Hiligaynon (language)

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Spoken in

speaker an estimated 7 million native speakers, 4 million second speakers
Language codes
ISO 639 -1


ISO 639 -2


ISO 639-3


Hiligaynon, or Ilonggo in many regions , is an Austronesian language spoken primarily in the Western Visayas district of the Philippines .

In total, 7 million people in and outside the Philippines speak Hiligaynon as their main language and another 4 million speak and use it as a second language.

Hiligaynon is one of the Visayas languages .

Speech dissemination

The Hiligaynon language is predominantly represented on the island of Panay and in the province of Negros Occidental . It is spoken there mostly in the provinces of Iloilo , Capiz , Antique , Aklan and in Guimaras and is also used as a dialect in many parts of Mindanao such as Koronadal City , South Cotabato and Sultan Kudarat .

As a second language it is spoken by the ethnic group of the Karay-a in Antique, the Aklanon and Malaynon in Aklan, the Cebuanos and in Siquijor as well as by the Capiznon in Capiz.

The language is strongly associated with Ilonggo in Negros Occidental and Iloilo . The Ilonggo are an ethnic-linguistic group on the island of Panay , whose culture can hardly be separated from the Hiligaynon speakers. The boundary between the two dialects cannot be clearly defined. The question of which designation is correct is just as controversial among Filipino language experts as it is among many native lay people.


Hiligaynon has 16 consonants: p, t, k, b, d, g, m, n, ng, s, h, w, l, r and y. There are three vowels mainly used: [a], [ ɛ] / [i] and [o] / [⁠ ʊ ⁠] .

The vowels [i] and [ ɛ] (both pronounced as i ) are allophones , with [i] at the beginning, in the middle and sometimes at the end of a syllable and [ ɛ] only occurring in the final syllables. The vowels [⁠ ʊ ⁠] and [o] are also allophones, with [⁠ ʊ ⁠] , which always takes place at the beginning of use, while [o] is always used when it ends with a syllable.

The consonants [d] and [⁠ ɾ ⁠] are also allophones, but can not be interchanged. So it is called patawaron (forgive) [from patawad, forgiveness] but not patawadon and it is called tagadiín (from where) [from diín, where] but not tagariín .


The core alphabet contains 20 letters. The consonants and vowels are present in both lowercase and uppercase. The Latin characters are used, but with country-specific modifications.


The 1st to 10th letters
symbol A a B b K k D d E e G g H h I i L l M m
designation a ba ka there e ga Ha i la ma
pronunciation [a / ə] [aw] [aj] [b] [k] [d] [ɛ / e] [G] [H] [ɪ / i] [ɪo] [l] [m]
in context a aw / ao ay b k d e G H i iw / io l m
The 11th to the 20th letter
symbol N n Ng ng O o P p R r S s T t U u W w Y y
designation n / A nga O pa ra sa ta u wa ya
pronunciation [n] [ŋ] [ɔ / o] [oj] [p] [r] [s] [ʃʲ] [t] [ʊ / u] [w] [w] [j]
in context n ng O oy p r s sy t u among others w y

Additional characters

It should be noted that the apostrophe (') and hyphen (-) are also used in the spelling of Hiligaynon. In addition, different English letters are used, but these are only used for foreign words.



Hiligaynon has three types of passwords for identifying cases: the cases are the absolute , the ergative, and the neuter case. These cases are in turn divided into personal types, which have to do with the names of people, and neuter types, which deal with anything objective.

There are also singular and plural variants, whereby the passwords for the neuter plural cases are the same as the passwords for the singular cases, but with the addition mga . This word is always used in Hiligaynon to express the plural.

