Gospel of Thomas

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The beginning of the Gospel of Thomas in the Coptic manuscript (from line 10). Above that is the subscript of the preceding writing, the Apocryphon of John .

The Gospel of Thomas (also Gospel According to Thomas, short EvThom, EvTh or ThomEv) is an apocryphal collection of 114 sayings ( proverbs ) and short dialogues. The full text of this collection is in a Coptic version, written around AD 350, possibly for philosophers in Alexandria. It contains similarities to Jesus' words that are known in the New Testament , but also several otherwise unknown Jesus words. The meaning of the Gospel of Thomas is judged differently, since some passages of the text contradict the New Testament image of Christ. The structure and sentence structure of the text are completely different from the Gospels of the New Testament, and the Gospel of Thomas is only about one sixth of the Gospel of Luke .

The collection shows an independent theology that, according to the current state of research, cannot be derived either from early Christianity or from Gnosticism . Since it was not written by the disciple Thomas , but gives him the author, it is one of the pseudepigraphs . It does not contain a Passion or Resurrection story and is therefore not part of the literary genre of the Gospels . It is not included in the New Testament (NT) canon .


P. Oxyrhynchus 654. This Greek fragment contains parts of the Logia 3–7.

In addition to three Greek text fragments, a complete text in the Coptic language was found in the Nag Hammadi writings . There are supposed to be considerable differences between the Greek texts and the Coptic translation. In this respect it is not clear to what extent the logia of the Coptic version agree with earlier versions. The text transmission of apocryphal writings and especially of collections of sayings was often much more "fluid" than the transmission of canonical texts. Different versions could have been in circulation at the same time. The Gospel of Thomas was long lost; we only knew notes from a few church fathers who unanimously counted it as part of the Apocrypha and rejected it as Gnostic or Manichaean .

From 1897 onwards , some papyrus fragments , the Oxyrhynchus papyri , with Greek texts (around 200 AD and after) were found in Oxyrhynchos , about 160 km southwest of Cairo , which could not be precisely assigned. They were published between 1897 and 1904 under the general title "Words of Jesus" ( Logia Iesou ) by BP Grenfell and AS Hunt . You are now called P. Oxy. 1, 654 and 655 counted. P. Oxy. 654 contains the incipit and the logia 1–7; P. Oxy. 655 contains logia 24 and 36–39; P. Oxy. 1 contains logia 29–33 and 77a. The three papyri are fragments of different manuscripts.

In 1945, 13 papyrus codices were found in Nag Hammadi in Egypt, including (in Codex II, 2) the almost complete Coptic translation of 114 sayings ( logia ) , signed as "Gospel according to Thomas". The Coptic text was translated from Greek , as shown by the numerous Greek loanwords . The text was written around 350 AD, but was probably based on a much older model. The Oxyrhynchus fragments have been identified as part of this lore.


The earliest possible point in time for the creation of the Gospel of Thomas is the end of the ministry of Jesus around 30 or 33 AD, the latest point in time is shortly before 200 AD, the papyrologically estimated point in time for the papyrus Oxyrhynchus 655. That was around 230 Gospel of Thomas known in widely separated places: In Rome (according to Hippolytus ) and in Judea (according to Origen ). Within this framework, researchers from various disciplines try to determine when it was created.

The origin of the original version is usually settled around the middle of the 2nd century. Significantly earlier dates are also represented. By Jörg Frey , the texts of the three Oxyrhynchus papyri from philological reasons are older than the Gospel of Thomas, but most likely younger than the synoptic tradition or the suspected Q Source .

By the middle of the 2nd century the Gospels were well known; H. the author of the Gospel of Thomas probably wrote with knowledge of the synoptic gospels .

