||Maria||1299||Magister Cunrad||1155 mm||1080 kg||g 1|
|3||Hosanna||1514||Laux Zotman , Augsburg||1055 mm||720 kg||as 1|
|4th||Brun||2003||Rudolf Perner , Passau||810 mm||316 kg||c 2|
|5||James d. Older||2003||Rudolf Perner, Passau||678 mm||193 kg||it 2|
|6th||Death knell||1515||Laux Zotman, Augsburg||670 mm||approx. 170 kg||ges 2|
|7th||Bell of life and resurrection||2019||Grassmayr, Innsbruck||510 mm||86 kg||
as 2 (major)
At 7:00 in the morning and at 8:00 in the evening, the "Brun" bell rings for the Angelus prayer , and at 12:00 noon the "Hosanna" rings . After the evening bell rings, the “bell of life and resurrection” follows in memory of the deceased. On Thursdays, “Maria” also sounds to the “alarm ringing” in memory of Jesus' agony in the garden of Gethsemane . The hour of Jesus' death on Friday at 3:00 pm is indicated by the ringing of the large "Mauritius" bell. The extended Dies-Irae motif of the four largest bells rings for the annual commemorative ringing of the bombing night in Augsburg on March 25th at 8:00 p.m.
In a richly differentiated ringing order, appropriate partial chimes or full chimes are recorded for the respective worship service.
|working day||3||A flat major sixth chord||c 2||it 2||as 2|
|Fixed on working days||4th||extended A flat major chord||as 1||c 2||it 2||as 2|
|Weekday devotion||2||Kleinterzduet||c 2||it 2|
|Sunday time in the annual cycle||5||extended A flat major seventh chord||as 1||c 2||it 2||ges 2||as 2|
|Sunday Advent and Lent||3||C minor sixth fourth chord||g 1||c 2||it 2|
|Sunday and octave of Christmas and Easter, smaller solemn festival||5||extended F minor seventh chord||f 1||as 1||c 2||it 2||as 2|
|high Strength||7th||plenum||f 1||g 1||as 1||c 2||it 2||ges 2||as 2|
|Rate rate||3||Te deum||it 2||ges 2||as 2|
|Ash Wednesday , Palm Sunday , penance service||3||Dies irae||f 1||g 1||as 1|
|baptism||2||Kleinterzduett / Lumen Christi||f 1||as 1|
|wedding||3||A flat major chord||as 1||c 2||it 2|
|Requiem , All Souls' Day||2||Minor second duet||g 1||as 1|
|May devotion||3||F minor chord||f 1||as 1||c 2|
|Vespers||4th||F minor seventh chord||f 1||as 1||c 2||it 2|
|Ecumenical worship||4th||A flat major sixth fifth chord||c 2||it 2||ges 2||as 2|
- Herbert Fendrich: Alleluja - you come to meet us ... The newly designed Moritzkirche in Augsburg . In: Bible Today , Vol. 50 (2014), No. 197, pp. 26-27.
- Gernot Michael Müller: The former St. Moritz Collegiate Foundation in Augsburg (1019–1803). History, culture, art. , Kunstverlag Josef Fink, 2006, ISBN 978-3-89870-227-0 .
- Hugo Schnell : St. Moritz Augsburg (Schnell, Art Guide No. 482). 2nd edition, Munich / Zurich 1977.
- Brigitte Schwarz: How does God's word come to be heard in our church? Experience with the redesigned Moritzkirche in Augsburg . In: Lebendige Seelsorge , Vol. 66 (2015), pp. 426–431.
- Sabine Stötzer, Helmut Haug: The redesign of the Moritzkirche in Augsburg by John Pawson . In: The Minster. Journal for Christian Art and Art History , vol. 66 (2013), pp. 269–275.
- Moritzkirche Augsburg - (official site)
- St. Moritz, Augsburg - (Schwabenmedia)
- Sankt Moritz - (Augsburgwiki)
St. Moritz (Augsburg) , basic data and history:
Christian Lankes, Sylvia Stegmüller: St. Moritz - Foundation from an imperial family in the database of monasteries in Bavaria in the House of Bavarian History
- ^ Diocese of Augsburg
- ↑ See photography on Augsburger Allgemeine: Gedenken zur Bombennacht. In: augsburger-allgemeine.de. Retrieved August 11, 2015 .
- ^ Moritzkirche Augsburg - redesign - (moritzkirche on YouTube)
- ↑ Redesign - (Parish St. Moritz)
- ↑ Sabine Stötzer, Helmut Haug: The redesign of the Moritzkirche in Augsburg by John Pawson . In: Das Münster , vol. 66 (2013), pp. 269–275.
- ↑ St. Moritz: Minimalist church renovation in Augsburg by John Pawson - ( BauNetz from June 27, 2013)
- ↑ Brigitte Schwarz: How does God's word come to be heard in our church? Experience with the redesigned Moritzkirche in Augsburg . In: Lebendige Seelsorge , vol. 66 (2015), pp. 426–431, here p. 427.
- ↑ Moritzkirche in Augsburg after renovation by star architect John Pawson - (kathisch1.tv on YouTube from April 22, 2013)
- ↑ Opening of the festival year on the diocese website , accessed on October 5, 2018
- ↑ Celebration year 2018/2019 , accessed on September 29, 2018
- ↑ moritzpunkt - (official site)
- ↑ Bernt von Hagen, Angelika Wegener-Hüssen: Monuments in Bavaria, City of Augsburg. Vol. 7/83, January 1, 1994, p. 340
- ^ Renate Braun: On the history of the organs of St. Moritz . In: The organs of the Moritzkirche . Festschrift for the consecration of the new choir organ and the restoration of the main organ, Katholische Kirchenstiftung St. Moritz, 2013, pp. 9 to 11.
- ^ The Mauritius organ in the Moritzkirche | Moritz Church. Retrieved September 6, 2019 .
- ↑ Hans-Peter Keller: The main organ can sound again . In: The organs of the Moritzkirche . Festschrift for the consecration of the new choir organ and the restoration of the main organ, Katholische Kirchenstiftung St. Moritz, 2013, pp. 23 to 27.
- ↑ Die Orgel on Organindex.de , accessed on June 3, 2017.
- ↑ More information about the organ on the website of the builder company
- ↑ CitySeelsorge Moritzkirche & Parish St. Moritz (ed.): Church window . Issue No. 769. CitySeelsorge moritzkirche & Pfarrei St. Moritz, 2019.
- ↑ Gernot Michael Müller (ed.): The former collegiate foundation St. Moritz in Augsburg (1019-1803). History, culture, art. Kunstverlag Josef Fink, 2006, ISBN 978-3-89870-227-0 , pp. 518-521.
- ^ Parish of St. Moritz: Chime of the Moritzkirche. In: URL: https://www.moritzkirche.de/sites/default/files/laeuteordnung_der_glocken_von_st._moritz.pdf .
Coordinates: 48 ° 22 ′ 1 ″ N , 10 ° 53 ′ 53.4 ″ E