Langenmantel is the surname of an old Augsburg patrician family with two main branches: 1. "Langenmantel vom Sparren" (also: "Langenmantel von Radau") and 2. "Langenmantel vom RR" (also: Langenmantel vom double R "or" Langenmantel von Westheim ”and“ Langenmantel von und zu Langenthal ”); each named after a characteristic in the family coat of arms.
Origin and division in two lines
The Langenmantel appear from 1272, with Hartmann Langenmantel († 1301 or 1306), in a document in Augsburg and were among the so-called "old families" of the imperial city. Hartmann was one of the first two town keepers (mayor) in 1288 and also held the office of keeper of Jews. In addition to him, his brothers Konrad I († 1302 or 1304) and Heinrich I († 1300 or 1306) are named from 1280, the latter also officiating as town caretaker in 1292. They form the origin of the long coat and were called "Long coat from the rafter" , after their family coat of arms, a red tip (wrongly called rafter) on a white background.
As early as 1291, again in 1294, Rüdiger I († 1342) appeared and was referred to as the sister of Hartmann Langenmantel and his brothers. From 1299 onwards, Rüdiger I. served six times as town clerk, and for almost 40 years he was a dominant figure in Augsburg politics. He was one of the most important Augsburg merchants. Although only his mother was a Langenmantel vom Sparren, he also used the name Langenmantel, but chose a different coat of arms, but in the same color, namely a mirrored, white R (double R) on a red background. After that his descendants called themselves "Langenmantel vom RR" or "Langenmantel vom double R" , later also "Langenmantel von Westheim" . The family is a so-called "women's line", the long coat from the rafter, and was subsequently classified as an independent sex.
The "Langenmantel vom Sparren" and the "Langenmantel vom double R" lived as related but independent families at the same time in Augsburg and both belonged to the most important Augsburg patrician families . The "Langenmantelstrasse" is named after them.
The long coat from the rafters
At the end of the 13th century, the brothers Hartmann I, Heinrich I and Konrad I appear in the first generation of Augsburg's Langenmantel vom Sparren.
Hartmann I. Langenmantel vom Sparren, a wealthy merchant and financier, donated a house for eight patients in the already existing St. Servatius Leprosy Hospital in 1288. In 1301 he, his son-in-law and his nephew Rüdiger I. Langenmantel vom RR, granted a large loan to King Albrecht I. He does not seem to have had any surviving sons, because his considerable property, including Oberottmarshausen and Bliensbach , came to the heiress Mechthild Schongauer family.
The brother Heinrich I officiated in 1292 as Augsburg city caretaker. He owned Zusmarshausen and a large part of Agawang . His son Heinrich III, who appeared as a wine merchant. († 1326 or 1327) also acquired Langerringen in 1325 . Proven since 1320 in the council, he was elected town ranger in 1323. When his inheritance was divided, Zusmarshausen was lost to the Bach, the son Johann III. († 1380 or 1382) had to sell the Langerringen that had fallen to him in 1376, his property in Agawang went to his son-in-law. In 1409 the widow was forced to sell her house on the Weinmarkt. With the clergy Nikolaus and Magister Ulrich , provost of Völkermarkt and canon at St. Moritz in Augsburg , who established the first Augsburg study foundation in 1464, the line that went back to Heinrich I expired.
Konrad I, the third of the original brothers, founded the main line of the Langenmantel vom rafters. It was continued by his son, the knight Johann I. Langenmantel vom Sparren († 1337), who was elected town ranger in 1304. His son Johann II, from his third marriage to Margaretha von Rohrbach, founded the Rohrbacher or Radau side line. Johann II hardly appeared in Augsburg. On the other hand, his eldest son Johann Langenmantel von Radau († 1426 or 1428), who acted ten times as town caretaker, achieved great importance. His political successor was his late-born son Leonhard († 1470), the last of this Radau family branch. Between 1452 and 1469 he held the office of Augsburg city keeper eight times. His inheritance (including Aystetten , Hainhofen and Ottmarshausen ) fell to his sons-in-law.
