Infinite verb forms in the Spanish language

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

In the infinite verbs in Spanish, formas no personales del Verbo , also verboides is of area neither grammatical person and number still tense or mode mark. (In contrast to Portuguese , there is no personal inflection in Spanish with infinitives). Infinite verb forms are sometimes close to a nominalized form of the verb in form or function .

In the Spanish grammar of the Real Academia Española (RAE) from 1931, the "three infinite forms of the verb" were referred to as "mode" ( modo infinitivo ) In the "Esbozo" of the RAE (1973) ( Spanish : draft, sketch ) becomes abandoned the term “modo infinitivo” and instead spoke of formas no personales del verbo . In “Esbozo” (and also in other works) the term “ verboides ” is also used for the three infinite verb forms . Bello (1847) describes the group of words as " derivados verbales ". Rafael Seco (1930) gave them the name formas auxiliares. Other leading Spanish linguists, for example Samuel Gili Gaya , Josep Roca-Pons , Manuel Seco Reymundo (* 1928), Emilio Alarcos Llorach , and others. a. speak of the " formas no personales ".

The former modo infinitivo in the Spanish language or grammar includes :

The participle is particularly common, it is connected with haber to form the compound tenses, and with ser and estar to form the passive . Examples:

  • Participle , participio pasado .
    • comprado bought tribe "COMPR" theme vowel "a-" suffix "-do"
  • Participle , participio presente .
    • abundant ample trunk "abund-" theme vowel "a-" ending "-nte"
  • Gerund , gerundio .
    • comprando while I'm on the Buy (or similar) tribe "COMPR" theme vowel "a-" ending "-ndo"

Classification of the infinite verb forms in Spanish

Functionally, these three infinite verb forms can be used to shorten or replace subordinate , but also ancillary sentences.

The infinite verb forms do not constitute a sentence and do not form a tense form in the actual sense. Because while the finite verb form relates the expressions to the time of the utterance, e.g. For example, if the tense (temporal) is deictically anchored, the infinite verb forms can only form a so-called periphrastic tense form in conjunction with a finite verb .

In the Spanish language, the way in which actions take place is expressed through verbal paraphrases, the so-called verbal periphrases , perífrasis verbales . These are constructions with verbs of movement which, in connection with the formas no personales del verbo , i.e. the infinitive, participle or gerund, lose their original meaning and thus assume the functions of a quasi-auxiliary verb. - example:

Ana va a estudiar. Ana will (go to) study. Futuro próximo de indicativo or Futuro compuesto

A comparison with the formations of the copula verbs and the participio on the one hand and the copula verb and the gerundio on the other:

  • ser + participio leads to the formation of the process passive . - example:
    • La casa fue construida en seis meses The house was built in six months.
  • estar + participio leads to the formation of the state passive. - example:
    • Este cuadro estuvo pintado por Miró This painting was painted by Miró.
  • estar + gerundio leads to a description of an action in progress. - example:
    • Está lloviendo It's raining / It's raining right now .
Verbs hablar temer partir
suffix -ar -he -ir
Infinitivo hablar temer partir
suffix -ando -iendo -iendo
Gerundio hablando temiendo partiendo
suffix -ado / -ados; -ada / -adas -ido / -idos; -ida / -idas -ido / -idos; -ida / -idas
Participio pasado o perfecto hablado / hablada temido / temida partido / partida
suffix -ante -dined -duck
participio presente o activo hablante - -


In grammar, the infinitive is described as a sustantivo abstracto (Spanish for abstract noun ) or sustantivo verbal (Spanish for verbal noun, verbal noun ) . To capture noun. A noun can appear or be formed as the nominalized infinitive of a verb.

There are three conjugation systems in Spanish with the corresponding suffixes : the a-conjugation (e.g. hablar speak ), the e-conjugation (e.g. comer essen ) and the i-conjugation (e.g. vivir live ). A large number of commonly used verbs have irregular forms . These endings do not encode any content, but rather reveal a formal, syntactic property. Infinitives cannot assign a case because they do not allow subjects.

