Angling ( Danish Angel , Latin Anglia ) is a peninsula that is surrounded by the Flensburg Fjord and the Schlei and is located on the Cimbrian Peninsula . The peninsula lies in the area of the Schleswig-Flensburg district in the northeast of Schleswig-Holstein . It is located north of the Schwansen peninsula and south of the Sundewitt peninsula, in Danish: Sundeved .
Fishing presented never a political entity. Nevertheless, people call there Angelner or Angeliter (angelboer) and maintain an identity associated with it. The Anglic people were first mentioned in AD 98 by Tacitus in his ethnography Germania as Anglii . From the 5th century onwards, numerous Angles emigrated to Britain , where they initially served as foederati and eventually seized power (see Anglo-Saxons ), taking the name of their home region with them, so that both England and the English language were theirs Ultimately, the name can be traced back to the fishing peninsula.
The landscape name fishing (Germ. Presumably Angulaz , Old English: Ongel , Danish: Angel ) is already used in the 8th century in the Widsith and either referred to a hoe or was more the original name of the loop (to Germ. Angwa ≈eng). In the oldest forms, presumably not only the present-day (more narrowly defined) landscape, but generally the fishing area was meant. The name of the English region East Anglia also goes back to the fishing.
The fishing peninsula, enclosed by the Flensburg Fjord in the north, the Baltic Sea in the east and the Schlei in the south, merges into the Schleswig Geest in the west . The border to the Geest follows the historic Ochsenweg (Danish: Hærvejen , Sakservejen or Adelvejen ; Low German: Ossenpadd ), today largely identical to the federal motorway 7 . The western border area of fishing is also called Luus fishing . The situation of Angelns is often roughly illustrated by the city triangle Flensburg - Kappeln - Schleswig .
Angling settlement area
The name of the landscape goes back to the Germanic tribe of the Angles , who lived in the fishing region and the adjoining areas (fishing at that time may have been much larger). The Thorsberger Moor seems to have been a cultic center - this is not only indicated by the name, which perhaps came into being in Danish times, but above all by numerous archaeological finds, a large part of which come from the Roman Empire . From around AD 400 a large part of the Angling a. a. to Britain and settled there in East Anglia . King Offa is one of the well-known legendary figures of the Angling people. The best-known written version of these sagas comes from Karl Müllenhoff , who published them in 1845 with other sagas from fishing and all of Schleswig-Holstein. The legendary King Sceaf and the famous hero Beowulf are also mentioned among the sagas collected from fishing .
Remains of Germanic land boundaries from the Roman Empire are known in over 50 places (e.g. Ausselbeck, municipality of Klappholz ) in the small-scale estate forests. They consist of earth walls 0.2–0.6 m high and 4–12 m wide, and on slopes they also consist of terrace edges (raised areas) and correspond to the Oldtidsagre found in Jutland .
Grave fields are in Sörup (1375 buried), Husby (1360) and Süderbrarup (1234). These around 4,000 men's graves are characterized by a small number of rather modest graves. The number of women burial grounds is much lower. In them, however, more and significantly more valuable additions were found. The special thing about the Süderbrarup burial ground is its very long occupation time: around 100 AD the three burial grounds were created; while from about 320 AD the occupancy of the other two cemeteries decreased significantly, this increased in Süderbrarup and continued into the 6th century . The density of settlements in Angling apparently decreased extraordinarily in the 5th and 6th centuries; many villages fell into disrepair. A sharp decline in grain pollen suggests that former fields are becoming deserted. Locations with heavy, loamy soils were initially abandoned. Since more pollen is found at the same time on some locations of the Geest , it is assumed that the climate had changed. Increased amounts of rain could explain this shift to the sandy geest areas. Attacks from the sea are suspected as another reason for leaving coastal settlements. This initially regional evasion would also explain another phenomenon: It is now considered likely that between the end of the settlement period in today's landscape and the arrival of the fishing in East and Central England and the Saxons in southern England (= Anglo-Saxons ) up to 100 Years passed. First of all, the fishing rods would have switched to the Geest before they left their home entirely.
Settlement by Danes
It is assumed that the area was then almost uninhabited around 550 or that the population had at least decreased significantly. After 600 Jutes and Danes settled on the peninsula, which is still recognizable today by place names in fishing and the rest of Schleswig; many place names end in -by and -rup , which translates as "village" or "settlement". Even today, numerous Angelites profess to be part of the Danish ethnic group. However, in fishing, as in the rest of southern Schleswig, the (Low) German language began to spread increasingly in modern times; after 1800 the Anglo-Danish was also completely replaced by the German.