The eldest son of Johann I, called Konrad III. "At the Salzstadel" († 1363 or 1364), from 1353 on was three times as town caretaker. His eldest son Peter “at the Salzstadel” († 1419 or 1420) became town ranger in 1399. Konrad's middle son Johann IV († 1401 or 1402), who died early, remained insignificant. One of his descendants, however, was the famous Eitelhans long coat , who was executed as an Anabaptist in 1528 and who is a maternal ancestor of the third US President, Thomas Jefferson .
Already at the end of the 14th century, Konrad's youngest son Hartmann II († around 1430) came to the fore, who pursued a targeted acquisition policy with the inheritance of his wives. The most important thing was the purchase of Binswangen (1412), which was to remain the core of the property for the next 150 years. From 1403 he is occupied in the council after the childless brother Peter withdrew from politics. Hartmann II. Son, Hartmann IV. († 1466) managed to secure his economic position through cheap marriages. Represented in the council since 1454, he appears temporarily as a pawn owner of the Kühlenthal rule .
Hartmann IV. Son Johann IX. Langenmantel vom Sparren († 1505) was elected mayor (Stadtpfleger) in place of the murdered Jos Onsorg in 1478 and was one of the most important political figures in the following three decades. 13 times he was mayor, also the office held by the Federal captain in the Swabian League and received in 1495, at the Diet of Worms , by King I. Maximilian , the accolade , as Knight of the Golden Spur . Of his sons, Markus († 1540) had been the Bavarian nurse in Mering since 1505 . Matthew († 1551), who was mentioned in the Augsburg council until 1547, left a city chronicle and later entered the Saxon service. The son Lukas went to the Brunswick military, his brother Georg (Jörg) served as an officer in the service of King Franz I of France and fell as a brigadier of the black riders, in 1525, in the battle of Pavia .
After the surprising death of Johann IX. Langenmantel (1505) was succeeded by his brother Georg († 1521) in the office of mayor. He was also the mayor of Augsburg in 1518 when Martin Luther stayed here. His son, Canon Christoph Langenmantel vom Sparren († 1538), secretly brought him out of the city on the night of October 19-20 and helped him to escape. The escape aid is historically secured, but a decorative and unproven legend remains the story that he also led him from Augsburg to Hohenschwangau Castle . King Max II had this legend depicted there in the Schwangau room by the painter Wilhelm Lindenschmit in the form of a romanticizing mural. Christoph's brother Sigmund Langenmantel († 1545) was a district judge and ducal keeper in Kelheim , where his epitaph has been preserved in the parish church of the Assumption of Mary .
As the last offspring of the family, Joachim I († 1559), a grandson of Johann IX, was once again a member of the Privy Council and mayor. In 1541 he had taken over the village of Binswangen, with which his sons Joachim II († 1596) and Lukas were enfeoffed in 1560. As early as 1561, probably in connection with the bankruptcy of Joachim II, the brothers sold the place for 11,000 guilders to David Baumgartner, because of whose insolvency it finally fell to the Langauers. In 1591 Joachim II gave up his citizenship in Augsburg. His sister Sibylla Langenmantel († 1592) had married the natural Wittelsbacher Georg von Hegnenberg-Dux (illegitimate son of the Bavarian Duke Wilhelm IV ) in 1551 and founded the noble family of the same name with him.
The bourgeois families Langenmantel and Langmantel, which still occur sporadically in Bavaria today, are likely to be traced back to descendants of the Langenmantel vom rafters, as the Langenmantel from the double R or from Westheim later received the baron title and have always appeared with the title of nobility until modern times.