Sentence constructions with an infinitive are widely used in Spanish, so they are used to shorten or even replace secondary, relative , conditional, final , causal and temporal clauses . Usually, the term infinitive, infinitivo simple activo, is used to denote the simple active infinitive. In the third and fourth columns of the table the examples of the compound active and passive infinitives, infinitivo compuesto activo o pasivo, are shown, which are without exception formed with “haber” as an auxiliary verb and the participio pasado . Similar to the German language , there is a difference in aspects : the simple infinitive, infinitivo simple activo, denotes "unconnected" and the compound infinitive, infinitivo compuesto activo, denotes a "closed" fact. - example:

Ella estuvo muy agradecida de haber comenzado el proyecto muy eficar. Pretérito imperfecto de indicativo + infinitivo simple activo abgeschlossener Tatbestand, Handlung
Ella estuvo muy agradecida de comenzar el proyecto muy eficar. Pretérito imperfecto de indicativo + infinitivo simple activo unabgeschlossene Handlung

The compound perfect infinitive indicates an action that occurred before the action of the main verb, but only if the subject of both verbs is the same. - example:

Espero haber terminado antes del mediodía. Ich erwarte haben fertig vor dem Mittag.

There are four forms of the infinitive in Spanish, in which it is similar to German. The simple form of the infinitive present and the compound form of the infinitive perfect, in both active and passive .

Verbs with the suffixes simple (active form), infinitivo simple activo compound (active form), infinitivo compuesto activo simple ( passive form ), infinitivo simple pasivo compound (passive form), infinitivo compuesto pasivo
-ar hablar haber hablado ser hablado haber sido hablado
-he temer have temido ser temido haber sido temido
-ir partir haber partido ser partido haber sido partido

Infinitive supplements are used in combination with certain words (verbs), accompanying prepositions or general expressions. Such infinitive complements can then refer to either the subject or the object. But they are also present in connection with impersonal expressions. These often appear as a combination of "ser + adjetivo". - Examples:

es difícil; es mejor; es peligroso; es impertinente

In Spanish, the infinitive is an object after all verbs that have a noun as a direct object . - Examples:

Le aconsejé salir enseguida. Ihr/ihm ich riet zu gehen sofort. Pretérito indefinido de indicativo
¿Qué crees conseguir de esta manera? Was du glaubst zu erreichen auf diese Art und Weise? Presente de indicativo

The infinitive is also often used after the modal verbs , in this the Spanish is similar in use with the German. In Spanish, however, the verbs from the word fields "thinking" and "saying" are usually provided with the infinitive.

aconsejar; creer; decidir; decir; negar; ofrecer

Verbs from the word field of " wanting " or " intending " and those that reflect the internal mood or emotional movement can also be found in connection with an infinitive.

celebrar; decidir; desear; determinar; declarar; intentar; osar; pensar; permitir; preferir; pretender; prometer; necesitar
esperar; evitar; parecer; sentir; temer
– Beispiele:
No quiero hacer esperar a mi capataz. Nicht ich möchte warten lassen meinen Polier.
Quiero comprar un buen Peyote. Ich möchte kaufen einen guten Peyote.

Verbs that express the pursuit of a purpose or are able to express a goal also have an infinitive with them. - Examples:

acertar; acostumbrar; alcanzar; ayudar; comenzar; echarse; forzar; inducir; negarse

An infinitive is also linked to certain verbs with the prepositions “a”, “con”, “de”, “en”, “para” and “por”. The infinitive with the preposition "a" after verbs from the word field " movement " is significant . - Examples:

ir a; venir a; correr a; llegar a; bajar a; entrar a; salir a; volver a; tornar a; acompañar a

Simple and compound, active infinitive

The infinitive is a ("verboid") form that can be used verbally or nominally, comparable to German ("ser" sein, "el ser", being). A Spanish infinitive construction cannot always be translated in mirror image with the German infinitive, but you have to rephrase the translated sentences. If the simple infinitive, infinitivo simple activo, is used as a noun , one can identify its typical companion adjectives or prepositional additions. - Examples:

Dormir me gusta mucho. Das Schlafen gefällt mir sehr.
El buen hacer de los servicios secretos le destrozó la vida. Die gute Arbeit der Geheimdienste zerstörte sein Leben.