In the middle ages
In contrast to Schwansen , south of the Schlei, fishing is still characterized by smaller, independent farms. In contrast to Schwansen, many peasants were exempted from lordship and serfdom . The East Fishing is an exception. Serfdom was lifted here in 1805. The Jutian Geesthardenhaus emerged as the courtyard form and, after the coupling in the 19th century in the east of Angelns, the three-sided courtyard .
At first, the NSDAP did not receive broad approval in fishing. The farmers of Angelns, with their mixed farming of dairy farming, cattle breeding and grain cultivation, were less affected by the global economic crisis from 1929 in contrast to other farmers in Schleswig-Holstein, who had specialized in pure pig farming and cabbage cultivation, for example . In the eastern hill country of Schleswig-Holstein, where fishing is located, there was still an estate tradition at that time. The national-conservative-minded large landowners often still set the tone in politics. The local branches of the NSDAP in Südtondern and Flensburg-Land were less structured and weaker than other local branches. After the successes in the southern part of the province of Schleswig-Holstein, the northern part of the province also moved into the focus of the NSDAP from 1930. In 1933, the border policy spokesman for the NSDAP Schleswig-Holstein, Pastor Johann Peperkorn and Wilhelm Sievers , the chairman of the "Schleswig-Holstein Confederation" and Lord Mayor of Flensburg, demanded that North Schleswig should become part of the Reich. Radical German-national groups then formed in the border region. As a result of the propaganda on the border issue, the NSDAP also gained broad approval in fishing. In the March elections in 1933 in the districts of Südtondern and Flensburg-Land, the NSDAP received the highest results in Schleswig-Holstein. During the Nazi era , there were also persecutions in many places in fishing. The Reichserbhofgesetz was enforced in fishing as elsewhere. The Angelns Heimatverein, founded in 1928, was also affected by National Socialism. In 1934 its board of directors was removed and replaced by party members. The deposed board could only resume work after the war. The sparsely populated fishing area was only slightly damaged by Allied air raids . By luck and chance, the air raids on Flensburg were unsuccessful. In the Guide for British Soldiers in Germany 1944 , fishing, with the cultural roots of England there, was not mentioned. At the end of the war, numerous Nazi leaders fled via the Rattenlinie Nord to Flensburg - Mürwik in the local special area Mürwik and the adjacent fishing areas. For example, Himmler stayed temporarily in Ellgaard , Hüholz and Kollerup . The last imperial government under Karl Dönitz was finally arrested in Flensburg's suburb of Mürwik. The US American Times reported: "The German Reich died on a sunny morning on May 23rd  near the Baltic Sea port of Flensburg ", referring to Mürwik, which is in fishing.
Today the most important languages in fishing are High German , Low German ( Schleswigsch ) and Danish . The latter can mainly be heard in the variant of Sydslesvigdansk . The old Anglo-Danish dialect of South Jutian died out in the 19th century, but has been preserved in numerous place names. Angler Low German - Angeliter Platt or Angelner Platt - was influenced by Danish for a long time and still has some peculiarities compared to other variants of Low German. The following sentence is often mentioned as an example: De chute Chegend, where de chrossen cheelen Cheorchinen chanz chrasig chut chedeien (“The good area where the big yellow georgines thrive particularly well”). However, this sentence is not Low German, but High German - albeit with a regional Low German influence.
The "Petuhtanten" are notorious in the Flensburg area.
The land was formed by the ground and terminal moraines of the last Ice Age, mainly through large glacier tongues that also carved out the fjords. Most of the drainage-free depressions are also located here between the crests, which have become muddy over time, and some lakes with streams flowing through them. The chain of hills between Husby and Kappeln represents the watershed between the North Sea and the Baltic Sea. To the east, small floodplains flow into the nearby Baltic Sea or one of its fjords. B. the Treene 60 km to Friedrichstadt and then flows over the Eider into the North Sea.
The landscape, although it is strongly arable , is loosened up and harmonious thanks to the gentle relief, the bodies of water and, in large areas, a well-developed kink network . The proportion of forest is relatively low at 5%. The Angelner hill country with its winding roads is often interrupted by smaller beech forests, so that it looks like a natural landscape park.
Due to the fertile bed load, the land is mainly used for agriculture. The bog soils of the lowlands and depressions have largely been meliorated and also taken under arable use, but the proportion of grassland is still around 20%.
The heights in the eastern hill country reach in fishing 60–70 m above sea level. NHN . The highest elevation in Angelns is not - as is often assumed - the Scheersberg (71 m), on the top of which there was probably an old Germanic thing site and today the Bismarck Tower , which serves as a lookout tower , but the Höckeberg in Freienwill with 82 m.