The long coat from RR and Westheim
The "Langenmantel vom RR" can be traced back to Rüdiger I. († 1342), the sister son of the first tangible Langenmantel vom Sparren (Hartmann I. and his brothers). From 1299 onwards, Rüdiger I. served six times as town clerk, and for almost 40 years he was a dominant figure in Augsburg politics. He was one of the most important Augsburg merchants. Although only his mother was a Langenmantel vom Sparren, he also used the name Langenmantel, but chose a different coat of arms, but in the same color, namely a mirrored, white R (double R) on a red background. After that his descendants called themselves "Langenmantel vom RR" or "Langenmantel vom double R" , later also "Langenmantel von Westheim" .
In 1301, Rüdiger I and his uncle Hartmann I Langenmantel vom Sparren took part in a large loan for King Albrecht I. In 1310 he appears as a creditor to the Bavarian dukes, and in 1324 he is named as a pledgee of the ducal tax in Gundelfingen . He appeared several times as the city's envoy to King Ludwig IV . Rüdiger I had already inherited the Westheim , which belonged to the family until modern times , as it is referred to in his son's land register (around 1360) as the heir of father and grandfather. At St. Moritz Abbey , he founded a family chapel with a vicarie.
Three branches of the family formed under his sons. Rüdiger II. († 1366 or 1367) and his descendants remained relatively insignificant, the last representative of this branch was probably Blasius Langenmantel († after 1442). The same applies to the branch of Conrad I, which died out at the beginning of the 15th century.
The most prominent figure among Rüdiger's sons was Johann I. Langenmantel vom RR, also called "von Wertingen" († 1367), who acted three times as town caretaker, in 1348 the manorial estate Wertingen and 1363 acquired the estate of Villenbach .
Of the five sons of Johann I, Marquard († 1372 or 1376), Rüdiger IV. († 1391 or 1393) and Hartmann I († 1389 or 1390) stood out only slightly. His successor in the council was the son Ulrich I († 1411), who sealed his first guild letter in 1368 and from 1380 acted three times as town caretaker. His brother Johann II. Langenmantel vom RR, also called "Mülin von Wertingen" († 1425 or 1426) became town ranger four times from 1393. After the bankruptcy of Rüdiger VI. († 1402 or 1403), who had business connections with the Nuremberg Imhof, a greater involvement of the Langenmantel in the trade is no longer documented. From the 1430s on in particular, the loss of its former economic position became increasingly evident. In 1468 Wertingen was sold to the Pappenheimers. The impoverished descendants of Johann II left Augsburg in the 1450s. The Rüdiger IV line had been extinguished in 1430. Wilhelm († after 1499), a grandson of Hartmann I, immigrated to Memmingen in 1467 . At that time the most important economically were Johann IV. († 1420) and Heinrich II. († 1463), two sons of Ulrich I. Thanks to the inheritance of his wife, Heinrich II. Was the only long coat from RR, which was not in the middle of the 15th century struggled with economic problems and even acquired real estate. In 1455 he taxed a fortune of 5,760 guilders.
Heinrich's fortune was shattered by numerous descendants, and the five sons only had a limited inheritance. Andreas, the eldest († 1469) and Heinrich III., The youngest († 1495), were married in Augsburg. Andreas' son Mang becomes tangible again in 1501 when he paid taxes on his inheritance. He founded his own line in Carinthia and Carniola , which was sometimes called "Langenmantel zu Rosenfeld" , was raised to the baron status in 1653 and went out with Franz Adam von Langenmantel, lord of Rothenturm (today Slovenj Gradec ). In 1673, for lack of children, he adopted Count Franz Joseph von Lamberg (1668–1746), who then called himself Franz Joseph Langenmantel, Count von Lamberg. Christoph Stürgkh auf Plankenwarth († 1594) had a wife from the branch of "Langenmantel zu Rosenfeld" .
At the beginning of the 16th century, the Langenmantel from RR in Augsburg were only represented by Heinrich's son Wolfgang I, whose economic situation had stabilized again.