Some infinitives experienced a kind of "idiodynamic" language change due to the use of language ; are roughly:

  • el amenecer the dawn
  • el atardecer the dusk
  • el cuándo the when
  • el cómo the how
  • el deber the duty, obligation
  • el decir the phrase
  • el have the credit
  • el mañana the future
  • el parecer the opinion, opinion, judgment
  • el ser essence, being
  • el pesar the sorrow
  • el placer the pleasure
  • el poder the power, empowerment
  • el porqué the reason, the why
  • el quehacer the daily task
  • el saber knowledge; Wisdom, ability
  • el sí / el no the yes / the no
  • el todo the whole

become regular, real ( masculine ) nouns . In this nominal form, they can also be accompanied by an adjective. - example:

el comer bueno das gute Essen

The compound infinitive, infinitivo compuesto activo, is the combination of the infinitive of "haber" and the participio pasado o perfecto o pasivo of the corresponding verb.

haber + participo pasado
infinitivo compuesto activo 1st group: -ar
amar - love
2nd group: -er
aprender - learn
3rd group: -ir
vivir - live
Participio perfecto of the infinitive and haber
haber am ado haber aprend ido haber viv ido

- Examples:

Gracias por haber venido. Danke für's Gekommensein. (= Danke, dass Sie gekommen sind.)
Gracias por habernos ayudado. Danke für das Helfen uns.

Simple and compound passive infinitive

Both the simple and the compound infinitive can appear in a passive form. It is formed with the auxiliary or copula verb “ser”, or with its present participle “sido” in the compound form. Here, too, participle, participio pasado of the verb concerned must match the sentence subject in terms of number and gender. - example:

Leopoldo debe ser liberado por principio de reciprocidad. Leopoldo sollte sein freigelassen nach dem Gegenseitigkeitsprinzip.
Por tanto, todos los congresistas debieron de haber sido elegidos, salvo lógicamente una minoría. Daher alle Kongressteilnehmer müssen gewählt werden, es sei denn natürlich eine Minderheit.


The participle , participio , is an infinite verb form that has the properties of the verb as well as those of an adjective . It participium ( lat. Participium , from particeps " teilhabend "; plural: participles ) or "has part" in both parts of speech , or in the characteristics of the parts of speech of the adjective and the verb, hence the German expression of a middle word, a word, that is common between a verb and an adjective. Some verbs, such as those listed below as examples, have two participles, participios a regular form, participio regular and an irregular form, participio irregular . The irregular form only works as an adjective and usually never as a verb, with the exception of “freír”, “proveer” and “imprimir”.

  • Soltar loosen, let go . Participio regular : soltado . Participio irregular : suelto, -a . He not soltado but he suelto; but for that
  • No podemos pasear por la calle porque hay perros sueltos. We can't pass the street because there are dogs released.
  • he prendido not he preso
  • he freído but also he frito

Participio presente

The main difference between German and Spanish is that the use of the Spanish present participle , participio presente , declined and almost completely lost its verbal character at the end of the 15th century , the time of Middle Spanish . While in German it is common to use the participle I, for example, what is meant is paraphrased in Spanish from the perspective of German usage .

Das ist ein himmelschreiender Skandal. himmelschreiend Partizip I
Es un escándalo que clama al cielo. Das ist ein Skandal der schreit zum Himmel. Umschreibung mit einem Relativsatz

This changed semantically , the importance of Präsenspartizipen in the course of language development often an adjective, but also a noun or a preposition. - Examples:

Compramos abundante comida para el fin de semana. Wir kaufen reichlich Essen zum Ende der Woche. adjetivo Presente de indicativo
El sistema muestra la lista de todos los asistentes al evento. Das System zeigt die Liste aller Helfer des Events. nombre Presente de indicativo
El pago se realiza mediante tarjeta de crédito. Die Bezahlung kann erfolgen mittels der Kreditkarte. preposición Presente de indicativo

The present participle , participio presente o activo was formed by the suffixes -ante , -ente and -iente . In the German language one can find:

  • Participle I : first participle , present participle , present participle , middle word of the present , first middle word or process form (of the verb) , for example glossy , "reading", "speaking", "interesting", "going". It corresponds formally to the Spanish participio presente , which is formed with the endings - ante , - ente and - iente . These endings are added to the root of the verb. The participios presentes or adjectives, which are formed from the verbs with the first, “-ar” conjugation, end in -ante. - Examples:
 agobiante zu agobiar, bedrücken, belasten in der Bedeutung von drückend, lastend
 andante zu andar, gehen
 sollozante zu sollozar, schluchzen, flennen
 causante zu causar, verursachen, bewirken

