Ratzeburg Cathedral Courtyard

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Domhof Ratzeburg (1736 by Pierre Joseph du Plat , map not north-facing )

The Domhof Ratzeburg is located on the cathedral island in the Ratzeburg lake . The area belonged to the Greater Hamburg Act 1937 as a historic enclave to Mecklenburg-Strelitz and then fell on the town of Ratzeburg . The main access road also bears the name Domhof . The cathedral courtyard is architecturally dominated by the Ratzeburg Cathedral with its cathedral monastery, the complex is surrounded by numerous other registered cultural monuments, but also by buildings from more recent times.


View from the north of the cathedral courtyard and the old town of Ratzeburg behind it
Old boundary stone of the cathedral courtyard to the city of Ratzeburg

The area of ​​the Domhof lies west of the Domsee and north of the Königsdamm. The Domsee turns with a north-westerly bend into the Great Ratzeburger See; it is not separated from this by a dam, but by a somewhat narrower passage between the cathedral peninsula and the lake shore near Römnitz , the so-called "Römnitzer Enge"; the Great Ratzeburger See then goes in the west and north of the cathedral island to Rothenhusen . The area rises from west to east and forms a high bank on its east side to the north up to the location of the cathedral with the monastery.

From 1842 to 1847, the Ratzeburg city island was then connected to the surrounding area on the east side for the first time. The Ratzeburg “Königsdamm” was built under Danish rule in Lauenburg; the dam was officially given this name in 1854 in the presence of and in honor of the Danish King Frederick VII .

The cathedral courtyard was connected to the Bäk at its northeastern end by the cathedral ferry across the cathedral lake . It was mainly used for going to church in the parish villages of Bäk and Römnitz.

On the land side, the border between the Mecklenburg cathedral courtyard and the Lauenburg district town of Ratzeburg ran north along Kleine Kreuzstrasse and north along Zum Süßen Grund until 1937 ; Two granite boundary stones measuring approx. 40 × 20 cm are paved flat at the intersection of Domstrasse / Domhof and Zum Süßen Grund on both sides of Domhof street, and another is embedded in the middle of the street in the cobblestones of the Domhof at the level of the south facade of the cathedral barracks.

Domhof and Palmberg

Memorial cross on the Palmberg

In the center of the peninsula, south of the cathedral, is the Palmberg , a large, originally square, now triangular, green space lined with three linden tree avenues.

The historic name of the Mecklenburg town was Domhof and Palmberg near the city of Ratzeburg . It comprised two areas that had belonged together but were different for centuries: the actual cathedral courtyard, the immunity area of the cathedral church and its chapter, which began behind the stone gate to the west of the cathedral, and the Palmberg with its adjoining properties to the south . The Palmberg ( mons polaborum , Polaben- Berg) was acquired by the cathedral chapter in 1439 from the dukes Magnus and Bernhard von Sachsen-Lauenburg for 530 Lübische Marks , on the condition that no secular person should erect buildings there and no trade or industry should be conducted there . For a long time it remained a matter of dispute whether this was merely a transfer of property under civil law or, as the cathedral chapter and its successor the Mecklenburg government saw, also meant a transfer of sovereign rights. The town of Ratzeburg, which was heavily fortified by Duke Georg Wilhelm von Braunschweig-Lüneburg in 1692, aroused the displeasure of the Danish King Christian V , who in 1693 more or less completely reduced Ratzeburg to rubble, except for the cathedral peninsula. The Danish occupation of Ratzeburg still exercised a gun right on the Palmberg, which was contradicted by the Mecklenburg side.

The depiction of Ratzeburg by Georg Braun and Frans Hogenberg with the castle and the city island behind it including the cathedral district from 1588 shows that the cathedral peninsula in the area of ​​Palmberg was not yet built on in the 16th century. This took place as peripheral development only from the end of the 16th century. The cathedral courtyard was measured and mapped in 1714 by the Hanoverian engineer officer Carl Friedrich von Persson (1684–1747). Another survey and mapping was carried out in 1736 by the Hanoverian engineer officer Pierre Joseph du Plat .