Offices and cities
The following offices are located in the fishing area: Office Geltinger Bucht (12.205), Office Hürup (8612), Office Kappeln-Land (1444), Office Langballig (8272), Office Mittelangeln (10.091), Office Südangeln (13.414) and Office Süderbrarup (11.422 ) (For the municipalities and cities belonging to the respective office, see Kreis Schleswig-Flensburg # municipalities ).
The following cities are also located in the Angelns area: Flensburg (90.164), Schleswig (25.416), Kappeln (8567), Glücksburg (6114) and Arnis (281). With regard to the three largest cities, it should be noted that only parts are counted as fishing rods:
- The districts of Flensburg to the east of the Flensburg Fjord belong to the fishing region, because around 1100 the settlement of Sankt Johannis at the end of the Flensburg Fjord was created through resettlements from the village of Adelby . This new settlement grew and the old settlement got smaller. In this way, a younger part of the Husbyharde was created, which later grew together with other settlements on the west bank of the fjord, namely Sankt Nikolai , Sankt Marien and Sankt Gertrud, which resulted in Flensburg. In the course of time, the city continued to grow along the east bank and places such as Mürwik , which had previously belonged to the Adelby parish , were gradually incorporated. So the parish of Adelby got smaller and smaller until the meanwhile strongly shrunk old village Adelby, at its core only consisting of the St. John's Church Adelby, the cemetery and a few fields, was finally also incorporated in 1974. Flensburg is therefore on the periphery of fishing.
- The parts of Schleswig belong to angling that is not on the Schwansen peninsula: St. Jürgen and Klosterhof.
- From Kappeln, the parts of the city lying on Schwansen, i.e. Ellenberg, Kopperby and Olpenitz, do not belong to fishing.
Fortuna Dutch mill in Unewatt
Fishing is known for its livestock and its special breeds of livestock. The angler beef and the angler saddle pig come from fishing. The trade routes of the Angeliter farmers to the Ochsenweg and to the markets in Flensburg and Schleswig were called Angelbowege (in Danish, angelbo means a resident of Angelns / Angeliter). The best- known processor in the meat industry is the Böklunder Plumrose Group with its headquarters in Böklund and another plant in Satrup (brand: Redlefsen).
Bathing and sailing tourism on the attractive coasts of the Baltic Sea and the Schlei are an important source of income. Bigger tourist attractions are the Tolk show , a family amusement park in Tolk , and the museum trips of the Angelner steam train from Kappeln to Süderbrarup. The Brarup market , Schleswig-Holstein's largest rural fair, which takes place on the last weekend in July in Süderbrarup , is also of greater importance . The market, first mentioned in 1593, celebrated its 400th anniversary in 1993.
The fishing landscape museum, opened in 1993, included the village of Unewatt in its concept . In contrast to already existing open-air museums, in which building, residential and economic forms from larger regions were brought together and rebuilt on a limited area, it was important to show and preserve traces of past rural life in already existing buildings - starting from the translocated Marxenhaus. The result was a decentralized museum spread across the site, which the visitor can access on a designated circular route through the village.
Rail and bus transport
On the edge Angels operates German Railway the stations Schleswig and Flensburg with the ICE -line 76 of (Berlin) Hamburg to Aarhus in Denmark. The regional train between Hamburg and Flensburg (RE 7) also runs on the same route with a direct connection to the Danish IC network, which has been extended to Flensburg since December 2010. The regional train line Flensburg-Kiel (RE 72) with the train stations Husby , Sörup and Süderbrarup runs every hour across fishing . From Schleswig, Kappeln and Flensburg, a tight bus network of the Schleswig / Flensburg District Transport Authority (VKSF) serves the Angelner communities.
Fishing is connected to the international road network with the 7 / E 45 federal motorway and the Schleswig-Schuby and Tarp junctions. The federal highways 201 and 199 open up the landscape right through fishing .
From the Autobahn exit 5 of the A 7 , Schleswig / Schuby , the federal highway 201 forms the Schleswig north bypass. The first town that will be driven through again with the national road 201 is Grumby. The amusement park Tolk-Schau is located in the village of Tolk between Schleswig and Grumby . Then you drive through Loit, Brebel, Süderbrarup, Dollrottfeld. The federal highway 201 ends in Kappeln.
On the Kappeln-Flensburg route, the Bundesstrasse 199, built as the “Nordstrasse fishing”, crosses the hilly landscape of Angelns and offers a view of the Baltic Sea in parts .
