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IPA mark ◌̻
IPA number 410
IPA character description square below
Unicode U + 033B
HTML (dec.) & # 827;
16.laminal (tongue leaf)
18.sub-laminal (underside of tongue)

A laminal ( latin lamina , leaf ' ) is an after articulation organ designated speech sound . In the International Phonetic Alphabet , laminal sounds are indicated by a square (◌̻, Unicode COMBINING SQUARE BELOW U + 033B). Laminal sounds are formed when the tongue is placed against the articulation points of the upper lip, upper teeth, perineum and the prepalatal arch of the palate or forms a constriction with them.

A distinction is made between lamino- dental , lamino- alveolar , lamino- postalveolar and lamino- palatal sounds:

  • Lamino-dental: the tongue is on the back of the upper teeth and the tip of the tongue is just below the edge of the lower teeth. Example: [ ]
  • Lamino-alveolar: the tip of the tongue is located just below the edge of the lower teeth, the blade of the tongue comes into contact with the dam. Example: [ ]
  • lamino-postalveolar: the tongue sheet makes contact with the outermost posterior convex part of the dental dam. Example: [⁠ ʃ ⁠]
  • lamino-palatal: the tongue sheet comes into contact with the hard palate. In the IPA , these sounds are referred to as alveolar-palatal. Example: [⁠ ɕ ⁠] in Chinese : xuexi [ ɕyɛɕi "learn"].

Web links

Wiktionary: Laminal  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations