The voluntative (the willing form ) is a grammatical mode , the main function of which is seen by linguistics as expressing a willing or an intention (cf. also optative ). The Hittite example is a language in which this mode is present in the verbal inflection.
Voluntative as a comprehensive semantic term
In many cases everything that can express a wish or an intention is referred to as “voluntative” or “volitive”. These include the Germans of the subjunctive present tense ( He come! ), The Present , a want -Umschreibung and adverbs as intentionally . In Latin , the future tense, the subjunctive (e.g. the perfect subjunctive in its function as a prohibitive : Ne me tetigeris 'Don't touch me'), the coniugatio periphrastica (e.g. auditurus es , dt. "You want ...", "You intend to ...", "You are willing to hear") as well as velle - or nolle - paraphrases contain such intentions.
Voluntative as a term for the use of the subjunctive
In Latin, Greek and German grammars, “voluntativ” is also used as a term to denote a semantic function of the subjunctive , namely to express something that is the will of the speaker, e.g. B. Long live the king! or Latin requiescat ('let him rest').
Systematically realized voluntativity
A modal binary distinction between intentional and unintentional actions, similar to the Slavic aspect, exists in Hindi , where the morphological category of volitionality is present. Just as the aspect is the primary (synthetic-flexing) realization of the aspectuality, this also applies to the volitionality with regard to “voluntative” as a semantic umbrella term.
- Helmut Glück (Ed.): Metzler Lexicon Language. 4th, updated and revised edition. JB Metzler, Stuttgart / Weimar 2010, ISBN 978-3-476-02335-3 .
- Hadumod Bußmann (Ed.) With the collaboration of Hartmut Lauffer: Lexikon der Sprachwissenschaft. 4th, revised and bibliographically supplemented edition. Kröner, Stuttgart 2008, ISBN 978-3-520-45204-7 .
- Duden Grammar, 8th edition, 2009; ISBN 978-3-411-04048-3