The articulation organ or articulator , colloquially also speech instrument, is used in phonetics to describe the relatively flexible, mostly lower part of the vocal tract , which is used in articulation , a sub-process of sound formation. With the formation of consonants or semi-vowels , two parts of the vocal path are brought into contact or approximated with one another. The upper, rather immobile part is the place of articulation .
In phonetics, the following organs of articulation are distinguished:
- Lower lip → labial sounds
- Tip of the tongue (apex) → apical sounds
- Tongue wreath (corona) → coronal sounds
- Tongue sheet (lamina) → laminal sounds
- Back of the tongue (dorsum) → dorsal sounds
- Tongue root (radix) → radical sounds
- Vocal folds (glottis) → glottal sounds
Since the vocal cords are also the place of articulation of the glottal sounds, they are not always explicitly stated as the articulator.
In contrast to voicing , articulation location and mode , the articulators are normally not used to name individual sounds, but can be used in individual cases for distinction.
|designation||Articulating organ||Articulation place||example|
|bilabial||Lower lip (labium inferius)||Upper lip (labium superius)||[ p ] [ b ] [ m ]|
|labiodental||bottom lip||upper incisors||[ f ] [ v ]|
|dental||Tongue sheet||upper incisors||[ d̪ ]|
|alveolar||Tip of the tongue (apex linguae)||Tooth dam (alveolus dentalis)||[ d ]|
|postalveolar||Tongue sheet||hard palate (palatum durum)||[ ʃ ] [ ʒ ]|
|retroflex||Tip of tongue||Hard palate||[ ɻ ]|
|palatal||Back of the tongue (dorsum linguae)||Hard palate||[ ç ]|
|velar||Back of the tongue||soft palate, soft palate (velum)||[ k ] [ ɡ ]|
|uvular||Back of the tongue||Uvula (uvula)||[ ʀ ]|
|pharyngal||Tongue root (radix linguae)||Throat wall (pharynx)||[ ħ ]|
|glottal||Vocal folds||Glottis (glottis)||[ h ]|