If the verb belongs to the second, the “-er” or the third, the “-ir” conjugation, then the two suffixes such as “-ente” or “-iente” are possible. The first form, on “-ente”, is generally applied to words that are formed directly from Latin. - Examples:

 trascendente zu lateinisch transcendentem
 urgente zu lateinisch urgentem

The second form of -iente refer to words mostly of Spanish origin. - Examples:

 poniente zu poner, setzen, stellen, legen
 proveniente zu provenir, herkommen, herstammen, stammen aus.

The German participle I can e.g. B. like an adjective or attributive. In the German language, the participle I expresses something that is not closed. It refers to a process, a process and has an active meaning, something is happening. A predicative use in connection with a copula verb is rare in German. - Examples:

  Die Grippe ist ansteckend. (Gebräuchlich, prädikative Verwendung)
  Dieser Mann ist rennend. (Ungebräuchlich)

Usually the participle I in German is used in an attributive way, unlike in Spanish. Here are only individual forms in linguistic usage , as adjectives or as substantiated adjectives , “brilliant”, “hablante”, “interesting”, “amante”. - Examples:

 Der rennende Mann. (Gebräuchlich, attributive Verwendung)
 El hombre que corre. (Gebräuchlich, Übersetzung im Relativsatz)
 El hombre corriente. (Ungebräuchlich; der Sinn steht in Frage.)

Nevertheless, German participle constructions can also be replaced by relative clauses. - Examples:

 Ein liebender Mensch. Das ist ein Mensch, der liebt.
 Schwimmende Elefanten. Hier sind Elefanten, die schwimmen.

The German participle I is closer to the adjective, more precisely it functions as an adjective. This is why a participle I used in this way in German usually appears in the Spanish translation in the form of the relative clause . - example:

 La mujer que duerme. Die schlafende Frau.

In Spanish, the meaningful verbal character of this statement would be represented with the gerundio . - example:

 Una mujer durmiendo en su cama. Ein Frau war schlafend in ihrem Bett.

But while the gerundio only expresses the prematurity, anterioridad and the posteriority , posterioridad , only the simultaneity simultaneidad can be put into words via the participio de presente . - Examples:

 Sonriente, Juana abrazó al José. Lächelnd, Juana umarmte José. participio de presente + Pretérito indefinido de indicativo
 Sonriendo, Juana abrazó al José. Jetzt gerade lächelnd, Juana umarmte José. participio de presente + gerundio

Participio pasado o perfecto

  • Participle II : second participle , past participle , past participle , perfect participle , middle word of the past , second middle word , completion form (of the verb) or completion form (of the verb) . It is generally formed with the endings -t , -et , or -en . Used to form compound times, e.g. B. Perfect , past perfect , future tense II . In German, the past participle translates the idea of ​​closure into language, it refers to a result , something is complete or a result or after-effect. Formally it corresponds to the Spanish participio pasado o perfecto o pasivo , which is formed with the endings - ado and - ido . These endings are added to the root of the verb. - Examples:
 der gekochte Fisch der Fisch ist schon gekocht, der Fisch ist schon gekocht worden;
 das gefundene Buch;
 die aufgeblühte Orchidee.

Just like the participle I, the participle II can also be replaced by a relative clause. - example:

 Ein gekochter Fisch. Ist ein Fisch, der gekocht worden ist oder wurde.

This rule that the endings - ado and - ido form the participio pasado o perfecto is only valid for the regular forms. - example:


Because the irregular forms come from the composition of the verbal stem and the suffixes “–to” or “–cho”. - Examples:


For certain verbs, both a regular and an irregular form can be created. - Examples:

 frito oder freído für freír, gebraten für braten
 preso oder prendido für prender, gefangen für festnehmen; festmachen.