Absolutely Ergative Real case
Singular neuter nec sang, sing *) sa
Plural neuter nec mga sang mga, sing mga *) sa mga
Singular personal si ni kay
Plural personal **) sanday nanday kanday
*)The articles sing and sing mga mean that the following nouns are indefinite , while sang denotes a certain noun, comparable in German with the use of ein in contrast to der / die / das .
In the modern language they are increasingly being replaced by sang . They occur mainly in conservative translations of the Bible in Hiligayno, as well as in traditional or formal language usage.
**)Passwords for the personal case in the plural are not used often and not by all speakers. The examples given are passwords that are used less and less. However, they are sometimes used when Hiligaynon is spoken in the traditional version and few foreign Spanish words are to be used.
The passwords for the cases do not decide whether a noun is a subject or an object , rather the appendix of a verb does. The noun marked with the word ang is always the one that is being addressed.


  • "Ang lalaki nag kaon sang tinapay." - 'The man ate the bread.'

Can mean the same as

  • "Ang tinapay gin kaon sang lalaki." - In the literal sense: 'The bread was eaten by the man.'

In Hiligaynon, however, there is a tendency to use the active sentence structure and so the first sentence is used more often.

Personal pronouns

Ergative 1
Ergative 2
(in front)
1st person singular ako nakon, ko acon sa acon
2nd person singular ikaw, ka nimo, mo imo sa imo
3rd person singular siya niya iya sa iya
1st person plural inclusive daycare naton, ta aton sa aton
1st person plural exclusive kami namon amon sa amon
2nd person plural kamo ninyo inyo sa inyo
3rd person plural sila nila ila sa ila

Indicative pronouns

Absolutely Ergative Really Existential
Close to the speaker (this, here) * iní siní dirí yári
Close to the addressee (this, here) inâ sinâ dirâ yára '
Apart (those, that) ató sadtó didtó yádto

In addition to the forms of this given here, two verbal references should be given: karí means to come to the speaker, kadto, on the other hand, means to go to that speaker .

Foreign words

Various Spanish words can be found in Hiligaynon, such as santo (from santo, saint), berde (from verde, green) and pero (from pero, but).

Spanish verbs often remain unconjugated when used in Hiligaynon (the verb has endings such as -ar , -er or -ir ), which are conjugated in the 'tú' form in Filipino .


  • komparar, mandar, pasar, tener, disponer, mantener, etc.


Connecting words

Hiligaynon lacks expressions like the ay occurring in Tagalog or Filipino or the hay from the Akeanon dialect.


  • Si Inday ay maganda. ( Tagalog )
  • Si Inday matahum. (Hiligaynon)
  • 'The sister is beautiful.' (German)

There is no equivalent in Hiligaynon for the translation of the auxiliary word to be from English ('sein' in German). To distinguish between will be and become , the prefixes nangin and mangin are used


  • Manámi 'mangin manggaranon. - 'It's nice to get rich.'

The Spanish auxiliary verb estar (German 'to be') is part of the Hiligaynon vocabulary, but its meaning and pronunciation have been greatly modified here. In Hiligaynon it is pronounced istar and means 'to live in (a place)' (in Hiligaynon it is synonymous with the word puyo ).


  • Nagaistar ako sa tabuc suba. - 'I live in tabuc suba.'


The word may is used to denote a living object .


  • May idô ko. - ,I have a dog.'

question words

The question words in Hiligaynon are as follows: diin, san-o, sin-o, nga-a, kamusta, ano and pila .

Diin means where.


  • Diin ka na? - ,Where are you now?'

A variant of diin , tagadiin is used to ask the listener's place of birth or hometown.


  • Tagadiin ka? - ,Where are you from?'

San-o means when.


  • San-o inâ? - ,When is it?'

Sin-o is called who.


  • Sin-o imo abyan? - ,Who is your friend?'

Nga-a means why.


  • Nga-a di ka magkadto? - 'Why don't you want to go?'

Kamusta means how, in the sense of 'How are you?'


  • Kamusta ang tindahan? - 'How's the business?'

Ano means something.


  • Ano ang imo nagabasa? - ,What are you reading?'

A variant of ano, paano, also means like, but in the sense of 'How should I do something?'


  • Paano ko makapulî? - 'How should I get home?'

Pila means how much.


  • Pila ang mga upod sa imo? - 'How many are there with you?'

