|coat of arms||Germany map|
|Circle :||Duchy of Lauenburg|
|Height :||19 m above sea level NHN|
|Area :||25.05 km 2|
|Residents:||19,131 (Dec. 31, 2019)|
|Population density :||764 inhabitants per km 2|
|Postal code :||23879|
|Area code :||04542|
|License plate :||RZ|
|Community key :||01 0 53 090|
|LOCODE :||DE MOE|
City administration address :
|Wasserkrüger Weg 16
|Mayor :||Jan Wiegels ( SPD )|
|Location of the city of Mölln in the Duchy of Lauenburg district|
The second largest city in terms of inhabitants in the Duchy of Lauenburg is located on the B 207 ( Alte Salzstraße ) about 30 kilometers south of Lübeck , in the area of the Lauenburg Lakes Nature Park . The city hill is a terminal moraine tongue shaped by meltwater from the last Ice Age . The city is surrounded by the Möllner Lake District , through which the Hellbach or Pinnau flows , consisting - counterclockwise - of the Drüsensee, Lüttauer See, Schmalsee, Hegesee, Schulsee, Stadtsee and Ziegelsee lakes . The Ziegelsee is crossed by the Elbe-Lübeck Canal , which leads past Mölln to the west.
The districts of Mölln are referred to as follows in local usage:
- Old town / center
- Kangaroo Quarter (The unofficial Kangaroo Quarter included the streets Müthelstraße, Dahmstraße, Wenselstraße and Hahnemannstraße from the Hansaviertel. However, some people from Mölln had given this part a nickname known from other towns / villages, as the owners of the newly built houses supposedly changed quickly, so " large Make jumps, but have nothing in the bag. ")
Between 1165 and 1180 the knight Konrad Wackerbarth founded Mölln (Mulne) as a locator by relocating nine Slavic farmers from the mouth of the Delvenau to today's Alt-Mölln and the subsequent settlement of 12 Saxon Hufen (farms) on the site of "Ohlendorp" . The field mark was south of it on the stone field. Around 1210, the core of the settlement was moved to the Werder between Möllner See and Schulsee and walled. The first documentary mention of the place took place in 1188 in connection with the Möllner See ("stagnum mulne") in the Barbarossa privilege for Lübeck. After Mölln in 1201 Denmark had fallen, it was awarded in 1202 by King Valdemar II. The Lubeck city rights . After 25 years of Danish rule, the city fell to the Duke of Saxony-Lauenburg in 1227 after the Battle of Bornhöved . The development of its own parish also dates back to Danish times. The first church synod took place as early as 1217, and in 1230 Mölln was mentioned as the youngest parish in the Ratzeburg tithe register . The church, which was built around this time, was placed under the patronage of St. Nicholas. In the following centuries it was the Dukes of Saxony-Lauenburg on the one hand and the city of Lübeck on the other hand who fought over Mölln's possession.
Since the Barbarossa privilege of 1188, Lübeck had the shipping rights to the Stecknitz between its confluence with the Trave and Mölln. It was still dependent on the old salt road to Lüneburg. This explains the strategically important location of Mölln on the watershed between the North Sea and the Baltic Sea, which was later redeemed in the 14th century by connecting with the Delvenau to the Stecknitz Canal .
In 1359 the city of Mölln came under the rule of the city of Lübeck. In 1401 Lübeck was in financial distress, and so the Duke of Ratzeburg-Lauenburg was able to conquer Mölln. In 1420 Mölln fell back to Lübeck. In order to secure the trade routes, Lübeck acquired a large number of other exclaves along the Stecknitz Canal and the Alte Salzstrasse, in addition to Mölln .
It was not until 1683 that the Imperial Court of Justice finally decided in favor of the Lauenburg ducal house. Anton Winkler and Hieronymus von Dorne carried out the return to Duke Julius Franz von Sachsen-Lauenburg for the city of Lübeck . The dispute over the Möllner Pertinenzien did not come to an end until the middle of the 18th century.
The oldest watershed canal in Europe running through Mölln, the Stecknitz Canal , which was completed in 1398 and directed the salt trade from Lüneburg to the north, was expanded into the Elbe-Lübeck Canal at the end of the 19th century . Together with the old salt road from Lüneburg to Lübeck, these transport connections increased the economic importance of the city. This wealth from Lübeck's time is still reflected today in the old town center.