Although there is also a participle I, participio presente next to a participle II, participio pasado o perfecto in Spanish , their use has developed differently in both languages, German and Spanish. An essential difference is that the use of the participio presente as such receded towards the end of the 15th century and thereby lost its verbal character. The participio presente is formed with the suffixes - ante , - duck and - iente . These forms of the present participle , participio presente, are used in Spanish as adjectives or substantiated adjectives, a development that began in Latin and continued in all Romance languages. - Examples:

  • adjectic:
brill ante shiny
ardi duck burning
  • substantive:
la habl ante the speaker
el or ante the one praying

The Spanish participles I, participios presentes can be used functionally as adjectives, are able to describe nouns in more detail, or in turn become substantiated adjectives. If participles are used in this way, one must, however, depend on the number and gender of the noun or object or subject ( congruence ). The participles must therefore be congruent in number and gender , concordancia gramatical , and thus form the corresponding participle forms. - Examples:

 viajado gereist
 sentido gefühlt
 El portal está abierto. Der Eingangsbereich ist geöffnet.
 La puerta está abierta. Die Tür ist geöffnet.

The past participle, participio pasado or perfecto is used with the auxiliary verb haber to form the compound tenses and with the copula verbs ser and estar to form the analytic passive . While it always remains unchangeable for the formation of the compound tenses, in the formation of the analytic passive it is based on the word to which it relates in gender and number . In the regular forms, it is formed by adding the suffix -ado to the verb stem of the verbs that end in -a and -ido in the verbs ending in e- or -i. - Examples:

 hablar hablado sprechen gesprochen
 dormir dormido schlafen geschlafen
 hacer hecho machen gemacht
 escribir escrito schreiben geschrieben
 La mujer se ha lavado Die Frau sie hat sich gewaschen.
 Los libros que he escrito Die Bücher die ich geschrieben habe.

If the participle is combined with the auxiliary verb (auxiliary) haber , these analytical word combinations or, so to speak, “special verbal phrases ” become the compound tenses, tiempos compuestos . In them the participle remains formally masculine and is in the singular. - example:

 La madre ha llamado a su hija. Die Mutter hat gerufen nach ihrer Tochter.

If, however, another verb should take the place of haber as an auxiliary verb , such as estar , tener , ser , the conditions change in such a way that the participle adapts to the noun in terms of gender and number. - example:

 Tengo escritas tres poemas. Ich habe geschrieben drei Gedichte.

Formation of the Participio pasado

Some verbs are able to form two participles II, participios pasados . A regular and an irregular shape. Only the regular form is used as participio pasado for the compound tenses, tiempos compuestos these “special verbal periphrases”. The use of the irregular form as an adjective requires congruence in gender and number with the corresponding noun. This is to be distinguished from the formation of the participle in regular and irregular verbs. - Examples:

  • Regular education
    • a-conjugation: -ado, e.g. B. hablar - hablado
    • e-conjugation: -ido, e.g. B. comer - comido
    • i-conjugation: -ido, e.g. B. vivir - vivido
  • Irregular verbs
    • abrir - abierto: (yo) he abierto I'm open
    • decir - dicho: (tú) has dicho you said
    • escribir - escrito: (él / ella / usted) ha escrito he / she / you has / have written
    • hacer - hecho: (nosotros / -as) hemos hecho we have done / done
    • poner - puesto: (vosotros / -as) habéis puesto you asked
    • traer - traído: (ellos / ellas / ustedes) han traído you / you / you have pulled
    • ver - visto: analogous to the above
    • volver - vuelto: analogous to the above
    • morir - muerto
    • cubrir - cubierto
    • romper - roto
    • free - frito

Irregular participles with only adjectival function in comparison and the corresponding differences in meaning: - Examples:

  • regular participle
    • hablado spoken
    • comido eaten
    • hecho done
    • dado given
    • confundido confused
    • expressed expresado
    • manifestado declared, expressed
    • elegido chosen
  • irregular participle (adjectival)
    • confuso, -a confused, confused
    • expreso, -a explicitly, clearly
    • manifiesto, -a obvious, evident
    • electo, -a chosen
 Hoy he comido pescado. Heute ich habe gegessen Fisch.
 La sopa está comida. Die Suppe ist gegessen.
 Han elegido al mismo bibliotecaria. Sie haben gewählt die gleiche Administratorin.
 La bibliotecaria electa es Laura Fiorucci  Die gewählte Administratorin ist Laura Fiorucci.


