In the scientific literature, the term microstate is predominantly used, since the dwarf state and numerous synonyms (such as the smallest state , Lilliput state , pygmy state , miniature state , mini state or diminutive state ) are understood as rather derogatory. The Duodezstaat (derived from a historical book format ), a derogatory term from the 18th century for the then extremely small German principalities, is particularly disparaging .
Under international law, size does not matter. Occasionally, however, individual sovereignty attributes are missing in dwarf or micro-states. Some can be represented militarily , partly also in foreign policy, by a neighboring state. After initial concerns, which were discussed as the “microstate problem” especially in the 1970s, the United Nations accepted all dwarf or microstates worldwide that had submitted a corresponding application as members.
The term “ dwarf state” is vague and has changed over time. It is therefore not possible to clearly determine the size of a small state as a dwarf or micro state.
For the sometimes very small principalities of German history, the terms small states and dwarf states are still used today as synonyms (see Kleinstaaterei ). From the 18th century they were ironically referred to as duodec states. Duodez was a small book format and figuratively meant something insignificant.
In addition to the concept of the micro-state, the so-called micronation occasionally appears . Micronations are not recognized by the United Nations and other international organizations. Micronation is not to be understood analogously to micro-state ; that doesn't mean a very small nation .
The geographer Erich fruit categorized 1972, not trans or subcontinental States Makrotop ( surface States with more than 800,000 square kilometers), Mesotop (States 40,000 to 800,000 square kilometers), MikroTOP (States from 1000 to 40,000 square kilometers), or Minitop (countries with less than 1000 km²).
The list below also uses the geographic size in square kilometers, not the number of inhabitants, as a criterion for the definition of the term miniature state . So appear z. B. Iceland and Luxembourg , which have a population similar to some of the countries mentioned in the list, but have a larger territory, are not in this context.
European and non-European dwarf states
In Europe there are six countries, mostly referred to as miniature states: Andorra , Liechtenstein , Malta , Monaco , San Marino and the Vatican City . These are individual principalities or republics that have maintained their independence until today, or about the former Papal States reaching back papal entitled to under international law recognized sovereign enclave in the heart of Rome .
Outside of Europe
List of very small states
Sovereign states with a fixed land mass of up to approx. 1000 square kilometers (excluding maritime territories).
|Country / territory||location||Area (km²)||resident||was standing|
|Vatican city||Southern Europe||0.44||618||3rd July 2018|
|Monaco||Southern Europe||2.03||37,550||December 2016|
|Nauru||Oceania - Micronesia||21||11,288||2015|
|Tuvalu||Oceania - Polynesia||26th||11.206||Census 2012|
|San Marino||Southern Europe||61||33,031||May 2016|
|Liechtenstein||Central Europe||160||37,850||December 2016|
|Marshall Islands||Oceania - Micronesia||181||53,158||2011|
|Cook Islands||Oceania||236||11,700||September 2016|
|St. Kitts and Nevis||Caribbean||261||52,834||2019|
|Maldives||South Asia - Indian Ocean||298||530,953||2019|
|Malta||Southern Europe - Mediterranean||316||415.196||July 2016|
|St. Vincent and the Grenadines||Caribbean||388||117,200|
|Antigua and Barbuda||Caribbean||442||85,632|
|Seychelles||Africa - Indian Ocean||455||87,500|
|Palau||Oceania - Micronesia||459||17,661||Census 2015|
|Andorra||Southern Europe||468||73.105||December 2016|
|Micronesia||Oceania - Micronesia||702||116,431||2021|
|Singapore||South East Asia||719||5,076,700|
|Tonga||Oceania - Polynesia||747||100,651||November 30, 2016|
|Bahrain||Asia - Persian Gulf||760||1,214,705|
|Kiribati||Oceania - Micronesia||811||110.136||2015|
|Sao Tome and Principe||Central Africa||1,001||167,000|
- Member States of the United Nations , unless otherwise stated.
- Is represented internationally by the Holy See , which is a permanent observer at the United Nations as an independent subject of international law.
- Not a member state of the United Nations, but self-governing territory in free association with New Zealand , but is recognized as an independent state by more than 40 member states of the United Nations, including also from the Federal Republic of Germany (2001), Belgium (2005) and Switzerland (2005).
- Not a member state of the United Nations, but rather self-governing territory in free association with New Zealand , but increasingly maintains independent diplomatic relations, among other things. on the People's Republic of China (2007), India (2012) and Turkey (2014).
- Theodor Schweisfurth: Völkerrecht. Mohr Siebeck, Tübingen 2006, ISBN 3-16-148992-6 , p. 17.
- Brockhaus Encyclopedia , 21st edition. FA Brockhaus, Leipzig / Mannheim 2014.
- Duodets. In Wissen.de , accessed on June 16, 2017
- Erich Obst / Martin Schmithüsen (eds.), Allgemeine Staatsgeographie , 1972, p. 13
- Vatican City website: Popolazione (population) vaticanstate.va , accessed January 19, 2021.
- The official population figures. From: monacostatistics.mc , accessed June 10, 2017
- Nauru Stats At A Glance. Nauru Bureau of Statistics at: prism.spc.int , accessed June 10, 2017
- Tuvalu Statistics at a Glance. Tuvalu Central Statistics Division at: prism.spc.int , accessed June 10, 2017
- Bilancio Demografico ( Memento of July 8, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) (PDF; 200 kB). From the website of the Ufficio Informatica, Tecnologia, Dati e Statistica of the Republic of San Marino, accessed on July 8, 2016
- Population statistics on December 31, 2016. On the website of the Statistical Office, State Administration of the Principality of Liechtenstein, accessed on June 10, 2017
- Social Statistics. Economic Policy Planning and Statistics Office (EPPSO) at: prism.spc.int , accessed June 10, 2017
- Vital Statistics and Population Estimates. Cook Islands - Ministry of Finance and Economic Management at prism.spc.int , accessed June 10, 2017
- Niue Vital Statistics 2019 , accessed January 19, 2021
- World Bank: Population, total - St. Kitts and Nevis
- World Bank: Population, total - Maldives
- Malta. In: CIA World Factbook , accessed June 10, 2017
- Republic of Palau, Bureau of Budget and Planning Ministry of Finance, Statistical Yearbook 2019, Table 2.2 , accessed January 19, 2021
- Últimes dades. ( Memento of December 10, 2010 in the Internet Archive ) On the statistics website of the Govern d'Andorra , accessed on June 10, 2017
- Micronesia Population 2021 (Demographics, Maps, Graphs). August 27, 2021, accessed August 29, 2021 .
- Tonga Statistics Department , accessed January 19, 2021
- Kiribati Stats at a Glance ( Memento from January 8, 2017 in the Internet Archive ). Kiribate National Statistics Office at: www.mfed.gov.ki , accessed June 10, 2017