History from the 17th century
In 1689, after the ducal dynasty of Lauenburg died out, a checkered phase began in the history of the city of Mölln, which was now under the control of a wide variety of lords: 1689–1705 to the Duke of Lüneburg-Celle , 1705–1803 to the Elector of Hanover (who was also King of Great Britain war), 1803–1813 to the French Emperor Napoleon , so that from 1810 a mayor ruled in Mölln instead of a mayor. After the Wars of Liberation, the city belonged again to Hanover from 1813-1815, then for the first time to Prussia for 14 months, as Hanover had ceded the Duchy of Lauenburg to Prussia in exchange for East Frisia. But even this rule was only a transitional arrangement. Through a large-scale barter, in which Prussia received Swedish Western Pomerania and Rügen, Mölln then fell over Sweden to the Danish king in 1816, who ruled Holstein and Lauenburg in the form of a personal union. The construction and connection to the Lübeck-Büchener Railway , approved by the Danes, gave the city new development opportunities in 1851. In 1864 the city came under their dual rule through the Prussian-Austrian victory over Denmark . In August 1865 Austria renounced the Duchy in the Gastein Convention in favor of the King of Prussia in return for compensation of 1,875,000 thalers, which in 1867 became part of the Prussian province of Schleswig-Holstein. The city has belonged to the federal state of Schleswig-Holstein since 1949.
History from the 20th century
From 1929 to 1931, the former Möllner NCOs' pre- school served as a reception center for a total of 5650 Mennonites of German origin from the Soviet Union , most of whom emigrated to the USA and Brazil . In 1933 the construction of the army ammunition facility (Muna) began, which covered an area of 213 hectares and which temporarily employed over 2,000 people, including many forced laborers from Eastern Europe during the Second World War .
At the end of the Second World War, the population grew considerably due to refugees and displaced persons from the former German eastern regions . On February 3, 1945, the first large refugee train made up of 600 women and children reached the city of Mölln. In the days and weeks that followed, further refugee transports arrived in Mölln. The refugees were initially distributed to private quarters. When these were no longer sufficient, mass quarters were set up. The Muna became the residential area " Waldstadt ". In 1939 the city had only 6,300 inhabitants, in 1944 there were already 8,900 and in 1945 finally over 13,000.
Shortly before the occupation of Mölln, an armed vigilante attacked the eight-man guard on the canal bridge between Mölln and Alt-Mölln and removed the explosive charges with which the approaching British troops were to be stopped. Subsequently, the vigilante group is said to have informed the British units that the way was now free. Major General Heino Oetken (1894–1987), commander of the Elbe section Geesthacht-Dömitz, claimed years after the war that it was he who had kept his hometown out of the fighting of the last days of the war. On May 2, 1945, when the British finally occupied Mölln without a fight, large white flags are said to have been visible on various buildings. On the same day, the executive government fled from the Eutin - Plön area 50 kilometers further north to Flensburg - Mürwik . Only two days later, all German troops in north-west Germany, the Netherlands and Denmark were surrendered .
The main committee had to deliberate in 1949 on the proposal to make the playwright and satirist George Bernard Shaw an honorary citizen of the city of Mölln. However, the statutes of the city of Mölln no longer provided for honorary citizenship due to the abuse of this title in National Socialist Germany. Therefore, he should be given the honor of " Eulenspiegel ". On a handwritten postcard, the Nobel Prize winner announced in 1950 that he would not accept the dignity of the honorary Eulenspiegel, but that of an (English) “honorary citizen”.
In 1970 Mölln was recognized as a Kneipp spa .
On November 23, 1992, three Turkish women , including two children , died in an arson attack carried out by neo-Nazis on two residential buildings . To come to terms with the Nazi resentment and for a better community culture with initially strangers, the “Verein leben eV e. V. ”, which runs the“ International Tannery Meeting Center ”in the old town of Mölln. He also coordinates part of the work with refugees in Mölln.
- Hagenow , Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania
- Maszewo , Poland
- Tillhausen , Duchy of Lauenburg
- Goleniów , Poland
|Parties and constituencies||
|CDU||Christian Democratic Union of Germany||34.8||13||36.6||12||34.5||12||48.7||15th||38.6|
|SPD||Social Democratic Party of Germany||25.4||9||29.3||9||25.6||8th||24.5||7th||37.6|
|Green||Alliance 90 / The Greens||20.3||7th||18.0||6th||15.3||5||6.6||2||6.4|
|FMW||Free Möllner voter community||8.2||3||10.7||3||13.5||4th||13.1||4th||13.2|
|FDP||Free Democratic Party||6.6||2||5.2||2||10.2||3||7.1||2||4.2|
|Voter turnout in%||40.4||39.9||42.7||49.1||59.1|
Mayor is Jan Frederik Schlie (CDU).