The gerundio is formed by adding the ending -ando or -iendo to the verb stem . The Spanish gerundio , although referred to as gerund in German , is a progressive form. German has no form as the Spanish gerundio represents, apart from the am-progressive . - Examples:

Estoy comiendo. Ich bin gerade am Essen.
Juana está escribiendo un artículo científico. Juana ist gerade am Schreiben eines wissenschaftlichen Artikels.

Rather, adverbs are used to help in German . With the gerundio you can verbalize what someone is currently doing or what someone did in a story. This gives the action or event a process-like course. The Spanish gerundio cannot be used adjectivally like the German gerund. If German gerundive sentence constructions are transferred into Spanish, this can only be done in the reproduction using a relative clause . - example:

  • the expectant mothers become las mujeres que vayan a dar a luz .

There are two forms of the Spanish gerund: a simple form, the gerundio simple , and a compound form, the gerundio compuesto .

Because there is no exact equivalent in the German language, descriptions must be used, such as just , right now , just , just do something ; right now , in the immediate moment ; be in the process of doing something and the like. The gerundio compuesto takes on the role of a modal adverb in that it expresses the way something happens. However, it differs in that it emphasizes the simultaneity, simultaneidad , or parallelism with the action or event of the content verbalized by the conjugated verb. Both actions and events must be in the same time level. The form of the present in English, present progressive, is functionally similar to the Spanish gerund, gerundio . Since the gerundio in this form always expresses an action or an event in its course, it has an imperfective aspect .

Gerundio simple

The gerundio simple is used to express whether an action or an event is in progress at the moment of speaking, or it is used to emphasize a process itself. The gerundio simple thus gives expression to an action that occurs at the time of speaking S (punto de habla H , Speaking time) is still in progress or has just not been completed. The gerundio simple cannot be assigned to any time level and therefore does not express an exact time (tense). Rather, the fact is marked that an event will “go ahead”, “go ahead” or “go ahead”. Although no specific time level can be determined in the representation of the action in gerundio simple , an imperfect aspect can be identified.

Gerundio compuesto

The gerundio compuesto, on the other hand, expresses that an action has passed at the time of speaking, but was still in progress or not yet completed for the period reported.

The gerund is in law a very close relationship to the verb and therefore can not express a posteriority , posterioridad be used, so it can with the gerundio no action be verbalized, which takes place later than the main plot. In Spanish it is often used to shorten subordinate clauses , namely subordinate clauses which in German often begin with the words by , because , if , as , while . In such cases the gerundio stands alone and often follows the conjugated verb form. The gerundio can only be used to shorten those subordinate clauses that are identical in the subject of the main and subordinate clauses, i.e. where the action or event in the subordinate clause takes place at the same time as that in the main clause. - example:

 Me caí bajando la escalerilla. Als ich stürzte, fiel ich die Treppe hinunter.

In the Spanish gerund, pronouns can be added to the end of the gerund. If the adverbial use of the gerund is concerned, the addition of the pronoun is mandatory. - example:

 Está tomando un café cortado Er/sie trinkt gerade einen Café cortado; oder Está tomándoselo Er/sie trinkt ihn gerade.
 Las soldadas están llamándolo a filas. Die Soldatinnen sie sind durch ihn einberufen worden. Vorgangspassiv, pasiva con ser o pasiva de proceso + gerundio
 Las soldadas lo están llamando a filas.

Shorten the subordinate clause with an infinite verb form

Subordinate clauses can be shortened using the infinitive, participle or gerund. For example, a preposition with an infinitive can replace a subordinate clause, i.e. H. Instead of the conjunction plus the conjugated verb, a preposition or prepositional phrase is used with the infinitive.

Thus, from the temporal prepositions or expressions antes de que the antes de plus infintivo and from hasta que the por plus infintivo from cuando is al and from después de que is después de plus infinitive. In the modal expressions from sin que only sin plus infinitivo and from como becomes al . To replace causal, prepositional expressions, para que simply becomes para plus infinitivo , a fin de que simply a fin de , con el fin de que simply con el fin de plus infinitivo . Causal expressions all become por plus infinitivo , so porque , puesto que or ya que . Conditional expressions such as en caso de que become en caso de and siempre que become simply con , the a no ser que becomes simply de . The concessional expressions , starting from a pesar de que and aunque, both end in a pesar de .