About half of the logia in the Gospel of Thomas go in parallel with synoptic proverbs. Many of Jesus' words seem very old and authentic, especially the 13 double parallels to the Gospel of Mark and to “Q”; they could be among the oldest proverbs and go back to a collection that came into being shortly after Jesus' death. Even writing it down at the same time as the postulated source of the Logia (40–70 AD) was considered. A very early emergence of these parts of the Gospel of Thomas is to be expected, so u. a. Klaus Berger and Gerhard Marcel Martin; According to Helmut Koester , the Gospel of Thomas was written in the 1st century. Reinhard Nordsieck dates the text to approx. 100–110 AD. According to Hans-Josef Klauck , the Coptic Gospel of Thomas is a heavily edited version of an original Greek text that was written between AD 120 and 140, ie only after the New Testament was written Fonts. For this reason, conclusions about the historical Jesus are hardly possible from the Gospel of Thomas .

The exact date of origin of the original Gospel of Thomas has only limited significance, because the vast majority of the logia are only known in Coptic and the Coptic text has in any case undergone major revisions. Therefore, it is usually not known how much a certain Logion (Coptic version) differs from the original version.

Hypothetical origins of the Gospel of Thomas Fred Lapham Hans-Josef Klauck Reinhard Nordsieck Helmut Koester James McConkey Robinson
Didymus Judas Thomas or pseudonym      mid to late 2nd century AD      A.D. 120 to A.D. 140      100 AD to 110 AD      second half of the 1st century AD      in the 1st century AD

Due to the different dating, the difference of which is around one hundred years, two opposing positions arose in the contemporary scientific discussion: The scholars who placed the collection of scriptures in the 1st century saw the Gospel of Thomas as an old tradition independent of the canonical Gospels. The conclusions regarding the textual statements of the historical Jesus are assessed positively. The other scientific position dates the scriptures to the 2nd century, already presupposes the Synoptic Gospels and sees the reference to original Jesuan statements as negative.


The prologue gives Didymus Judas Thomas as the author. Latin Didymus or Greek Didymos corresponds to the Aramaic word Thomas and has the meaning "twin"; so here the name has been doubled. The synoptic gospels know a disciple Thomas , who is called Thomas Didymus in the Gospel of John (21.2 EU ), a Syrian manuscript of it also a Judas Thomas (14.22 EU ). In Syrian tradition, the apostle Thomas bears the name "Judas" on various occasions. Outside the New Testament there is a Judas Thomas in the apocryphal Acts of Thomas from the 3rd century.

It is generally believed that an unknown author wanted to create the impression that the apostle Thomas himself wrote the logia. Jens Schröter considers the author's name to be a pseudonym . According to the testimony of the Gospel of John, of the apostles, Thomas is most suitable for unusual trains of thought. On the other hand, in the case of an identical twin, the openness to an identity that is not primarily physically determined would be obvious; According to the Gospel of Thomas, every human being has at least a potential connection to a heavenly double, his so-called permanent “archetype”.

Place of origin

Some evidence points to Syria ; perhaps the Gospel of Thomas was written in Edessa , Syria . The apostle Thomas was venerated there. According to a legend, his bones were brought to Edessa from southern India around the 3rd century.

We also encounter the conspicuous triple name form of the prologue in the Acts of Thomas and other works based in Syria. The high rank assigned to the Apostle Thomas could also refer to a Syrian background:

Jesus to his disciples: “With whom can I be compared?” Then Simon Peter: “You are like a righteous angel.” And Matthew: “You are a person, insightful as a philosopher.” But Thomas replied: “Master, mine Your mouth cannot possibly say who you are like! ”Then said Jesus:“ I am not your master; for you have drunk and intoxicated yourself at the gushing spring! ”And Jesus took him aside and spoke three words to him. When Thomas came back to his companions, they asked him: "What did Jesus say to you?" Thomas replied: "If I tell you one of the words that he spoke to me, you throw stones at me ..." (Logion 13, shortened)

In the Gospel of Thomas some parables speak of the return to the original state and the lifting of division. There are also content-related parallels in other well-known Syrian texts such as the Diatessaron , which was written in Syria around 170.


