Copula (grammar)

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The copula (Latin copula ), also Kopulaverb , copulative verb , connecting verb , Bindeverb , linking word , sentence band called, is in the grammar a verb that no content word is, but this only serves together with a non-verbal component (the Praedicativum ) to form a predicate . In German, the verbs “sein”, “werden” and “haben” are classified as copula.

Sometimes a number of other verbs are also referred to as copula, which are constructed with a predicative, for example “look”, “appear”, “think”, “sound”, “taste”, “call”, “apply”, “oneself” to occur ”and“ to prove ”.

Not all languages ​​require the setting of a copula. This can also be expressed in such a way that (especially in the present tense ) there is a "zero copula":

Russian «Я - человек», (Ja tschelowek) - "I am a person", literally: "I - person". In the written language, there is an em dash in place of the missing “is” .
Hungarian : «ő ember», "He is a person", literally: "He is a person"
Hebrew : «אני בן-אדם», (ani ben-adam), "I am a person", literally: "I son of Adam"
Arabic : «أنا إنسان»(Anā insān)," I am a person ", literally:" I (a) person "

The concept of the copula can already be found in the philosophical tradition; it also has correspondences in logic , formal logic (outdated: logistics), methodology and philosophy of science . The copula also plays a central role in the theory of definition . In the late philosophy of the German theorist Paul Lorenzen , the Tatkopula tut symbolized by π is also allowed. The sentence:

Tilman carries water into the house with buckets.

is therefore considered an elementary sentence , although it contains activity verbs ( carries , more precisely: does carry ).

See also


  • Helmut Glück (Ed.), With the collaboration of Friederike Schmöe : Metzler-Lexikon Sprache. 3rd, revised edition. Metzler, Stuttgart a. a. 2005, ISBN 3-476-02056-8 .
  • NI Kondakov: Dictionary of Logic. Verlag Das Europäische Buch, West Berlin 1978, ISBN 3-920303-80-6 . (Original Russian edition: Logičeskij slovar'-spravočnik. 2nd, expanded edition. Nauka, Moscow 1975)
  • Paul Lorenzen : Textbook of the constructive philosophy of science. Bibliographisches Institut, Mannheim u. a. 1987, ISBN 3-411-03154-9 . (Also: License edition. (= Metzler Reprint ). Metzler, Stuttgart et al. 2000, ISBN 3-476-01784-2 ).
  • Rosemarie Lühr: Copular sentences in ancient Indo-European languages. In: Ljudmila Geist, Björn Rothstein (Hrsg.): Copula verbs and copula sentences Interslingual and intralingual aspects. (= Linguistic Works. Volume 512). Max Niemeyer Verlag, Tübingen 2007, ISBN 978-3-484-30512-0 , pp. 181-199.
  • Eva-Maria Remberger, Kay-Eduardo González-Vilbazo: The copula in Romansh. In: Ljudmila Geist, Björn Rothstein: Copula verbs and copula sentences: intersilingual and intralinguistic aspects. (= Linguistic Works. Volume 512). Walter de Gruyter, Berlin 2007, ISBN 978-3-484-30512-0 , pp. 201-227.

Web links

Wiktionary: Copula  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations

Individual evidence

  1. Jochen A. Bär : Hermeneutische Linguistik. De Gruyter, Berlin / Munich / Boston 2015, ISBN 978-3-11-040519-4 , p. 427.