- 1946-1947: Curt Biging
- 1950–1962: Hermann Franck ( SPD )
- 1962–1967: Günther Hörnlein
- 1967–1985: Walter Lutz
- 1985–1997: Joachim H. Dörfler
- 1998–2010: Wolfgang Engelmann ( SPD )
- since June 1, 2010: Jan Wiegels ( SPD )
coat of arms
The coat of arms and flag were approved on May 31, 1955.
Blazon : “In red a silver mill wheel. A red mill iron in the silver head of the shield. "
The oldest town seal of Mölln from 1352 shows the mill wheel as the only figure. The mill iron was not added until the 18th century. In the second half of the 19th century, the previously red mill iron was given a black tincture. In 1946 two owls, a boat, a wall crown and wavy threads added to the coat of arms, but were removed again ten years later. In 1955 the city's coat of arms was officially established on the basis of the image content from the 18th century. The strikingly uncomplicated shape of the original seal image with a simple figure suggests that this was not only shown in the seal, but also in the coat of arms. Mölln has been running its historic landmark since 1955 with ministerial approval. The city "Molne" is first mentioned around 1200; the date of foundation remains uncertain. In 1262 and 1272 Mölln was granted city rights. The city was pledged to Lübeck in 1359, as the Hanseatic city had great economic and political interest in Mölln's location on the old salt route and other important trade routes. The rule of Lübeck led to the connection to the waterway network with the construction of the Stecknitz Canal. The affiliation to Lübeck, which lasted until 1683, is expressed in the colors red and white. Although the name "Mölln" probably comes from a Slavic word meaning "cloudy water", the similarity to the Low German word "Möhl" has always been decisive for the popular explanation of the place name. Mölln therefore has a "talking" coat of arms. The mill wheel and mill iron also represent the importance of the city in the Middle Ages as the location of several water mills.
The coat of arms was designed by the Brunsbüttel heraldist Willy "Horsa" Lippert .
The flag of the city of Mölln is split; the leech, d. H. the smaller part next to the flagstick shows in the field divided by silver and red a mill wheel in mixed up colors, overlaid by a red mill iron, the flying end is divided by red and silver.
In Mölln there are five fitness centers, a mini golf course, a bowling green in the spa gardens, a discotheque and the wildlife park with the Grundlos Kolk . In addition to the swimming pool in the Augustinum, there is also the Luisenbad outdoor pool . A new indoor swimming pool, the "Möllner Welle" with sauna facility, has been in operation since summer 2016, and is located above the spa park and not far from the town hall. On the lakes around the old town there is the possibility of rowing or pedal boating (rental on Seestrasse), while motor boats are allowed on the Ziegelsee and Stadtsee. Cyclists can ride along the Elbe-Lübeck Canal and in the Lauenburg Lakes Nature Park.
There are also boat trips with pleasure boats from Mölln and irregularly with museum ships on the Elbe-Lübeck Canal from and to Lübeck and Lauenburg.
Various regular events take place, including the old town festival, the shooting festival and the autumn market. In the water tower can be seen a natural history exhibition.
Athletes are organized in the Möllner Sportvereinigung von 1862 e. V, in the tennis club Mölln v. 1897 e. V., in the TTC Mölln e. V., and the shooters in the Möllner Schützengilde from 1407 (with over 600 years of existence), where sport shooting and summer biathlon are also practiced.
The Grambeker Heide glider airfield is in the immediate vicinity. Auto-cross and motocross races are held on the Grambeker Heidering, until 1987 this racetrack was a venue for the European Motocross Championship and the Auto-Cross DM was held there until 2000.
Culture and sights
Special sights are the well-preserved old town with the towering brick Gothic church of Sankt Nicolai and the memorial stone for Till Eulenspiegel on the market at the foot of the Kirchberg , often incorrectly named as his tombstone. The Eulenspiegel Museum and the local history museum in the Old Town Hall are also located on the market square. The gothic Möllner town hall from 1373 is, besides the Lübeck town hall, the only one from this style epoch in Schleswig-Holstein. The Stadthauptmannhof is the seat of the Duchy of Lauenburg Foundation .
The spa park , lakes and forests are in the immediate vicinity of the city .