The Gospel of Thomas contains sayings of wisdom and parables about the kingdom of God ( ancient Greek βασιλεία τού θεού basileia tou theou ) (Logia 22, 27, 46, 50, 57, 96-99, 107, 109, 113), there are also proverbs with prophetic content ( Logia 51, 111), Beatitudes (Logia 18-19), complaints (Logion 103), words of the law (Logia 53, 104) and rules for living together (Logia 12, 25). In contrast to the four synoptic Gospels, there is neither a narrative thread nor a clear narrative structure.

Theological peculiarity

The interpretation of the logia is difficult because the respective context is missing, so they are so to speak “in the air”. For example, the shortest logion is just:

"Become a passerby!"

- Jesus after Logion 42

This absence is an essential difference to the Gospels of the New Testament , in which the words of Jesus are embedded in dialogues and frameworks.

Some theological characteristics can be described:

  • Jesus appears as the Son of the living Father, as the revelator who tells the disciples the mystery of his - and their - origins. The present world, this world, is judged negatively: "Whoever has recognized the world has found a corpse" (Logion 56). Salvation, the connection with God's kingdom, occurs thanks to a process of knowledge in which people see themselves as children of God; in this way her being is united with her archetype, which has remained in heaven (Logion 84).
  • The "kingdom" ("kingdom of the father", "kingdom of heaven") is a central concept of the Gospel of Thomas. The difference to the sermon of Jesus in the Synoptics becomes clear: the eschatological orientation towards the future is almost completely absent. It is true that the term “enter” or “find” is used in the future, but these statements are closely related to the statement that the disciple comes from the kingdom (Logion 49). The only important thing seems to be that the kingdom is present: “the kingdom of the father is already spread out over the earth, only people cannot see it” (Logion 113).
  • Man, though blind in his heart (Logion 28), is of divine origin (Logion 3, 50).
  • There are hardly any traces of community building to be seen; ecclesiological thoughts are absent. Access to the “kingdom” is promised to individuals who have been reached by the call of Jesus. It is the “little ones”, the “lonely ones” who reach the “kingdom” and thus the “calm”.

Relationship to the Synoptic Gospels

The Thomas “Gospel” includes 114 logia ascribed to Jesus: wisdom and apocalyptic words, words of the law, I-words, parables, dialogues and small scenes that culminate in a word of Jesus. These are largely unrelated to one another; a continuous order is not recognizable; Individual keywords link some sayings to form smaller groups. At least 22 complete logia and 18 subsections have parallels in the synoptic gospels or in the presumed source of the verse "Q". B. Logion 2 to the saying of Jesus in Mt 7,8 EU :

“Jesus says: 'He who seeks should not stop looking until he finds. And if he finds he will be dismayed. And when he's upset, he'll be amazed. And he will be king over space. '"

Parallels can also be found with Gnostic texts of the 2nd century. To what extent these logia depend on the canonical gospels is controversial.
The independent material from otherwise completely unknown words of Jesus speaks for independence.

According to the opening sentence and Logion 1, this collection of sayings aims to be a message of salvation:

“These are the secret words that Jesus the Living spoke and that Judas Thomas the Twin wrote down. And he said: 'Whoever understands the meaning of these words will not taste death.' "

However, this message of salvation is limited to the preaching of Jesus. It is not mentioned that Jesus lived for the people, died for them and rose again. There is also no information about baptism, the announcement of Jesus' return, Judgment Day and all miracle reports. But there are references to Jesus as a miracle worker: Logion 35 emphasizes that the strong must first be bound , and Logion 106 is about commanding a mountain to lift itself away . The self-designation of Jesus as the Son of Man is extended to all real followers of Jesus:

“If you make one of two, then you become sons of man. And if you then order the mountain to move away, it will disappear. "