Wolfgang I's son David († 1572) founded the evangelical family line, which, in addition to a number of councilors, provided Martin Hieronymus Langenmantel († 1739), a city caretaker (1735–39).
The other son Wolfgang II, also called Wolfgang the Younger, (1522-1568) founded the Catholic family line of the "Langenmantel von Westheim" , which with Octavian († 1689), Ignatius († 1725), Franz Octavian († 1730) and Jakob Wilhelm Benedikt († 1790) produced four city caretakers.
Octavian's son Hieronymus Ambrosius Langenmantel (1641–1718) was a Catholic priest and friends with the universal scholar Father Athanasius Kircher . As a canon at the Collegiate Monastery of St. Peter am Perlach , in 1700 he donated the miraculous image of Mary the Knot Loosener , which is particularly venerated today by Pope Francis and through whom it also became famous in South America.
Otto von Langenmantel (1816–1875), civil engineer and master builder of the Liberation Hall near Kelheim , and his son, the painter Ludwig von Langenmantel (1854–1922) also belong to the Langenmantel from RR.
In 1766 , Empress Maria Theresia confirmed her traditional nobility and gave them the title “ Noble von ” with the “ long coat from RR or von Westheim”. On December 27, 1779, she raised the family to hereditary baron status .
In 1808, when the Bavarian aristocratic registers were created, the following family members were registered there: Wolfgang Ignaz von Langenmantel , retired Senator from Augsburg (* 1765); Wolfgang Joseph Andreas von Langenmantel , royal Bavarian town court clerk in Augsburg (* 1768); Wolfgang Xaver von Langenmantel , captain of the Bavarian Army (* 1773), and Wolfgang Gebhard von Langenmantel , cath. Pastor of Waal (1775–1847), all four brothers. Also Joseph Maria von Langenmantel royal Bavarian treasurer and building inspector (* 1784).
Austrian line Langenmantel from and to Langenthal
The "Langenmantel von und zu Langenthal" are an Austrian side line of the "Langenmantel vom RR" , with the same coat of arms, but different crests .
Georg and Lazarus Langenmantel from Augsburg from Augsburg were included in the class register of nobility in Tyrol in 1511 . Veit Langenmantel, the son of Lazarus bought Weiherburg Castle near Innsbruck in 1560 and had the frescoed Langenmantel Hall built there. In 1569 he sold it to Anna Welser , the mother of Philippine Welser .
Georg acquired the rule of Tramin in South Tyrol . Here belonged to the family u. a. Unterspaur mansion and the Langenmantel mansion (Schneckenthalerstraße 6–12), which has frescoes from the 16th century with their coat of arms. The Langenmantel had the Thalegg residence built in nearby Eppan .
From the Traminer tribe, Kajetan Langenmantel vom RR (1731–1798) received confirmation of his old nobility from Empress Maria Theresia in 1763 , and in 1766, as postmaster of Kalsdorf near Graz , the dignity of a knight from the golden spur , combined with the predicate “Langenmantel, noble von und zu Langenthal ” and in 1779, as district chief in Cilli , he was raised to the status of hereditary baron .
"Edler von und zu Langenthal" referred to the Langenthal rule in what was then Possruck (today Kozjak nad Pesnico in Kungota, Slovenia ). Kajetan Langenmantel bought this property from the RR in 1764 and built the castle there.
- In the St. Moritz Church in Augsburg there is the Langenmantelkapelle, a family foundation for the veneration of Mary and as a burial place.
- The Swabian village of Westheim , once owned by the Langenmantel zum double R, still bears its coat of arms in the municipal coat of arms, as does the town of Neusäß , to which Westheim has been politically part since 1972.