- Saint Nicolai
- Möllner town hall
- Water tower
- City library
- Mölln train station
- Former hospital (now practice clinic)
- Stadtwerke Arena Mölln
- Former NCO's pre-school, former LVA-Schleswig-Holstein lung clinic, former Bundeswehr Administration School III (largest building in Mölln)
- Möllner Museum in the old town hall - exhibition on Möllner city history
- Eulenspiegel Museum - Exhibition on the subject of Till Eulenspiegel
Economy and Infrastructure
Mölln also has a train station on the Lübeck – Lüneburg railway line (which is part of the Hamburg transport association HVV from Lüneburg to Ratzeburg). Until 1959 there was also a connection to the Kaiserbahn to Hollenbek . The route has now been dismantled, but the “tailor's scissors” stop can still be visited. Mölln with buses to the train stations Schwarzenbek , Büchen , Hamburg-Bergedorf and the metro station Wandsbek market tied in Hamburg.
The Grambeker Heide glider airfield, which was built in 1960, is located on the southern outskirts of the town in the area of the municipality of Grambek . It is approved for gliders, powered gliders, microlights, balloons and, to a very limited extent, for powered aircraft. The operator is the Luftsportverein Grambeker Heide e. V. Another association from Berlin has also been using the airfield for decades.
Resident companies (selection)
- Sommerfeld and Thiele
- Coca-Cola Erfrischungsgetränke AG (bottling plant)
- Eggers beach chair factory
- Heidenreich & Harbeck
- Heinrich von Allwörden GmbH bakery
- IPSOS GmbH
- Euronics XXL Mölln
- United public utilities
Mölln has eight schools, five of them on the so-called "Schulberg" in Mölln Mitte. This is where the Mölln Community School (formerly A.-Paul-Weber-Realschule and Hauptschule Schäferkamp ) is located with around 1050 students and the only Gymnasium Mölln, founded in 1998 and named after Marion Dönhoff , where around 1000 students were taught by around 70 teachers in 2010 . With the funds earmarked for art in buildings , this school acquired its own art collection, which was exhibited in the Mölln town hall in 2006 .
The “Astrid-Lindgren-Schule” support center (focus on learning) and the “Till-Eulenspiegel-Schule”, a primary school with 380 students, are also located on the Schulberg.
The Mölln Vocational Training Center (BBZ) is located in the immediate vicinity of the Schulberg.
The Tanneck elementary school and the “Steinfeld School” support center (focus on intellectual development) are located in Mölln-Waldstadt.
One of the largest buildings in Mölln was the Bundeswehr Administration School III. Due to the stationing concept of November 1, 2004, the school was closed on December 31, 2007.
- June: Shooting festival of the Möllner Schützengilde v. 1387 e. V. with parades through the entire old town of Mölln
- June: Field handball youth tournament of the Möllner Sportvereinigung von 1862 e. V. on the forest sports field
- July: Home meeting in Massow and the surrounding area, since 1948 the home meeting has taken place annually in the sponsored town of Mölln
- August: penultimate weekend old town festival with flea market in the entire old town and city run of the Möllner Sportvereinigung von 1862 e. V.
- October: second weekend lantern parade of the volunteer fire brigade
- November: first weekend autumn market in the entire city center with fireworks
A folk festival takes place every two years .
City games take place every two years, where children create their own world.
A large economic show takes place in the spa gardens every two years.
The Eulenspiegel Festival is held on the market square in August every three years.
Born in Mölln
- Johann Schaevius (1680–1743), lawyer and syndic of the Hanseatic City of Lübeck
- Johann Gottfried Müthel (1728–1788), organist, composer and last student of Johann Sebastian Bach
- Hugo Gressmann (1877–1927), Old Testament scholar
- Karl Gatermann the Elder (1883–1959), painter, draftsman and graphic artist
- Frithjof Bestmann (1898–1990), Lutheran clergyman, provost and local history researcher
- Wolfgang Sprekels (* 1944), dentist, Vice President of the German Dental Association
- Helga Kleiner (* 1935), politician
- Willi Padge (* 1943), 1960 Olympic champion in rowing with the Germany eight
- Ingeborg Spoerhase-Eisel (* 1947), politician
- Hans-Joachim Zillmer (* 1950), entrepreneur and author
- Burkhard Fritsche (* 1952), artist name BURKH , caricaturist
- Klaus Schlie (* 1954), politician
- Jutta Biallas (* 1957), politician
- Axel Meyer (* 1960), professor at the University of Konstanz
- Claudio Maniscalco (* 1962), singer, speaker and actor
- Alfred Kaminski (* 1964), football coach
- Holger Ballwanz (* 1967), former professional footballer, fan representative and assistant coach of the U19 at VfL Wolfsburg
- Konstantin von Notz (* 1971), lawyer, member of the Bundestag
- Caroline Sommerfeld-Lethen (* 1975), author
Connected with Mölln
- Hieronymus von Dorne (city governor) (1603–1671), German lawyer, traveler to the Orient and from 1653 until his death in 1671 city governor of Mölln.