- Jesus after Logion 106

As Q Source text is called, which in accordance with two-source theory ( "Mark-priority") the authors of Matthew and Luke, in addition to the text of the Gospel of Mark is said to have been present as a second source. On the basis of language- analytical studies it was found that some of the sentence constructions in Logienquelle Q were only possible in the Greek language , but not in the Aramaic language, which is widespread in Galilee . That would speak against an Aramaic basic version of "Q" and thus probably against a direct literal transmission of the words of Jesus, whose mother tongue was probably Aramaic. It is also noticeable that the words of Jesus' Son of Man and Judgment are at the end of the text of the individual narrative complexes. They also form the end of the Lukan spring ( Lk 17.23–37  EU ). From this it was concluded, according to John S. Kloppenborg (1987), that the Jesus tradition had been secondarily apocalyptized . This also fits that in the Gospel of Thomas the apocalyptic words of the Son of Man and Judgment of Jesus are completely absent. One explanation is that the early Christian Jesus missionaries, from whom the Logia source came, reacted to the rejection of the proclamation of Jesus in Jewish Palestine with apocalyptic threats of judgment. The original, also Thomas, tradition of Jesus was free of such features.

Relationship to the Gospel according to John

Numerous proverbs of the Gospel of Thomas show a similarity with passages from the Gospel of John or the Johannine writings ( John letters ). Thereby it shows a terminological and linguistic proximity, for example in 'not to taste death' Log 1. and Joh 8,52  EU , 'there will come days when you will look for me and not find me' Log 38. Joh 7, 34  EU , 'I am the light that is above all' Log 77. Joh 8,12  EU . Studies by Witetschek (2012, 2010) showed that only a few logia of the Gospel of Thomas (Log 11.3; 13.8; 24.1; 37.1; 43; 52; 69.1; 77.1; 91, 1) assumed the Gospel of John. On the other hand, the reverse is found that Log 8 in was included in Joh 21.11  EU . Other logia of the Gospel of Thomas receive the same traditions (Log 1; 11.2; 38.2) or are influenced by the same or similar traditions (Gospel of Thomas Prol .; 4; 11.3; 13.5; 27.2; 37, 3; 61.3; 108; 111.2; 114.1). Here it was stated that some logia (Log 11; 13; 37) touch on several textual levels with the Gospel of John. Witetschek drew the conclusion that not only the Gospel of Thomas as a whole was a heterogeneous collection, and thus its individual elements had different relationships to the Gospel of John, but that individual logia also showed traces of a longer development process that probably ran parallel to the Gospel of John .

Relationship to Gnosis

The assessment of the relationship between the Gospel of Thomas and Gnosis is made more difficult by the fact that the term Gnosis is controversial in research (see Gnosis ).

The Gospel of Thomas has Gnostic echoes, but it does not expose the essential elements of the Gnostic belief system. The question of whether and to what extent it should be classified as Gnostic has been discussed a lot.

Against a classification as "Gnostic" speaks:

  • The world is represented as the creation of the Father, i.e. H. there is no supreme god opposite to the creator god as is usually the case in Gnosis.
  • There is no mythological system of deities and their emanations .

A closeness to Gnosis is shown in the following:

  • People are alienated from their origin and do not recognize it.
  • They need a savior from the upper realm who will inform them of their true origins (guide to knowledge).
  • Right knowledge ("Gnosis") protects against death: Logion 1: "Whoever finds the meaning of these words will not taste death".
  • The texts found together with the Gospel of Thomas in Nag Hammadi are predominantly Gnostic.
  • Sometimes the knowledge is emphasized that lies in individual words of Jesus that are not communicated to the reader (e.g. Logion 13). The meaning of such words of Jesus that lead to salvation does not come to light, but only becomes apparent through deeper penetration into their hidden truth.
  • Some logia show an aversion to physicality and sexuality, e.g. B. the last:
Simon Peter demanded: “Let Mary leave us; because women do not deserve life. ”But Jesus said:“ See, I will make her male, so that she will become a living spirit, just like you men! For every woman, when she makes herself masculine, enters the kingdom of heaven. "(Logion 114)

Jens Schröter and Hans-Gebhard Bethge therefore come to the conclusion that the Gospel of Thomas is about "Jesus tradition on the way to Gnosis".

Judgment by the church fathers

The Gospel of Thomas is mentioned by Hippolytus of Rome , Origen , Eusebius of Caesarea , Hieronymus , Ambrosius of Milan and later by Beda Venerabilis .