- In 1587, as thanks for his recovery, Karl Langenmantel von Westheim had the still existing chapel of St. Kosmas and Damianus built at the Westheim Castle (today Notburga Seniorenheim Westheim), which was newly built by the Langenmantel. Under his descendant Jakob Wilhelm Benedikt von Langenmantel , it was renovated and expanded in 1777. In the year the chapel was built, Karl Langenmantel also donated a wayside shrine dedicated to the two saints and gave it to the residents. He also bears the Langenmantel coat of arms.
- Karl Langenmantel von Westheim had the pilgrimage chapel of St. Maria von Loreto built on the Kobelberg near Westheim around 1600 , later family members looked after and expanded it. It is probably the oldest still existing Loreto pilgrimage in southern Germany.
- Johann Langenmantel I. vom Sparren (1275–1337), knight, city caretaker in Augsburg
- Johann Langenmantel vom Sparren (1322–1380), knight, city caretaker in Augsburg
- Johann Langenmantel zu Radau (* approx. 1347–1420), mayor of Augsburg
- Leonhard Langenmantel vom Sparren (1390–1470), mayor of Augsburg
- Ulrich Langenmantel vom Sparren († after 1473), 1437–1473 provost to Völkermarkt in Carinthia and founder of the first Augsburg Study Foundation.
- Johann IX. Long coat from rafter (approx. 1440–1505), mayor of Augsburg, knight, federal governor of the Swabian Federation
- Christoph Langenmantel vom Sparren (approx. 1480–1538), Carmelite, Canon, Martin Luther's escape helper from Augsburg
- Eitelhans Langenmantel (1480–1528), martyr of the Anabaptist movement
- Ulrich Langenmantel vom Sparren († 1570), lawyer, privy councilor and court master of the underage margrave Philibert of Baden .
- Hieronymus Ambrosius Langenmantel von Westheim (1641–1718), Catholic priest and scientist
- Jakob Wilhelm Benedikt Langenmantel von Westheim (1720–1790), Augsburg patrician and city caretaker (mayor)
- Ludwig von Langenmantel (1854–1922), painter
- Otto von Langenmantel (1816–1875), civil engineer , master builder of the Liberation Hall near Kelheim
Guggenberg Castle , Wappenstein at the castle gate, Langenmantel vom rafter on the right
Langenmantel residence in Tramin , Langenmantel fresco coat of arms from RR, 16th century
Epitaph Heinrich Langenmantel vom RR, Chief Justice († 1581), Franciscan Church Ingolstadt
Choir fresco in St. Laurentius and Elisabeth (Aulzhausen) , 1734, church model with long coat coat of arms
Langenmantel epitaph at the St. Stephanus Church in Hainhofen
- Ernst Heinrich Kneschke : New General German Adelslexikon , Volume 5, Leipzig, 1864, p. 388 u. 389; (Digital scan)
- Werner Rösener : Noble and bourgeois cultures of remembrance of the late Middle Ages and the early modern period , Verlag Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 2000, page 173, ISBN 3-525-35427-4 ; (Digital scan)
- Johann Seifert : Hoch-Adeliche Stamm-Taffeln , Part 3, Regensburg, 1726; (Digital scans of the family tables)
- Gothaisches genealogisches Taschenbuch der Briefadeligen houses 1912. Sixth year, S.581ff
- Article on the long coat from the rafter, in the Augsburger Stadtlexikon
- Article on the long coat from the double R or from Westheim in the Augsburg city dictionary
- Entry on St. Servatius in the Augsburger Stadtlexikon ( Memento of the original from June 19, 2017 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- St. Servatius website
- Julius Hans: Contributions to Augsburg School History , in: Journal of the Historisches Verein für Schwaben and Neuburg , 4th year, Augsburg, 1878, p. 27; (Digital scan)