The larger streets have separate cycle paths . In addition, an extensive network of cycle paths is signposted all over fishing. A well-known themed cycle path is the Viking-Friesian Path . The international Baltic Sea coast route (D2) runs along the Baltic Sea coast . The Geltinger-Birk-Törn is an approximately 25 km long circular route through the nature reserve on the Geltinger Birk peninsula . The cycle path "Alte Kreisbahntrasse: Schleswig – Süderbrarup" is gently undulating on the old Kreisbahntrasse all the way to Süderbrarup. There is a rail link at both ends of the path. When the circular path was built, however, kinked sections were simply rolled out and covered with gravel to save costs. There was no continuous paving of the path. Half of the approx. 24 km long route can therefore only be used in dry conditions.
Unofficial coat of arms
The coat of arms of fishing is not a sovereign symbol, but is very popular among the inhabitants of fishing. It is widely used on flags with the colors of Schleswig-Holstein and on decorative plates. It was compiled by HNA Jensen and first appeared in the Festgabe for the members of the XI in 1847 . Assembly of German farmers and foresters .
The design of the crest, which appears crowded, does not follow heraldic rules. It consists of nine fields which, with the exception of one, represent the historical Harden Angling:
- Husbyharde (stylized house)
- Munkbrarupharde ( Laurentiusrost )
- Nieharde ( star with crescent moon )
- Schliesharde ( herring with wave mark)
- the Ostangler goods district, which was not subject to Harden jurisdiction but directly to the sovereign and was only converted to Kappelner Harde in 1853 (symbolized by two Schleswig lions )
- Struxdorfharde (stylized oak )
- Satrupharde ( scythe )
- Mohrkirchharde ( Antonius Cross )
- Füsingharde (crossed keys )
In the original design of the coat of arms, the Husbyharde was symbolically represented by two crossed arrows with a heart in front of them. From 1906 at the latest, the stylized house corresponding to the old Hardensiegel appeared at this point. The original version of the coat of arms can therefore still be found here and there today. The symbol for the Uggelharde , which only partly belonged to fishing, is missing in the coat of arms .
The flag of fishing shows the colors of the Schleswig-Holstein flag with the Angeler coat of arms in the middle.
Other cultural features
Schnüüsch is a typical fishing dish. Furthermore, the traditional Schleswig-Holstein dessert, Mädchenröte, originally comes from fishing. The angler Muck , which is a mixed alcoholic drink, is a kind of “national drink ” for fishing .
In Angling, people used to have their own area measures called Skip and Haidscheffel . With regard to home furnishings, it should be mentioned that the so-called Margarethenschrank also comes from fishing. Floor clocks exist in fishing in a variant typical of the region.
Nowadays, fishing is also one of the so-called traditional costume areas of Schleswig-Holstein . Today's Angelit costumes go back to models from the 19th century. The old Angelner saying: "Red and green are peasant clothes, whoever wears them will be laughed at", describes the old, traditional colors of Angeliter clothes before fashions changed. The predominant traditional costume colors are therefore traditionally red and green cf. Schleswig-Holstein traditional costumes # fishing .
In addition to the old legends of King Offa, Beowulf and King Sceaf already mentioned, there are a large number of other legends. For example, it is common to have fabulous justifications with regard to the problem that the respective church in a location is in an unfavorable position. It is claimed that God was asked for a sign before the building was built. One such common sign was that snow had fallen in a place in the middle of summer, so that the church was built there (see also the phrase under Johanniskirche (Flensburg-Adelby) ). Other legends tell of ghosts and castles, for example.
North German rummeling is also still very common in fishing.
- Berthold Hamer: Topography of the fishing landscape . A documentation of the local community of the landscape fishing. tape 1 : Lexicon A – K. Husum Verlag, Husum 1994, ISBN 3-88042-705-4 (two-part work, volume 1 with 432 pages).
- Berthold Hamer: Topography of the fishing landscape . A documentation of the local community of the landscape fishing. tape 2 : Lexicon L – Z. Husum Verlag, Husum 1995, ISBN 3-88042-749-6 (two-part work, volume 2 with 439 pages).
- Erich Thiesen: The new fishing book . Wachholtz Verlag , Neumünster 2001, ISBN 3-529-06183-2 (160 pages).
- Paul Selk: To the angler coat of arms . In: Yearbook of the Angler Heimatverein , 36th year, 1972, pp. 7-12.
- Bernhard Asmussen: 150 years "Angelner coat of arms" . In: Yearbook of the Heimatverein der Landschaft fishing , vol. 61, 1997, pp. 185–188.