In Christian theology and philosophy, patristics is the area of ​​science that deals with the time of the church fathers . It is the epoch of the Old Church from the 1st century to the 7th or early 8th century at the latest. In the ecclesiastical field, the Gospel of Thomas was first noticed around 230 AD. Around 200 it was still unknown, even Irenaeus of Lyon , Tertullian and Clemens of Alexandria did not mention it, although they dealt with many Christian currents and mentioned their writings. Hippolytus of Rome quoted (around 230 n. Chr.) In its report on the Naassenes from

"[...] the Gospel named after Thomas: 'Whoever seeks me will find me among the children from the age of 7, for there I will be hidden in the 14th aeon.'"

Like many logia, this is difficult to interpret (perhaps the 14th aeon means the 14th year of life). In any case, this logion is not found among the 114 logia of the Coptic version (perhaps the Naasseners had a different arrangement of Thomas's Gospel than the one known today).

Around 233 AD Origen mentioned the Gospel of Thomas among the heterodox gospels in his first Luke homilie .

Eusebius of Caesarea counted a Gospel of Thomas among the Apocrypha. Cyril of Jerusalem and other Greek authors after him mention a "Gospel according to Thomas" as a script used by the Manicheans.

The so-called Gelasian decree , dated to the 6th century, mentions the Gospel of Thomas in its list of rejected books. It is uncertain whether this meant the Gospel of Thomas or the Gospel of Thomas's childhood .


Claus Schedl points to the possible importance of numerical mysticism for the arrangement and numbering of the logia and to the parallels to the 114 suras of the Koran , which were written much later .


Source editions

  • Harold William Attridge : The Greek Fragments . In: Bentley Layton (ed.): Nag Hammadi Codex II, 2-7. Volume One (= Nag Hammadi Studies. Volume 20). EJ Brill, Leiden u. a. 1989, ISBN 90-04-09019-3 , pp. 96-128. (Introduction to the Greek fragments, Greek fragments and their English translation)
  • Helmut Koester , Bentley Layton, Thomas O. Lambdin: The Gospel According to Thomas . In: Bentley Layton (ed.): Nag Hammadi Codex II, 2-7. Volume One (= Nag Hammadi Studies. Volume 20). EJ Brill, Leiden u. a. 1989, ISBN 90-04-09019-3 , pp. 38–93 (introduction, standard scientific edition of the Coptic text, English translation).
  • Klaus Berger , Christiane Nord: The New Testament and early Christian writings . Insel, Frankfurt am Main 2001, ISBN 3-458-16970-9 , pp. 645-670.
  • Hans-Gebhard Bethge u. a .: Evangelium Thomae Copticum . In: Kurt Aland: Synopsis quattuor evangeliorum . 15th edition. German Bible Society, Stuttgart 1996, ISBN 3-438-05130-3 , pp. 517-546. (Coptic text, Greek fragments, German and English translation by the Berlin Working Group for Coptic-Gnostic Scriptures)
  • Jens Schröter , Hans-Gebhard Bethge: The Gospel according to Thomas (NHC II, 2). In: Hans-Martin Schenke u. a. (Ed.): Nag Hammadi German. Volume 1: NHC I, 1 - V, 1 . 3. Edition. Walter de Gruyter, Berlin / New York 2013, ISBN 978-3-11-031234-8 , pp. 124-139 ( online edition [without Logien 43-85] based on the 1st edition 2001).
  • The Gospel of Thomas. (EvThom NHC II, 2 p.32,10-51,28) German translation of the Berlin Working Group for Coptic-Gnostic Scriptures (Hans-Gebhard Bethge, Christina-Maria Franke, Judith Hartenstein, Uwe-Karsten Plisch, Hans-Martin Schenke, Jens Schröter) ( [2] on static.uni-graz.at)

