Martin Carl Philipp Gropius (born August 11, 1824 in Berlin ; † December 13, 1880 there ) was a German architect .
He was born as one of six children of the silk goods manufacturer Carl Gropius (1781–1854) and Berta Wahnschaffe (1799–1873). His first marriage was to Elisabeth Altgelt (1828–1863), the daughter of the Düsseldorf school councilor Hermann Altgelt , and his second marriage to Julie de Greiff (1837–1889). From these two marriages there were seven daughters; his daughter Käthe Gropius (1870–1911) married the painter Martin Körte in 1892 , his daughter Frieda Gropius (1873–1963) his brother, the classical philologist Alfred Körte, in 1896 . Gustav von Rosenstiel and the painter Karl Wilhelm Gropius were his cousins. His great-nephew is the architect and Bauhaus founder Walter Gropius .
Gropius had chosen Karl Friedrich Schinkel as his role model as a teenager and also wanted to become a master builder. He was educated at the Royal Commercial Institute in Berlin, which in 1821 by Christian Peter Wilhelm Beuth as Royal Technical Institute was founded and later as Commercial Academy was designated.
Gropius passed the surveyor's examination in 1847, then attended the Berlin Building Academy and initially worked practically with Heinrich Strack before taking the master builder examination in 1855 and working as an assistant teacher at the Building Academy under Karl Bötticher . In 1867 he was appointed head of the teaching establishment of the Berlin Trade Museum, in 1869 he was appointed director of the Royal Art and Trade School and head of all Prussian art schools. Gropius was thus also a senator of the Academy of Arts .
Through his teacher Karl Bötticher, the author of the work Tectonics of the Hellenes , Gropius became familiar with the Greek language of forms, which he transferred to his buildings by modifying them. He initially designed houses, villas and country houses, all of which were in the Schinkel tradition and classicism. His representative buildings are also committed to this idea. His last work, the Königliche Kunstgewerbemuseum Berlin (now called Martin-Gropius-Bau ), was built in the style of the Italian Renaissance .
From 1865 he formed the law firm Gropius & Schmieden together with Heino Schmieden . From 1869 until his death in 1880 Gropius was the director of the teaching establishment of the Berlin Museum of Applied Arts .
Gropius' remains rest in Cemetery II of the Trinity Community on Bergmannstrasse in Berlin-Kreuzberg (grave complex CW.S.-6-9). The grave complex in the form of a pergola was created according to designs by Gropius himself and Heinrich Strack . A sandstone relief on the grave wall was made by the sculptor Rudolf Siemering .
The grave, today an honorary grave of the city of Berlin , was handed over to the public again on August 29, 2014 after a monument-compliant restoration. The restoration work was accompanied by the Foundation for Historic Cemeteries and Cemeteries Berlin-Brandenburg and the Evangelical Cemetery Association of the Berlin City Center Church District (evfbs). The renovation in accordance with the requirements of historical monuments was made possible by grants from the German Foundation for Monument Protection , the Müller-Klein-Rogge Foundation, the Friedrichshain-Kreuzberg District Office and the Berlin State Monument Office . On the occasion of the handover in the presence of family members, in addition to the Berlin state curator Jörg Haspel , the architect and great-grandson of Martin Gropius, Arnold Körte , spoke .
Buildings and designs
In addition to representative buildings, such as various new buildings at the Christian Albrechts University in Kiel and the concert hall in Leipzig, many clinics and hospitals were built based on designs by Martin Gropius, mainly in Berlin and Brandenburg. Buildings like that of the Jena Psychiatric Clinic were built in the so-called pavilion style. With its own gardens and spacious green surroundings, an atmosphere of calm and relaxation should be created for the patients.