Duchy of Lauenburg and Principality of Ratzeburg (1795)

While the city later belonged to the Duchy of Saxony-Lauenburg , the later Prussian district Duchy of Lauenburg , the monastery area with Domhof and Palmberg came into the hands of the Mecklenburgers in 1648 as a result of the Peace of Westphalia as the Principality of Ratzeburg and in 1701 became part of the Mecklenburg sub-duchy of Strelitz . Until the administrative reform of 1814, the government and the consistory for the Principality of Ratzeburg had their seat on Palmberg. Then it was united with the government in Neustrelitz, subordinate tasks were taken over by the newly established Landvogtei in Schönberg (Mecklenburg) and a consistorial commission was set up for church supervision.

In the 1817 census, the cathedral courtyard comprised 36 inhabited buildings and had 252 inhabitants. In the course of the 19th century, the cathedral courtyard lost a number of institutions and cultural capital: In 1809, Duke Karl II had important parts of the cathedral library, including the valuable biblical collection of Andreas Gottlieb Masch , brought to Neustrelitz and incorporated into the ducal library, and in 1814 the administration took over relocated, in 1829 the monastery archives with the Ratzeburg tithe register came to Neustrelitz, and in 1845 the cathedral school closed . But it also gained new importance as a (partial) garrison location when, in 1887, the cathedral barracks became the location of the Lauenburg Jäger Battalion No. 9 . In 1847 a seminary for preachers was set up in the rooms of the cathedral school, but it only lasted for five years.

While almost all of the properties were owned by the cathedral until the first half of the 19th century, in accordance with the contract of 1439, there was an increasing number of sales to private individuals.

It was not until the Greater Hamburg Law in 1937 that the cathedral district became part of the municipality of Ratzeburg and thus part of the Prussian province of Schleswig-Holstein .

After the Second World War, the cathedral courtyard with the cathedral belonging to the Mecklenburg regional church was highly symbolic for people from Mecklenburg who were displaced from their homes. The Landsmannschaft Mecklenburg disbanded in 2012 because its purpose no longer existed in the course of the unification of Germany . With the relocation of the Mecklenburg Foundation from Ratzeburg to Schwerin in 2009, another structural change was initiated in the cathedral courtyard, which will only be completed when their property in the cathedral courtyard is realized.

In 2016, the north church acquired the two buildings Domhof 33 and 34 and took the associated land on a long lease for 99 years . The real estate, which previously belonged to the cathedral parish, is used for the operation of the regional church education and training facilities, preachers' seminars and pastoral colleges.


Former ferry house (before 1927)

Some historically significant buildings in the cathedral courtyard had to give way to new uses, including z. B. the traditional Daldorfsche Kuria at Domhof 25, today built with a private house, or the old ferry house of the cathedral ferry to Bäk at the northeast end of the peninsula, where the club area of ​​the Ratzeburg Sailing Association is today. The Ratzeburg Rowing Academy of Karl Adam at Domhof 37 as well as the traditional cathedral library at Domhof 35 found new domiciles on the Domhof.Museums , a kindergarten, the sailing center of the YMCA and the Luther Academy make up the new mix of the Domhof campus the church center around the cathedral and cathedral monastery is characterized by cultural institutions and water sports centers as well as by private residential use. Despite all the new buildings, there is still a high density of monuments in the cathedral courtyard.