Commentaries and other secondary literature

  • Uwe-Karsten Plisch : What is not in the Bible. Apocryphal writings of early Christianity. German Bible Society, Stuttgart 2006, ISBN 3-438-06036-1 .
  • Uwe-Karsten Plisch: The Gospel of Thomas. Original text with comment. German Bible Society, Stuttgart 2007, ISBN 978-3-438-05128-8 .
  • Reinhard Nordsieck : The Thomas Gospel. Introduction. On the question of the historical Jesus. Commentary on all 114 lodgings. 3. Edition. Neukirchener Verlag, Neukirchen-Vluyn 2006, ISBN 3-7887-1867-6 .
  • Elaine Pagels : The Mystery of the Fifth Gospel: Why the Bible only tells half the truth; with the text of the Gospel of Thomas. C. H. Beck, Munich 2004, ISBN 3-406-52242-4 (American orig.: Beyond Belief: The Secret Gospel of Thomas. Random House, New York 2003).
  • Wilfried Eisele : Which Thomas? Studies on the text and transmission history of the Gospel of Thomas. (= Scientific studies on the New Testament. Volume 259), Mohr Siebeck, Tübingen 2010, ISBN 978-3-16-150543-0 .
  • Hans-Josef Klauck : Apocryphal Gospels. An introduction. Verlag Katholisches Bibelwerk, Stuttgart 2002, ISBN 3-460-33022-8 .
  • Otto Betz , Tim Schramm (ed.): I thought of the pearl. Gospel of Thomas and Pearl Song. Benziger, Zurich, Düsseldorf 1998, ISBN 3-545-20313-1 .
  • Georgius Harian Lolan: "We also call this Christ the Son of God" The image of Christ and the spiritual interpretation of Scripture by Aphrahat, the Persian sage, in the confrontation with the Jews. Dissertation, University of Vienna, Vienna 2013, pp. 41–54 [3]