In the infinitivo , the prematurity , anterioridad, is expressed by combining “haber” or “habiendo” with the masculine participle, partizipio pasada in the singular. - Examples:

Cuando me desaparecí, tres extraterrestres vinieron hacia mí. Als ich verschand, drei Außerirdische kamen mir entgegen. Pretérito indefinido de indicativo
Al desaparecerme, tres extraterrestres vinieron hacia mí. Beim Verschwinden, drei Außerirdische kamen mir entgegen.
No hay razón para criticar a alguien por haber hablado demasiado. Nicht es gibt einen Grund dafür zu kritisieren das jemand zu viel war am sprechen.

The infinitive completion can refer to the subject or object or to an impersonal phrase. If the infinitivo appears without a preposition, the following variants are possible:

  • after the copula verb ser plus the indefinite article, artículo indefinido or after a possessive pronoun plus a noun.
Es mi deber hablar en su nombre. Es ist meine Pflicht zu sprechen in seinem Namen.

The participio pasada, for its part, expresses a closeness or postponement, posterioridad, seen from a temporal reference point .

Deben haber hablado bastante acerca de la bondad de Dios. Sie müssen haben gesprochen ziemlich hinsichtlich der Güte von Gott.

The prerequisite for the replacement of a subordinate clause with the gerundio is that the subject in the main and subordinate clause is the same and that the action in the subordinate clause takes place simultaneously, simultaneidad with that in the main clause. To translate from German into Spanish are subordinate clauses that start with the German prepositions:

  • while; as; at (temporal)
  • there; because (causal)
  • by (modal)
  • if; if (conditional)
  • even if (concessional)

be initiated. With verbs of perception or appearance, such ver , describir , representar , observar , oír , escuchar , notary , encontrar , Pintar , dibujar , mostrar , imaginar can gerundio also be used with respect to the object. The gerundio can only express an action that occurs simultaneously, simultaneidad immediately prematurely, anterioridad or also immediately afterwards, posterioridad to that of the parent verb. The gerundio thus does not express its own time , aspect-wise it marks the imperfective aspect.

Vimos a tu hermana caminando por el centro. Wir sahen deine Schwester am gehen in das Zentrum.


