|speaker||An estimated 3 million native speakers|
|ISO 639 -1||
|ISO 639 -2||
Waray, also Winaray or L (in) eyte-Samarnon called, is a language of the Philippines in the areas of Samar , Northern Samar , Eastern Samar , Leyte (eastern part) and Biliran is spoken.
The language belongs to the family of Visayan languages and is also related to Cebuano , although the language has far more similarities with Hiligaynon .
Phonetics and Phonology
Waray-Waray has a total of 16 consonant phonemes: / p, t, k, b, d, ɡ, m, n, ŋ, s, h, w, l, ɾ, j, ʔ / .
The voice onset time of voiceless plosives such as B. / p, t, k / is very low. This means that the aspiration, if any, is very low. In parallel, voiced plosives such as / b, d, ɡ / always appear completely voiced; this also at the end of the word.
Waray-Waray has three vowel phonemes: / a / [a] , / i / [ɛ ~ i] , and / u / [o ~ u] . The use of u instead of an o or ɔ will therefore never lead to a difference in meaning, since they are free variants and the use is therefore dialectal or sociolectal. Orthographically, this means that 'o' and 'u' are interchangeable, which leads to large orthographic variants of words among Waray-Waray native speakers.
The numbers are pronounced from 1 to 10 in their native language. From 11 onwards, only the Spanish digits are used today, as the majority of native speakers are almost unfamiliar with the numbers from 11 onwards due to lack of use.
|Eleven||(Napúlô kag usá)|
Some typical words and phrases
Below are some typical phrases used in the Waray-Waray language:
- Good morning (noon / afternoon / evening) - Maupay nga aga (udto / kulop / gab-i)
- Do you understand Waray? - Nakakaintindi ka hit Winaray?
- Hello - Kumusta
- Thank you - salamat
- I love you - Hinihigugma ko ikaw or Ginhihigugma ko ikaw
- Where are you from? - Taga diin ka?
- How much is it? - day pira ini?
- I do not understand (you) - Diri ako nakakaintindi
- What - Ano
- Who - Hin-o
- Where - grove
- When (future) - San-o
- When (past) - Kakan-o
- Why - Kay-ano
- Yes - Oo
- No - Dire
- Da - Adto
- Night - Gab-i
- Day - Adlaw
- there - adto
- Can I help? - Pwedi bumpy
Although the Sanghiran San Binisaya ha Samar ug Leyte (Academy of the Visayan Languages of Samar and Leyte), which no longer exists today, formulated a standardized orthography , it was never widespread. Therefore, even today there is still no official and generally accepted orthography. However, there seems to be a certain social consensus on the writing of consonants, which is probably due to the spelling of the national language Filipino . There seems to be no consensus on the writing of the glottic closure sound , which is either represented by a '-' or a '' 'or is not shown. Orthographic variants are often due to the different spelling of the vowels; this means that there can often be two or more orthographic variants.
- diri or dire ("no")
- hira or hera ("them")
- pira or pera ("money" - can also mean "how many?")
- maopay or maupay or ma-upay ("good")
- guinhatag or ginhatag ("gave")
- direcho or diritso ("forward"; from Spanish)
- Ethnological report on Waray-Waray (in English)