Web links

Commons : Gospel of Thomas  - Collection of images, videos and audio files

References and comments

  1. Christoph Markschies , Jens Schröter, Andreas Heiser (ed.): Ancient Christian Apocrypha in German translation. Volume I, 7th edition, Mohr Siebeck, Tübingen 2012, ISBN 978-3-16-150087-9 , pp. 488-492.
  2. On the relationship between the papyri and the Nag Hammadi version, cf. Wilfried Eisele: Which Thomas? Tübingen 2010.
  3. Jens Schröter , Hans-Gebhard Bethge : Nag Hammadi German. 3. Edition. de Gruyter, Berlin / New York 2007, ISBN 978-3-11-031234-8 , p. 124.
  4. Harold W. Attridge : The Greek Fragments. Pp. 96-102.
  5. Wilfried Eisele : Which Thomas? Studies on the text and transmission history of the Gospel of Thomas (= Scientific investigations on the New Testament . Volume 259). Mohr Siebeck, Tübingen 2010, ISBN 978-3-16-150543-0 (also habilitation thesis, Tübingen 2010), p. 39.
  6. ^ Robert McLachlan Wilson: Apocrypha of the New Testament. In: Theological Real Encyclopedia. Volume 3, 1978, pp. 323–326 (“the composition of the earliest version can perhaps be set to the middle of this [2nd] century”).
  7. Jörg Frey: The lilies and the garment: EvThom 36 and 37 as a paradigm for the relationship between the Gospel of Thomas and the synoptic tradition. In: Jörg Frey (ed.): The Gospel of Thomas: Origin - Reception - Theology. de Gruyter, Berlin 2008, ISBN 978-3-11-020246-5 , pp. 122-180.
  8. Christoph Heil names “several possibilities: (1) EvTh knew all the Gospels. Then EvTh arose relatively late and was a short or new version of the Gospels. This is the opinion of the vast majority of German biblical scholars. (2) EvTh, like Q, is a very early testimony of the Christian tradition about Jesus and thus an independent line of tradition alongside and before the Gospels. This is the opinion of many American researchers. The truth is probably somewhere between (1) and (2). "(Emphasis in the original)
  9. For example from Werner Hörmann : Gnosis. The book of the hidden gospels. Pattloch Verlag 1990. ISBN 3-629-00525-X . P. 333.
  10. Even an apostolic origin was occasionally considered. Then it would have been recognized in church circles and would have spread quickly. A targeted suppression of the Gospel of Thomas is not to be assumed. Because as far as we can understand a dispute with it on the part of church personalities, this took place late (after approx. 200 AD). By the time it became more popular, four recognized gospels had long been established.
  11. Hans-Josef Klauck: Finally the full truth? New discussion about apocryphal gospels. Lecture from October 7, 2006, Catholic Academy Bavaria (Munich), pp. 3–4. (PDF; 405 kB)
  12. ^ Fred Lapham: An Introduction to the New Testament Apocrypha. Understanding the Bible and Its World Bloomsbury Publishing, London / New York 2003, ISBN 978-0-56761-590-9 , p. 120
  13. Hans-Josef Klauck: Apocryphal Gospels. An introduction. Katholisches Bibelwerk, Stuttgart 2002, ISBN 978-3-46033-022-1 , p. 144
  14. Reinhard Nordsieck : The Thomas Gospel: Introduction - On the question of the historical Jesus - Commentary on all 114 logia. Edition 4, Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 2006, ISBN 978-3-78871-867-1 , p. 20
  15. ^ Helmut Koester: Ancient Christian Gospels: their History and Development. Trinity Press International, Philadelphia 1990, pp. 75-128
  16. James M. Robinson : The Coptic Gnostic Library: A Complete English Edition of the Nag Hammadi Codices. 2. Vol., Brill, Leiden 2000, p. 39
  17. Jens Schröter: The Gospel of Thomas. Introduction - On the question of the historical Jesus - Commentary on all 114 logia by Reinhard Nordsieck. Theological Review, Vol. 70, No. 3 (August 2005), pp. 384-388
  18. ^ A b Jens Schröter, Hans-Gebhard Bethge: Nag Hammadi German. 3. Edition. de Gruyter, Berlin / New York 2007, ISBN 978-3-11-018192-0 , p. 125.
  19. ^ Aelred Baker, Gilles Quispel, 1960.
  20. Darrell L. Bock : The secretive gospels. Brunnen, Giessen 2007, ISBN 978-3-7655-1964-2 , p. 95.
  21. Christoph Heil : Lukas und Q: Studies on the Lukan editorship of the Gospel of Proverbs Q. Supplements to the Journal for New Testament Science, Vol. 111, Walter de Gruyter, Berlin 2003, ISBN 3-11-017434-0 , p. 7
  22. ^ John S. Kloppenborg: The Formation of Q: Trajectories in Ancient Wisdom Collections. Minneapolis 1987
  23. Ulrich Luz , Axel Michaels : Jesus or Buddha. Comparison of life and teaching. CH Beck, Munich 2002, ISBN 3-406-47602-3 , p. 37
  24. ^ Stephan Witetschek: Sources of living water. On the question of a 'Johannine' motif in EvThom 13. In: ZNW 103 (2012), 254–271
  25. ^ Stephan Witetschek: Going Hungry for a Purpose. On gos. Thom. 69.2 and a Neglected Parallel in Origen. In: JSNT 32.4 (2010), 379-393
  26. Thomas and Johannes-Johannes and Thomas. A detailed reassessment of the relationship between the two Gospels (and their supporting groups?) Stephan Witetschek, Ludwig Maximilians University Munich (LMU), German Research Foundation (DFG) - project number 155396466 [1]
  27. Jens Schröter, Hans-Gebhard Bethge: The Gospel according to Thomas (NHC II, 2). In: Hans-Martin Schenke u. a. (Ed.): Nag Hammadi German. Volume 1: NHC I, 1-V, 1 . P. 126.
  28. Markus Vinzent : The resurrection of Christ in early Christianity. Herder, Freiburg i.Br. 2014, ISBN 978-3-451-31212-0 , p. 227
  29. ^ Similar to Philip of Side around 430 in his church history.
  30. Claus Schedl: The 114 suras of the Koran and the 114 logia of the Gospel of Thomas . Der Islam, Volume 64, 1987, pp. 261-264.