Cultural monuments on the cathedral courtyard

The following list is a further excerpt of the cathedral courtyard from the list of cultural monuments in Ratzeburg :

No. Z. location Official name description image
14th 1 Cathedral courtyard 5 A. Paul Weber House Built in the late 18th century. In 1973 the A. Paul Weber Museum was opened on the cathedral peninsula in Ratzeburg. A.Paul Weber Museum (1) .jpg
15th 1 Cathedral courtyard 12 Dompropstei: mansion , today district museum The manor house of the Dukes of Mecklenburg in Ratzeburg in Schleswig-Holstein was the planned residence of the Mecklenburg-Strelitz Dukes for stays in the exclave of their property located at the Ratzeburg Cathedral. Although actually a castle according to this definition, the building is commonly referred to as a mansion. The baroque palace is the most important secular building in the city of Ratzeburg and has housed the district museum of the Duchy of Lauenburg since 1973. Manor house Ratzeburg2.JPG
2 Dompropstei: northern outbuilding Manor house Ratzeburg, farm building.JPG
3 Dompropstei: southern outbuilding used today as a cultural exhibition building Manor house Ratzeburg 011.JPG
4th Dompropstei: closing grille Enclosure in front of the manor house between the two farm buildings Manor house Ratzeburg 3.JPG
16 1 Cathedral courtyard 14 Organist house 17th century building, widened in the 18th century. Domhof 14 07 2014.JPG
2 former stable building
17th Cathedral courtyard 15 Residential building Former hospital from the 18th century. Domhof 15 RZ 01.jpg
18th 1 Cathedral courtyard 18 Ratzeburg Cathedral with furnishings The cathedral was built from 1160, it is located on the highest point of the northern tip of the old town island and is an outstanding example of Romanesque brick architecture in northern Germany.
2 Cathedral monastery The Luther Academy is located in the former dormitory . Cathedral monastery from the west 07 2014.JPG
3 Churchyard RZ Domfriedhof (1) .jpg
4th Churchyard wall RZ Domfriedhof (2) .jpg
5 Churchyard gate
6th Tombs
7th Crypt systems
8th Welfendenkmal Brunswick lion DomLoeweRatzeburg.JPG
9 Linden wreath
19th Cathedral courtyard 24 Residential building Half-timbered eaves house from the 18th century. Domhof 24 RZ 01.jpg
20th Cathedral courtyard 27 Residential building Built in the first half of the 19th century with a later extension. Cathedral courtyard 27.jpg
21st Cathedral courtyard 28 Old Propstei Erected in 1694/1695. Cathedral courtyard 28.jpg
22nd Cathedral courtyard 30 Residential building (stone gate) Brick building from the middle of the 13th century Steintor RZ 07 2014 01.JPG
23 Cathedral courtyard 31 Residential building (former bishop's hostel) In the lower part from the middle of the 14th century, the upper part around 1500. See the list of the bishops of Ratzeburg , see also the Ratzeburger Bischofsherberge in Lübeck Bischofsherberge RZ 07 2014 01.JPG
24 Cathedral courtyard 32 Residential building Brick building from the 18th to 20th centuries Century. Domhof 32 RZ.JPG
25th Cathedral courtyard 33 Residential building 18th century. Current use: seminary and pastoral college of the north church Domhof 33 RZ.JPG
26th 1 Cathedral courtyard 40 former director's house ( cathedral school ) 18th century. Memorial plaque for Otto Becker .
2 Former Stable building
27 Cathedral courtyard 41 Cathedral barracks Southern part late 17th century, northern part early 18th century. Seipsche's house at the beginning of the 19th century as the official residence of the Privy Councilor of Justice Johann Philipp Seip (born April 8, 1752 in Göttingen; † September 3, 1816); then Plogsche's house . In military use since the 1870s. Used as the Mecklenburg House until 2012 by the Mecklenburg Foundation established in 1973 . Gallery since 2016 (first exhibition from October 30th). Ratzeburg House Mecklenburg 2010-01-25 020.jpg
28 Cathedral courtyard 42 former parish widow's house Conservation of parish widows Domhof 42 RZ 01.jpg
29 Cathedral courtyard 44 Residential building
30th 1 Cathedral courtyard 46 Residential building
31 2 Cathedral courtyard 48 House "Am Heinrichstein" The Heinrichstein for Heinrich von Badewide comes from the last third of the 12th century.