- Johann Adolph Höltich (1641–1704), German lawyer, doctor of both rights and from 1670 town clerk of Mölln
- Johann Christoph Schmügel (1727–1798), composer and organist, lived and worked in Mölln
- Samuel Hahnemann (1755–1843), German doctor and founder of homeopathy, moved from Altona to Mölln around 1800
- Walther Eugenius Dührssen (1837–1914), German district judge and local researcher
- Ernst Anders (1845–1911), portrait and genre painter, died in Mölln
- Hugo Johannes Bestmann (1854–1925), pastor at St. Nicolai from 1886
- George Bernard Shaw (1856–1950), Irish playwright, politician, satirist and music critic, "honorary citizen" of the city of Mölln
- Meinhard Jacoby (1873–1956), painter and sculptor
- Heinrich Rauschelbach (1888–1978), astronomer and precision mechanic
- Richard-Eugen Dörr (1896–1975), engineer, chemist and industrialist, lived and died in Mölln
- Hilde Fürstenberg (1902–2005), writer, publisher and president of the Knut Hamsun Society
- Hermann Franck (politician) (1908–1992), politician, 1950–1962 mayor of Mölln
- Karlheinz Goedtke (1915–1995), sculptor and sculptor
- Uwe Barschel (1944–1987), politician, lived in Mölln and is buried here
- Wolfgang Stolz (* 1953), former handball player, lives in Mölln
- Winfried Eisenblätter (* 1934 in Emden), Baptist pastor i. R. and em. Lecturer in the Old Testament at the Theological Seminary of the Federation of Evangelical Free Churches
- Maren Winter , b. Lorenz; (* 1961), writer and puppeteer, grew up in Mölln
- Arne Lorenz (* 1962), author and director, grew up in Mölln
Among others, these films were shot in Mölln:
- Frank Braun: House building in Mölln in the 17th and 18th centuries. Relationships between the building stock, economic structure and social topography of a north German small town (= studies on the economic and social history of Schleswig-Holstein, vol. 23), Neumünster 1994
- Alfred Flögel: Mölln in old views , Volume 1, Zaltbommel 1976
- Wolfgang Friedrich u. a .: Mölln and his Till Eulenspiegel. 1980, ISBN 3-921802-02-4 .
- Peter von Kobbe: History and description of the country of the Duchy of Lauenburg. Altona 1837, pp. 152–167 The Möllner trial. as a digitized version . ISBN 3-7777-0074-6 .
- Christian Lopau: Mölln in old views , Volume 2, Zaltbommel 1996
- Christian Lopau u. a .: Eulenspiegelstadt Mölln - impressions. rundum-Verlag, 2002
- Lothar Obst u. a .: Mölln. Trade - craft - bourgeoisie. 1988
- Hansjörg Zimmermann: Mölln. A historical overview. Büchen 1977
- North Statistics Office - Population of the municipalities in Schleswig-Holstein 4th quarter 2019 (XLSX file) (update based on the 2011 census) ( help on this ).
- Lübecker Nachrichten : Escape from Bombs and the Red Army , from: April 22, 2015; accessed on: May 27, 2018
- Lübecker Nachrichten : The vigilantes prevented the canal bridge from being blown up , from: April 29, 2015; accessed on: May 27, 2018
- Lübecker Nachrichten : The air raids on Geesthacht and Büchen , from: April 11, 2015; accessed on: May 27, 2018
- Lübecker Nachrichten : The vigilantes prevented the canal bridge from being blown up , from: April 29, 2015; accessed on: May 27, 2018
- Schleswig-Holstein's municipal coat of arms
- School year 2010/11: A little statistics (PDF; 2.4 MB). In: Schulinfo Marion-Dönhoff-Gymnasium Mölln . Vol. 5, Issue 11 (Fall 2010), p. 1. (Accessed January 8, 2011.)
- Marc von Kopylow: With special permission: Mölln shows “Art under construction” ( page no longer available , search in web archives ) Info: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. . In: Lübecker Nachrichten Online from June 15, 2006.
- CITY GAME - District Youth Association Herzogtum Lauenburg e. V. Accessed on May 12, 2019 (German).