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The transgressive , also adverbial participle , older also modus transgressivus and transgressivus ( Latin transgressivus 'passing', 'crossing') is an infinite verb form derived from participles in some Slavic and Baltic languages. It expresses a secondary process, the main process is implemented differently (mostly through a finite verb). The secondary process can be premature, simultaneous or even after the main process and always relates to the subject (if there is a subject in the sentence and except in Sorbian and Macedonian, where it can also refer to the direct object , e.g. B. Lower Sorbian Som jogo tam stojecy wiźeł literally: I saw him standing there, as well as colloquially in Russian and Polish). In Lower Sorbian this form competes with the congruent participle (e.g. W sedle sejźecy / sejźeca cyta casnik. "He / she reads a newspaper, sitting in an armchair"), while this is mostly not the case in related Upper Sorbian (e.g. . W křesle sedźo čita nowiny. ). There the transgressive of the present tense usually ends in -o, so that a distinction according to gender is not possible.

There is usually a present tense and a perfect tense (Czech píše, píšíc, píšíce / napsav, napsavši, napsavše "writing / having written", Polish pisząc / napisawszy "writing / having written", Upper Sorb . Pišo, napisawši "writing / having written ”), in some languages ​​or dialects there is only one form, whereby the logical tense correlates with the aspect (for example in Moravian dialects or in Slovak).


  • Czech: Nakladatelství X vydalo knihu nemajíc autorských práv. (Publisher X published the book without having the copyrights.)
  • Polish: Rozmawiano pijąc piwo. (They talked over beer (literally: drinking beer);)
  • Lithuanian: Jis išėjo dainuodamas. (He went away singing.)

Predictive use of the transgressive

In some Russian and Polish dialects the transgressive perfect is formed, e.g. B. я был тогда все сделавши (I did everything at the time), приеду, когда буду все сделавши (I'll come after I've done everything), gdzie ona poszedszy (where did she go).


  1. a b Grammar of the Upper Sorbian written language of the present, pages 299–308 (Transgressive), 163 (conjugation pattern for "pisać")

See also