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Dominion under the Hasmonean Jonathan
  • Situation in 160 BC Chr.
  • Conquered territory
  • Development of the Hasmonean Empire
    The Hasmonean Empire under Salome Alexandra

    Hasmoneans ( Hebrew חַשְׁמוֹנַאִים Ḥašmōna'īm or Chaschmōna'īm ) is the name of a ruling dynasty in the second and first centuries BC. In Judea, resulting from the Maccabees' revolt in 167 BC. And founded an independent Jewish state in the Palestine region .


    The patriotically minded priest ( Kohen ) Matitjahu is considered to be the ancestor of this dynasty , who, according to Josephus ' Jewish Antiquities, was the son of an Asamonaios (Ασαμωναίος) (11.111; 12.1). His son Yehuda was later called Maccabi ( Aramaic יהודה המכבי Y'hudhah HaMakabi , German for 'the hammer' ), but the actual founder of the ruling family was his brother, the ethnarch Simon . The Maccabees revolted against the sometimes violent Hellenization of Judea by Seleucid rulers. In the arts and literature, Yehuda is known as "Judas Maccabeus".

    The Hasmoneans were rulers and high priests at the same time . They established a strictly religious system of the priesthood . The Maccabees gave the Jews about a century of extensive independence, during which Jewish religious teaching was able to develop further.

    In 63 BC After the conquest by Pompey , the empire lost its independence. However, it then continued to exist as a Roman client state . Due to the reorganization of Palestine by Pompey, the Hasmoneans only retained the religious office of high priest.

    The Hasmonean dynasty lost in 37 BC. Their power finally, and Herod the Great was declared King of Judea by the Senate in Rome .

    In 6 AD, the kingdom was converted into the Roman province of Judea by the emperor Augustus and lost its statehood.

    The Hasmonean rulers:

    High priest from 63 BC Chr .:

    Other members of the family:

    The Hasmonean Family

    † 166 in Modeïn
    Johannes Gaddi
    † 160 (murdered by the Nabataeans )
    Simon Thassi
    Ethnarch & High Priest
    143 - † 135 (murdered near Jericho )
    Judas Maccabeus
    † 160 (killed in the battle of Elasa )
    Eleazar Avaran
    † 162 (killed in the battle for Jerusalem )
    Jonatan Apphus
    High Priest 160 - † 143
    (murdered in Ptolemais )
    † 135 (murdered near Jericho)
    † 135 (murdered near Jericho)
    John Hyrcanus I
    ethnarch & high priest 135 - † 104
    † 107 (murdered)
    Aristobulus I
    King & High Priest 104 - † 103
    Salome Alexandra
    * 140 (?); Queen of Judea 76 - † 67
    Alexander Jannäus
    * around 126; King & High Priest 103 - † 76 (Ragaba Fortress)
    John Hyrcanus II
    high priest 76–40; Ethnarch 63-40; † 30 (executed)
    Aristobulus II
    at * 100; King & High Priest 67–63
    † 49 (poisoned in Rome )
    Princess † 29 (executed)
    around * 80 Jerusalem - † 49 (executed in Antioch )
    Antigonus Mattathias
    ruler 40 - † 37 (executed Antioch)
    at * 54; Princess and wife of King Herod ; † 29 (executed)
    Aristobulus III
    at * 53; High priest one year before his death; † 36/35 (murdered in Jericho)


    1. The dates given here are based on calculations as they were common in the literature in the past. These calculations are based on the Seleucid epoch ( SE ) count . The years based on the Seleucid epoch are given a tolerance when these dates are converted into modern calendar dates. Exact accuracy is not necessarily important when looking at historical events, as long as the historical sequence is preserved in relation to one another.


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