A variant of pila , the word ikapila , asks for a numerical order in relation to a person, as in "How many were you born into your family?" (First born, second born etc.) This word is notoriously difficult to use in a European language translate because there is no equivalent in German or English.


  • Ikapila ka? - 'How many years were you born into your family?'


numbers Hiligaynon
0001 Isá
0002 Duhá
0003 Tatlo
0004th Apat
0005 Limá
0006th Anum
0007th Pitó
0008th Waló
0009 Siyám
0010 Púlô
0100 Gatus
1000 Libó

(Exception: amounts of money are given in Spanish.)


Times are given in Spanish.

Days of the week

The names of the days of the week are derived from their Spanish equivalents:

Day Adlaw
Sunday Domingo
Monday Lunes
Tuesday Martes
Wednesday Miyerkoles
Thursday Huwebes
Friday Biyernes
Saturday Sabadó

Months of the year

The first names of the month names in Hiligaynon are also derived from Spanish.

month Bulan
January Enero; ulalong
February Pebrero; dagangkahoy
March Marso; dagangbulan
April April; kiling
May Mayo; himabuyan
June Hunio; kabay
July Hulyo; hidapdapan
August Agosto; lubad-lubad
September Septiyembre; kangurolsol
October Octubre; bagyo-bagyo
November Nobiyembre; panglot-diotay
December Disiyembre; panglot-daku

Short greetings and phrases

German Hiligaynon
Yes. Hu-o.
No. Indî.
Thank you very much Salamat.
sorry Pasensya. / Pasaylo.
Help Bulig! / Tabang!
Delicate! Namit!
Watch out. Halong.
Are you crazy? Akig ka?
I do not know. Ambot.
That is wonderful! Námì-námì man (i) nâ!
Good Morning. Maayong aga.
Good day. Maayong udto.
Good afternoon (afternoon). Maayong hapon.
Good evening Maayong gave-i.
How are you? Kumusta ka? / Kamusta ikaw?
I am fine. Maayo man.
I'm fine how about you Maayo man, ikaw iya?
How old are you? Pila na ang edad nimo? / Ano ang edad mo?
I am 25 years old. Should singko anyos na (a) ko. / Duha ka pulo kag lima ka tuig na (a) ko.
I'm john Ako si John. / Si John ako.
I am Oskee. Ako si Oskee. / Si Oskee ako.
What is your name? Ano imo ngalan? / Ano ngalan (ni) mo?
I love you. Palangga ta ka.
I love you (romantic love) Ginahigugma ko ikaw.
Thank you very much. Salamat gid.
Girl you are beautiful Day tama sa imo ka-anyag. / Day, gwapa ka gid!
Can I have your phone number? Puede ko makuha ang numero sang cellphone mo?

This and that

German Hiligaynon
What is this? Ano (i) ni?
This is a piece of paper. Isa ni ka panid sang papel. / Isa ka panid ka papel ini.
What is that there? Ano (i) nâ?
This is a book. Libro (i) nâ.
What would you like to do? Ano ang himu-on (ni) mo? / Ano ang buhaton (ni) mo?
What are you doing? Ano ang ginahimo (ni) mo?
I dont know. Ambut

Questions about directions and times

German Hiligaynon
Where shall we go? Diin kita makadto?
Where are we going? Diin kita pakadto?
Where are you going? (Sa) diin ka makadto?
We should go to Bacolod. Makadto kita sa Bacolod.
I go home. Mapa-uli na ko (sa balay).
Where do you live? Diin ka naga-istar? / Diin ka na-gapuyô?
Where are you from? (Where have you just been?) Diin ka nag halin?
Have you been there long Dugay ka na diri?
(To the left. (Sa) wala.
(To the right. (Sa) tuô.
What time is it? Ano ('ng) takna na? / Ano ('ng) horas na?
It is ten o'clock. Alas diyes na.
What time is it now? Ano ang horas subong?

At the market square

German Hiligaynon
Can i buy? Pwede ko mabakal?
How much is this? Day-pila ini?
How much is this here / there? Tagpilá iní / inâ?

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