- Berthold Hamer: Biographies of the fishing landscape . Lexicon of persons. tape 1 (A-J). Husum Verlag, Husum 2007, ISBN 978-3-89876-339-4 (two-part work with a total of 872 pages).
- Berthold Hamer: Biographies of the fishing landscape . Lexicon of persons. tape 2 (K-Z). Husum Verlag, Husum 2007, ISBN 3-89876-339-0 (two-part work with a total of 872 pages).
- Stephen Harris: Race and Ethnicity in Anglo-Saxon Literature New York 2005, p. 140 and: Johann Huebner: Allgemeine Geographie aller vier Welt-Partile . Dresden 1773, Volume 2, p. 66
- Wolfgang Laur: Historisches Ortsnamelexikon von Schleswig-Holstein , 2nd edition, Neumünster 1992, p. 127
- Community of Mittelangeln. Central fishing office , accessed March 16, 2015 .
- Cf. Karl Müllenhoff : Fairy Tales and Songs of the Duchies of Schleswig, Holstein and Lauenburg - Chapter 7: Offa's fight on the Eider Island ( Memento from September 11, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) as well as: Fairy tales and songs of the Duchies of Schleswig, Holstein and Lauenburg - Chapter 8: Of Offa's wife and her fate ( Memento from September 11, 2014 in the Internet Archive )
- Cf. Karl Müllenhoff : Fairy tales and songs of the duchies of Schleswig, Holstein and Lauenburg - Chapter 5: Skeaf and Skild
- Michael Fee in: Jann Markus Witt, Heiko Vosgerau (ed.): Schleswig-Holstein from the origins to the present - a state history. Hamburg 2002, ISBN 3-934613-39-X .
- HP Clausen: The split between German and Danish in the border region. In: Slesvigland . April 1980 accessed on 16 March 2015 .
- Schleswig-Holstein history. ... (not) a case for those in a hurry. (No longer available online.) Society for Schleswig-Holstein History, archived from the original on November 28, 2014 ; accessed on March 16, 2015 .
- www.scheersberg.de: International educational facility Jugendhof Scheersberg: 2nd floor. The NSDAP in fishing. Retrieved December 23, 2018 .
- Flensburger Tageblatt : Steinbergkirche: Yearbook under the sign of the Nazi era , from: November 6, 2017; Retrieved on: November 7, 2017
- Guide for British Soldiers in Germany 1944 . Bilingual edition, slightly abbreviated in the dictionary section. German translation by Klaus Modick . Preliminary remarks on the German edition by Helge Malchow and Christian Kracht . Foreword to the new English and German edition by John Pinfold. KiWi-Taschenbuch, Cologne 2014
- Flensburger Tageblatt : Steinbergkirche: Yearbook under the sign of the Nazi era , from: November 6, 2017; Retrieved on: November 7, 2017
- Flensburger Tageblatt : Historical series at the end of World War II: civilian clothes, eye patch, new name: But there was no escape for Himmler , from: May 13, 2015; Retrieved on: November 7, 2017
- State Center for Civic Education Schleswig-Holstein (ed.): Der Untergang 1945 in Flensburg (lecture on January 10, 2012 by Gerhard Paul ), p. 21.
- dtv atlas on world history. From the French Revolution to the present. Volume 2. Cologne 1987, p. 215, chapter: Second World War / collapse of the German Reich 1945.
- Bernhard Asmussen: The fishing landscape. Local association of the landscape fishing e. V., accessed on March 16, 2015 .
- Viking Friesian Trail: From coast to coast on historical traces. Archived from the original on October 6, 2015 ; accessed on March 16, 2015 .
- The Geltinger Birk Törn. (No longer available online.) Gelting an der Ostsee, 2015, archived from the original on April 2, 2015 ; accessed on March 16, 2015 .
- Achim Bartoschek: Cycle through the railway line - details: SH 1.04 Cycle Path Old District Railway Line: Schleswig - Süderbrarup. Retrieved March 16, 2015 .
- Genealogist - Stammtisch Flensburg, Drell , accessed on: March 17, 2015
- Angelner Trachtengruppe, Angeliter Trachtengruppe ( Memento from April 2, 2015 in the Internet Archive ), accessed on: March 17, 2015
- Angeliter Trachtengruppe from 1979 e. V., Trachten ( Memento from April 2, 2015 in the Internet Archive ), accessed on: March 17, 2015
- Karl Müllenhoff : Fairy tales and songs of the duchies of Schleswig, Holstein and Lauenburg - snowfall denotes the holy place