- 1865: Brandenburg Provincial Insane Asylum in Neustadt- Eberswalde , today called " Martin Gropius Hospital ", completed in 1865
- 1865: Ungern-Sternberg Palace in Reval ( Tallinn ), today the seat of the Estonian Academy of Sciences
- 1868–1874: Hospital in Friedrichshain in Berlin-Friedrichshain , together with Heino Schmieden
- Hospital in Wiesbaden
- 1873–1876: Main building of the University of Kiel
- 1875–1877: Garrison hospital in Berlin-Tempelhof
- 1876–1877: mansion in Neuruppin - Gentzrode
- Museum of Decorative Arts: 1877-1881 Berlin-Kreuzberg , together with Heino forging, since 1980 Martin-Gropius-Bau called
- 1879–1883: Main building of the then University Hospital in Berlin, together with Heino Schmieden
- 1879: Grand Ducal Saxon State Insane Sanatorium (= psychiatric clinic) in Jena, together with Heino Schmieden
- 1882–1884: “Neues Gewandhaus” concert hall in Leipzig , executed by Heino Schmieden after Gropius' death
- 1878: Garrison hospital in Koblenz-Ehrenbreitstein , today called " Martin-Gropius-Bau Koblenz ", together with Heino Schmieden
- 1877–1880: Administration building of the Royal Prussian Mining Directorate in Saarbrücken , largely preserved in its original form, but substantial loss of substance occurred as a result of the renovation and integration into the neighboring Europa-Galerie shopping center
- 1880–1882: Old University Library of the University of Greifswald
Many residential houses and villas in Berlin and the surrounding area were also built according to designs by Gropius. Amongst other things:
- 1858: Villa Heese in Tiergarten, Lützowufer
- 1863–1866: Villa Bleichröder for Gerson von Bleichröder in Charlottenburg
- 1865: City Palace Paul von Mendelssohn-Bartholdy
- Villa Gruner in Tiergarten, Victoriastraße
- 1865: Lessing house for Julius Lessing , Dorotheenstrasse 15
- 1868: Biesdorf Castle
- 1875: Manor house Schloss Calberwisch near Osterburg (Altmark) (together with Heino Schmieden)
Main building of the Estonian Academy of Sciences , Kohtu 6, Tallinn
- The Provincial Insane Asylum in Neustadt-Eberswalde. In: Zeitschrift für Bauwesen Vol. 19, 1869, pp. 148–190, also separately Ernst & Korn, Berlin 1869.
- as editor: Karl Friedrich Schinkel: Decorations of inner rooms. (eight sheets) Ernst & Korn, Berlin 1874.
- with Heino Schmieden: Decorations of inner rooms. Three volumes, Ernst & Korn, Berlin 1877.
- Deutsches Gewerbe-Museum Berlin (Ed.), Martin Gropius (Red.): Archive for ornamental art. (with explanatory text by L. Lohde) Winkelmann-Springer, Berlin 1870/1871.
- Alfred Gotthold Meyer: Gropius, Martin . In: Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie (ADB). Volume 49, Duncker & Humblot, Leipzig 1904, pp. 558-561.
- Irmgard Wirth: Gropius, Martin. In: New German Biography (NDB). Volume 7, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 1966, ISBN 3-428-00188-5 , p. 132 f. ( Digitized version ).
- Arnold Körte: Martin Gropius. Life and work of a Berlin architect 1824–1880 . Lukas-Verlag, Berlin 2013, ISBN 978-3-86732-080-1 .
- Short biography and list of works as a dataset from the Deutsche Fotothek
- Martin Gropius. In: arch INFORM .
- Martin Gropius Collection in the archive of the Academy of Arts, Berlin
- ↑ Charlotte Louise Bennecke and her circle , 2 volumes, supplement volume 2, Phillippka Verlag, 3rd edition, Münster 1979.
- ↑ Irmgard Wirth: Gropius, Martin Carl Philipp. In: New German Biography (NDB). Volume 7, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 1966, ISBN 3-428-00188-5 , p. 132 f. ( Digitized version ).
- ^ Gropius in Eberswalde. Gropius building of the Eberswalde State Clinic. be-bra, Berlin 2002, ISBN 3-89809-036-1 .
- ^ Viktor von Weltzien : The municipal general hospital in Friedrichshain in Berlin. From Gropius and Schmieden, Architects . Ernst & Korn, Berlin 1876.
- ↑ Viktor von Weltzien (ed.): The second garrison Lazareth for Berlin near Tempelhof. Designed and executed by Gropius & Schmieden according to the building program drawn up by the Royal War Ministry. Ernst & Korn, Berlin 1879.
- ↑ Internet presence for the redesign of the Forum Museum Island based on designs by David Chipperfield : Gropius-Ensemble ( Memento of the original from February 5, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. Retrieved July 25, 2013.
- ↑ EUROPA Gallery Saarbrücken ; Deutschlandfunk ; The mirror . No. 33 of August 14, 2006, p. 138. ISSN 0038-7452
- ↑ Internet presence of the city of Saarbrücken: New shopping center "Europa-Galerie" in the city of Saarbrücken. October 21, 2003, archived from the original on March 23, 2010 ; Retrieved October 22, 2010 .
- ↑ Gropius-Bau of the University Library Greifswald , accessed on May 28, 2018.
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||Gropius, Martin Carl Philipp (full name)|
|BRIEF DESCRIPTION||German architect|
|DATE OF BIRTH||August 11, 1824|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Berlin|
|DATE OF DEATH||December 13, 1880|
|Place of death||Berlin|