Personalities of the cathedral courtyard before 1937

Sons and daughters

Other personalities who worked in the cathedral courtyard


  • Joachim H. Neuendorff: The Stiftsländer of the former diocese of Ratzeburg: shown topographically. 1832.
  • Ludwig Hellwig: Contributions to a chronicle of the cathedral courtyard near Ratzeburg. In: Archives of the Association for the History of the Duchy of Lauenburg. 4 (1893), pp. 28-38. (Full text)
  • Ludwig Hellwig: Acts for the chronicle of the cathedral courtyard near Ratzeburg. In: Archives of the Association for the History of the Duchy of Lauenburg. 4 (1893), pp. 100–114 (full text)
  • Georg Krüger (edit.): Art and history monuments of the Free State of Mecklenburg-Strelitz . Volume II: The Land of Ratzeburg. Neubrandenburg 1934. (Reprint: Stock & Stein, Schwerin 1994, ISBN 3-910179-28-2 , pp. 41–180)
  • Hans Meese: Parish Domhof Ratzeburg, Carlow, Demern, Herrnburg, Schlagsdorf: The schools and their teachers. 1950.
  • Hartwig Beseler (ed.): Art topography Schleswig-Holstein . Neumünster 1974, p. 376 ff.
  • Hans-Georg Kaack: Ratzeburg: History of an island town: seat of government, spiritual center, civil society. Wachholtz, Neumünster 1987.
  • Georg Dehio : Handbook of the German art monuments . Volume: Johannes Habich , Christoph Timm, Lutz Wilde: Hamburg, Schleswig-Holstein. 2nd, greatly expanded and changed edition. Deutscher Kunstverlag, Munich 1994, ISBN 3-422-03033-6 .
  • Heinz-Dietrich Gross: Ratzeburg Cathedral and Domhof. (= The blue books). Recordings by Hans-Jürgen Wohlfahrt. 5th edition. Langewiesche, Königstein im Taunus 1996, ISBN 3-7845-3183-0 .

Web links

Commons : Domhof (Ratzeburg)  - Collection of images, videos and audio files
Wikisource: Ratzeburg  - Sources and full texts
Wikivoyage: Ratzeburg  - travel guide

Individual evidence

  1. Joachim H. Neuendorff: The Stiftsländer of the former Diocese of Ratzeburg: represented topographically. Stiller, Rostock 1832, p. 94
  2. See in detail the translation of the document and the reverse of the cathedral chapter by Adolf von Duve : Mittheilungen for more detailed information on the most important things in the history of the state and the conditions of the residents of the Duchy of Lauenburg from prehistoric times to the end of 1851 ... H. Linsen, 1857 ( Digitized version , Bayerische Staatsbibliothek ), pp. 226–230.
  3. Gustav Hempel: Geographical-statistical-historical manual of the Meklenburger country. Volume 2, Hinstorff, Parchim / Ludwigslust 1843, p. 477 .
  4. Lauenburg homeland . No. 65 (1969), p. 41; Persson later also carried out the survey of Hameln .
  5. ^ Gustav Hempel: Geographical description of the Grand Duchies of Mecklenburg-Schwerin and Mecklenburg-Strelitz. Dümmler, Neustrelitz 1829, pp. 139f
  6. ^ Nilüfer Krüger: The incunabula of the Rostock University Library: With the incunabula of the Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania State Library in Schwerin and the Friedland Church Library. Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden 2003, ISBN 3-447-04788-7 , p. 25. There note 75 also on other versions, according to which the biblical collection did not leave Neustrelitz in 1784 despite being sold to the Ratzeburg Cathedral Library; however, that would not explain the Ratzeburg ownership notes.
  7. Theological education and training on the Ratzeburg cathedral peninsula secured for the long term , press release of the North Church of May 31, 2016, accessed on June 2, 2016
  8. ratzeburg.de
  9. ^ Fabian: Handbook of the historical book inventory. Schleswig-Holstein, Hamburg and Bremen, p. 135.
  10. ratzeburg.de

Coordinates: 53 ° 42 ′ 14 "  N , 10 ° 46 ′ 30"  E