Web links

Individual evidence

  1. Rocío Lineros Quintero: Formas no personales del verbo: infinitivo, gerundio y participio. Pp. 1-4.
  2. 34. Gramática de la lengua española 1931 , Madrid 1931, p. 45
  3. The 34th Gramática de la lengua española (1931), p. 45 listed a total of five modes: in addition to the three still valid modes, the " modo potencial " and the " modo infinitivo "
  4. 1.ª Esbozo de una nueva gramática de la lengua española 1973, Madrid 1973, p. 260
  5. 1.ª Esbozo de una nueva gramática de la lengua española 1973, Madrid 1973, § 3.16.1
  6. Los verboides en la oración: construcciones verboidales. Pp. 1-2.
  7. ^ Andrés Bello: Gramática de la lengua castellana destinada al uso de los americanos. 1847, 6th edition, Buenos Aires 1960, § 418
  8. Elizabeth Luna Traill: Sintaxis de los verboides en el habla culta de la Ciudad de México. National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM), Ciudad de México 1980, ISBN 968-5827-72-9 , p. 17
  9. Rafael Seco: Manual de Gramática Española 1930 in the 3rd edition, Madrid 1971, p. 73
  10. ^ Almudena Mallo Dorado: Equivalence of the German participles in Spanish. ( Memento of the original from May 18, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. German Grammar in European Dialogue (Krakau 2006), pp. 1–9. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  11. María Marta García Negroni, Silvia Ramírez Gelbes: Formas no personales del verbo y argumentación. Acerca de los falsos infinitivos, falsos gerundios y falsos participios. In: Letras de Hoje, Porto Alegre. v. 46, n.1, jan./mar. 2011, pp. 73-85.
  12. Christiane Nord: Learning objective: Professional translation from Spanish to German. An introductory course in 15 lessons. Gottfried Egert, Wiesloch 2001, ISBN 3-926972-87-4 , p. 207.
  13. Claudia Moriena, Karen Genschow: Great learning grammar Spanish: rules, examples of use, tests; [Level A1 - C1]. Hueber Verlag, Munich 2010, ISBN 978-3-19-104145-8 , p. 423.
  14. ^ Theodor Heinermann, Francisca Palau-Ribes Casamitjana: Spanish textbook on a scientific basis. 19th edition, Max Hueber, Munich 1952, pp. 310-315
  15. Gender. Gender of the noun El género del sustantivo. Justo Fernández López, [1]
  16. Infinitive I and I infinitive II, Infinitivo simple e infinitivo compuesto. Justo Fernández López, [2]
  17. German grammar distinguishes between two participles, the middle word of the present and the middle word of the past . In addition, numerous other terms are also used, such as present participle, present participle, 1st participle or 1st middle word and, on the other hand, past participle, perfect participle, past participle, 2nd participle, 2nd middle word or past participle .
  18. ^ Reproduction of the German participle present. Traducción del participio de presente alemán. Justo Fernández López,
  19. The German participle I or present participle is formed with the "infinitive + d" and describes the course of a process.
  20. Hadumod Bußmann (Ed.): Lexicon of Linguistics. 3rd updated and expanded edition. Kröner, Stuttgart 2002, ISBN 3-520-45203-0 , p. 500.
  21. José Alemany y Bolufer : Tratado de la formación y composición de palabras en la lengua castellana. The derivative and the compositional. Estudio de los sufijos y prefijos empleados en una y otra. Librería General de Victoriano Suárez, Madrid 1920, p. 22 f.
  22. Justo Fernández López: Participio de presente en español -Restos del participio de presente latino.
  23. The German participle II is formed almost exclusively in the form: "ge + word stem + t" (for regular and mixed verbs) or with "ge + (irregular) word stem + en" (for irregular verbs):
  24. Where the first form frito fried is used as an adjective and the second as a participle freído in the narrower sense.
  25. ^ Theodor Heinermann , Francisca Palau-Ribes Casamitjana: Spanish textbook on a scientific basis. 19th edition, Max Hueber, Munich 1952, p. 62
  26. as participio pasivo named
  27. ^ Almudena Mallo Dorado: The German participle in administrative and official language and its Spanish equivalences. Dissertation. University of Santiago de Compostela, 2008, p. 300.
  28. ^ Almudena Mallo Dorado: The German participle in administrative and official language and its Spanish equivalences. Dissertation. University of Santiago de Compostela, 2008.
  29. Claudia Moriena, Karen Genschow: Great learning grammar Spanish: rules, examples of use, tests; [Level A1 - C1]. Hueber Verlag, 2010, ISBN 978-3-19-104145-8 , p. 432.
  30. ^ The participle II - El participio perfecto.
  31. Claudia Moriena, Karen Genschow: Great learning grammar Spanish: rules, examples of use, tests; [Level A1 - C1]. Hueber Verlag, Munich 2010, ISBN 978-3-19-104145-8 , pp. 430-434.
  32. Justo Fernández López: The German present participle, I-El participio de presente en alemán. Hispanoteca.
  33. Justo Fernández López: El gerundio español - The Spanish gerund. Hispanoteca
  34. Claudia Moriena, Karen Genschow: Great learning grammar Spanish: rules, examples of use, tests; [Level A1 - C1]. Hueber Verlag, Munich 2010, ISBN 978-3-19-104145-8 , p. 435.
  35. ^ Holger Siever: Translate Spanish into German. A work book. (= Fool study books). Gunter Narr, Tübingen 2008, ISBN 978-3-8233-6391-0 , p. 27.
  36. There are three time levels: presence, presente , past pasado and futurity futuro .
  37. Holger Siever: Translate Spanish into German. A work book. 3. Edition. Narr, Tübingen 2013, ISBN 978-3-8233-6789-5 , p. 27
  38. Daniel Jorques: ¿Gerundio de anterioridad o más bien «gerundio condicional»? De cómo reciclar la información gramatical: el gerundio andino. In: Dialogía. 3, pp. 33-65.
  39. also presente progresivo
  40. The abbreviation of subordinate clauses with preposition and infinitive. [3]