- Franz Eugen von Seida and Landensberg : General royal-Baierische Vaterlandskunde, 35th piece, Augsburg, 1807, pp. 554–557 of the year; (Digital scan with excerpts from the deed of 1464)
- Family tree of US President Thomas Jefferson ; Accessed February 21, 2009
- Johann Reuchlin, Briefwechsel , Volume 1, p. 160, Heidelberg Academy of Sciences, 1999, ISBN 3772819834 ; (Detail scan)
- Johann Seifert : Hoch-Adeliche Stamm-Taffeln , Part 3, Regensburg, 1726, 2. Stammtafel der Langenmantel; (Digital scan)
- Bavarian Academy of Sciences: Chronicles of the German Cities from the 14th to the 16th Century , Volume 33, p. 250, Hirzl Verlag, 1928; (Detail scan)
- Werner Rösener : Noble and bourgeois cultures of remembrance of the late Middle Ages and those of the early modern period , Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 2000, p. 173, ISBN 3525354274 ; (Digital scan)
- English website on Matthäus Langenmantel
- Newly increased historical and geographical general lexicon , 3rd edition, Volume 4, p. 611, Basel, 1743; (Digital scan)
- Gottlob Egelhaaf: German history in the sixteenth century up to the Augsburg Religious Peace , Volume 1, p. 168, BoD - Books on Demand, 2015, ISBN 3734007615 (reprint); (Digital scan)
- Joseph von Hormayr : The golden chronicle of Hohenschwangau , Munich, 1842, p. 178, (digital scan)
- Website on Luther's escape in the Northern Bavaria portal
- Neue Flora . (Koversationsblatt), No. 13, Augsburg, January 22, 1835 page 49 of the vintage; (Digital scan)
- Felix Mader: Die Kunstdenkmäler von Niederbayern: Bezirksamt Kelheim , Oldenbourg Verlag, 1922, p. 172; (Detail scan)
- Genealogical page on Joachim Langenmantel I.
- Franz Xaver Ostermayr: Collective sheet of the historical association in and for Ingolstadt , issue 2, pp. 21–24, Ingolstadt, 1877; (Digital scan)
- Mark Häberlein: Brothers, Friends and Fraudsters: Social Relationships, Norms and Conflicts in the Augsburg Merchants around the Middle of the 16th Century , Verlag Walter de Gruyter, 1998, p. 132 u. 133, ISBN 3050074299 ; (Digital scan)
- Johann Christian von Hellbach : Adels-Lexikon , 2nd volume, Ilmenau, 1826, p. 10; (Digital scan)
- Ernst Heinrich Kneschke : New General German Adelslexikon , Volume 5, Leipzig, 1864, p. 389; (Digital scan)
- Karl Heinrich von Lang : Adelsbuch des Kingdom of Baiern , Volume 1, Munich, 1815, p. 423 u. 424; (Digital scan)
- Yearbook of the KK Heraldische Gesellschaft "Adler" , New Series, Volume 1, p. 99, Vienna, 1891; (Digital scan)
- Website of the Unterspaur residence
- Official website of the Langenmantel residence
- Private website for the Langenmantel residence
- Website for the Thalegg residence
- Genealogical website on Kajetan Langenmantel vom RR
- Ernst Heinrich Kneschke : New general German Adelslexikon , Volume 5, Leipzig, 1864, p. 388 u. 389; (Digital scan)
- Karl Friedrich Beniamin Leupold: General Adels-Lexikon der Österreichischen Monarchy , Part 1, First Volume, Vienna, 1789, 444–451; (Digital scan)
- Karl Schmutz: Historisch-topographisches Lexicon von Steyermark , Volume 2, P. 363 u. 364, Graz, 1822; (Digital scan)
- Rudolph Gustav Puff: Marburg in Steiermark: Its surroundings, residents and history , Volume 1, Graz, 1847, p. 200 u. 201; (Digital scan)
- Gemeindebrief Around the Moritzkirche , no. 3, 2014, p 3 (Digital View)
- Website of the parish, on the chapel of St. Kosmas and Damianus in Westheim
- Illustrated private website on the history of the Chapel of St. Kosmas and Damianus in Westheim
- Website for the Loreto Chapel Westheim